Abstract

Optical communication systems increasingly require electro-optical modulators that deliver high modulation speeds across a large optical bandwidth with a small device footprint and a CMOS-compatible fabrication process. Although silicon photonic modulators based on transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) have shown promise for delivering on these requirements, modulation speeds to date have been limited. Here, we describe the design, fabrication, and performance of a fast, compact electroabsorption modulator based on TCOs. The modulator works by using bias voltage to increase the carrier density in the conducting oxide, which changes the permittivity and hence optical attenuation by almost 10 dB. Under bias, light is tightly confined to the conducting oxide layer through nonresonant epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) effects, which enable modulation over a broad range of wavelengths in the telecommunications band. Our approach features simple integration with passive silicon waveguides, the use of stable inorganic materials, and the ability to modulate both transverse electric and magnetic polarizations with the same device design. Using a 4-μm-long modulator and a drive voltage of 2  Vpp, we demonstrate digital modulation at rates of 2.5 Gb/s. We report broadband operation with a 6.5 dB extinction ratio across the 1530–1590 nm band and a 10 dB insertion loss. This work verifies that high-speed ENZ devices can be created using conducting oxide materials and paves the way for additional technology development that could have a broad impact on future optical communications systems.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2016 (3)

K. Shi and Z. Lu, Opt. Commun. 370, 22 (2016).
[Crossref]

U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, J. Niegemann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. J. 8, 4800813 (2016).
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2014 (5)

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H. W. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 14, 6463 (2014).
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E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
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2013 (2)

S. Campione, D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, and F. Capolino, Phys. Rev. B 87, 035120 (2013).
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G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, Adv. Mater. 25, 3264 (2013).
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2012 (1)

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2011 (1)

2010 (1)

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2009 (2)

2007 (1)

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2006 (1)

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1991 (1)

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Alloatti, L.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
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H. W. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 14, 6463 (2014).
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Baba, T.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
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Bellingham, J. R.

J. R. Bellingham, A. P. Mackenzie, and W. A. Phillips, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2506 (1991).
[Crossref]

Biberman, A.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
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Boltasseva, A.

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, Adv. Mater. 25, 3264 (2013).
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Brener, I.

Y. Yang, K. Kelly, E. Sachet, S. Campione, T. S. Luk, J.-P. Maria, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, Nat. Photonics 11, 390 (2017).
[Crossref]

Burgos, S. P.

H. W. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 14, 6463 (2014).
[Crossref]

Burr, J. R.

Campione, S.

S. Campione, M. G. Wood, D. K. Serkland, S. Parameswaran, J. Ihlefeld, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, K. M. Geib, and G. A. Keeler, IEEE. Photon. J. 9, 6601307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, K. Kelly, E. Sachet, S. Campione, T. S. Luk, J.-P. Maria, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, Nat. Photonics 11, 390 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Campione, D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, and F. Capolino, Phys. Rev. B 87, 035120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Capolino, F.

S. Campione, D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, and F. Capolino, Phys. Rev. B 87, 035120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chander, K.

H. W. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 14, 6463 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[Crossref]

de Ceglia, D.

S. Campione, D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, and F. Capolino, Phys. Rev. B 