Abstract

Dynamic polarization control of light is essential for numerous applications ranging from enhanced imaging to material characterization and identification. We present a reconfigurable terahertz metasurface quarter-wave plate consisting of electromechanically actuated microcantilever arrays. Our anisotropic metasurface enables tunable polarization conversion through cantilever actuation. Specifically, voltage-based actuation provides mode-selective control of the resonance frequency, enabling real-time tuning of the polarization state of the transmitted light. The polarization tunable metasurface has been fabricated using surface micromachining and characterized using terahertz time domain spectroscopy. We observe a 230  GHz cantilever actuated frequency shift of the resonance mode, sufficient to modulate the transmitted wave from pure circular polarization to linear polarization. Our CMOS-compatible tunable quarter-wave plate enriches the library of terahertz optical components, thereby facilitating practical applications of terahertz technologies.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (6)

W. J. Padilla and R. D. Averitt, “Properties of dynamical electromagnetic metamaterials,” J. Opt. 19, 084003 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, D. Wintz, S. L. Oscurato, A. Y. Zhu, M. Khorasaninejad, J. Oh, P. Maddalena, and F. Capasso, “Spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in dielectric metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 25, 377–393 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Liu and W. J. Padilla, “Reconfigurable room temperature metamaterial infrared emitter,” Optica 4, 430–433 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, P. Pitchappa, Y. Wu, L. Ke, C. Lee, N. Singh, H. Yang, and R. Singh, “Active multifunctional microelectromechanical system metadevices: applications in polarization control, wavefront deflection, and holograms,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1600716 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, P. Pitchappa, C. Lee, and R. Singh, “Active phase transition via loss engineering in a terahertz MEMS metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700733 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, S. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Information metamaterials and metasurfaces,” J. Mater. Chem. C. 5, 3644–3668 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (14)

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Q. Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv. Sci. 3, 1600156 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, S. Liu, and L. L. Li, “Information entropy of coding metasurface,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5, e16172 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79, 076401 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Pitchappa, M. Manjappa, C. P. Ho, Y. Qian, R. Singh, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Active control of near-field coupling in conductively coupled microelectromechanical system metamaterial devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 111102 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, L. Cong, R. Singh, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Reconfigurable digital metamaterial for dynamic switching of terahertz anisotropy,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 391–398 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Hu, N. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A dynamically tunable terahertz metamaterial absorber based on an electrostatic MEMS actuator and electrical dipole resonator array,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26, 25006 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, K. Fan, J. Zhang, G. R. Keiser, G. Duan, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Voltage-tunable dual-layer terahertz metamaterials,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 2, 16025 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, H.-P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27503 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gong, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C.-W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 5500308 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352, 1202–1206 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352, 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Yu, J. Li, C. Tang, H. Cheng, Z. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Liu, C. Gu, J. Li, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Controllable optical activity with non-chiral plasmonic metasurfaces,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5, e16096 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Fan, J. Suen, X. Wu, and W. J. Padilla, “Graphene metamaterial modulator for free-space thermal radiation,” Opt. Express 24, 25189–25201 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

X. Zhao, K. Fan, J. Zhang, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically tunable metamaterial perfect absorber on highly flexible substrate,” Sens. Actuators A 231, 74–80 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, Z. Wang, S. He, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kidishev, “Broadband high-efficiency half-wave plate: A super-cell based plasmonic metasurface approach,” ACS Nano 9, 4111–4119 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Kenanakis, A. Xomalis, A. Selimis, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Three-dimensional infrared metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” ACS Photon. 2, 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, D. Wintz, A. Ambrosio, A. She, R. Blanchard, and F. Capasso, “Controlled steering of Cherenkov surface plasmon wakes with a one-dimensional metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 804–809 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, L. Dhakar, and C. Lee, “Microelectromechanically reconfigurable interpixelated metamaterial for independent tuning of multiple resonances at terahertz spectral region,” Optica 2, 571–578 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Han, K. Kohno, H. Fujita, K. Hirakawa, and H. Toshiyoshi, “Tunable terahertz filter and modulator based on electrostatic MEMS reconfigurable SRR array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 2700809 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Kan, A. Isozaki, N. Kanda, N. Nemoto, K. Konishi, H. Takahashi, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyamab, “Enantiomeric switching of chiral metamaterial for terahertz polarization modulation employing vertically deformable MEMS spirals,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8422 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

B. Zhang, J. Hendrickson, N. Nader, H.-T. Chen, and J. Guo, “Metasurface optical antireflection coating,” App. Phys. Lett. 105, 241113 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Unlu and M. Jarrahi, “Miniature multi-contact MEMS switch for broadband terahertz modulation,” Opt. Express 22, 32245–32260 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lopez-Tellez and N. C. Bruce, “Stokes polarimetry using analysis of the nonlinear voltage-retardance relationship for liquid-crystal variable retarders,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033104 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 1221–1226 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

K. Fan, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Geng, G. R. Keiser, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically tunable terahertz metamaterials on highly flexible substrates,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 702–708 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. L. Markovich, A. Andryieuski, M. Zalkovskij, R. Malureanu, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Metamaterial polarization converter analysis: limits of performance,” Appl. Phys. B 112, 143–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for broadband linear polarization conversion and near-perfect anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

N. I. Zheludev and Y. S. Kivshar, “From metamaterials to metadevices,” Nat. Mater. 11, 917–924 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Micromachined tunable metamaterials: a review,” J. Opt. 14, 114009 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 035105 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203501 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
[Crossref]

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2009 (5)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3, 148–151 (2009).
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2008 (2)

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 295–298 (2008).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
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2007 (3)

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063908 (2007).
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J. F. O’Hara, E. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and A. J. Taylor, “Effects of microstructure variations on macroscopic terahertz metafilm properties,” Act. Passive Electron. Compon. 2007, 49691 (2007).
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2006 (3)

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J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
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H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averit, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
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2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
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2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
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R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, D. Wintz, S. L. Oscurato, A. Y. Zhu, M. Khorasaninejad, J. Oh, P. Maddalena, and F. Capasso, “Spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in dielectric metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 25, 377–393 (2017).
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P. Genevet, D. Wintz, A. Ambrosio, A. She, R. Blanchard, and F. Capasso, “Controlled steering of Cherenkov surface plasmon wakes with a one-dimensional metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 804–809 (2015).
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W. J. Padilla and R. D. Averitt, “Properties of dynamical electromagnetic metamaterials,” J. Opt. 19, 084003 (2017).
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X. Zhao, K. Fan, J. Zhang, G. R. Keiser, G. Duan, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Voltage-tunable dual-layer terahertz metamaterials,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 2, 16025 (2016).
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X. Zhao, K. Fan, J. Zhang, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically tunable metamaterial perfect absorber on highly flexible substrate,” Sens. Actuators A 231, 74–80 (2015).
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H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 1221–1226 (2014).
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H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3, 148–151 (2009).
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A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17, 136–149 (2009).
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H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 295–298 (2008).
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H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073901 (2010).
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H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3, 148–151 (2009).
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H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 295–298 (2008).
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J. F. O’Hara, E. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and A. J. Taylor, “Effects of microstructure variations on macroscopic terahertz metafilm properties,” Act. Passive Electron. Compon. 2007, 49691 (2007).
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H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averit, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
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P. Genevet, D. Wintz, A. Ambrosio, A. She, R. Blanchard, and F. Capasso, “Controlled steering of Cherenkov surface plasmon wakes with a one-dimensional metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 804–809 (2015).
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R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, D. Wintz, S. L. Oscurato, A. Y. Zhu, M. Khorasaninejad, J. Oh, P. Maddalena, and F. Capasso, “Spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in dielectric metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 25, 377–393 (2017).
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M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352, 1190–1194 (2016).
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P. Genevet, D. Wintz, A. Ambrosio, A. She, R. Blanchard, and F. Capasso, “Controlled steering of Cherenkov surface plasmon wakes with a one-dimensional metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 804–809 (2015).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
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Chan, C. T.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
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J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063908 (2007).
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H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073901 (2010).
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H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
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H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79, 076401 (2016).
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H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073901 (2010).
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H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3, 148–151 (2009).
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J. F. O’Hara, E. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and A. J. Taylor, “Effects of microstructure variations on macroscopic terahertz metafilm properties,” Act. Passive Electron. Compon. 2007, 49691 (2007).
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H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averit, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
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H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3, 148–151 (2009).
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T. J. Cui, S. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Information metamaterials and metasurfaces,” J. Mater. Chem. C. 5, 3644–3668 (2017).
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T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e218 (2014).
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N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for broadband linear polarization conversion and near-perfect anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       The document provides supplemental information to “Electromechanically Tunable Metasurface Transmission Waveplate at Terahertz Frequencies”?.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the tunable cantilever metasurface array. Inset: close-up view of the metamaterial. Each unit-cell consists of a cantilever, capacitive pad, and interconnect wire. The electromagnetic wave is normally incident with a given polarization angle θ. (b), (c) Equivalent circuit models for the x(θ=0°) and y(θ=90°) polarizations, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Photograph of an integrated metasurface chip and (b) scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the metasurface. (c) Deflection profile of the cantilever curvature at different voltages. (d) The measured tip height versus applied DC voltage, with a pull-in voltage of 38  V.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a)–(d) Amplitude (left) and phase (right) of the transmission coefficients for x (txx, blue lines) and y (tyy, red lines) polarization at different voltages. The solid lines are experimental results, while the dashed lines are from the simulation. (e), (f) On resonance simulated current and electric field distribution, respectively, for x polarization, and (g) and (h) are for the y polarization [note: (e)–(h) are for 0 V].
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Resonance frequency of x-polarization transmission coefficient shifts to lower frequency (redshifts) as the applied voltage increases, showing a 230-GHz tuning range of the resonance frequency. (b) Transmission amplitude for different voltages from 0 to 40 V at 1.04 THz (blue) and 0.81 THz (red), demonstrating the amplitude modulation capability of the metasurface.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a)–(c): (a) Experimental axial ratio, (b) circular polarization ratio, and (c) intensity spectra for various applied voltages describing the polarization state of the transmitted waves, for θ=34°. (d) Top row is the electric field of the transmitted wave at 0.81 THz for different voltages, demonstrating the capability of tuning the polarization state; the bottom is the AR and CPR at different voltages for θ=34°. (e)–(g) CPR spectra of transmitted waves for incident waves with different incident polarization angles (from 0° to 180°) at applied voltage of (e) 0 V, (f) 25 V, and (g) 40 V, respectively. The dark lines indicate the frequency closest to pure circular polarization for each incident polarization angle. AR, axial ratio; CPR, circular polarization ratio.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Polarization states for different incident polarization angles θ (and frequencies) and applied voltages.

Equations (3)

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[ExtEyt]=T[ExiEyi]=[txxtxytyxtyy][ExiEyi],
txx=2ZxxZxx+Z0D,
tyy=2ZyyZyy+Z0D,

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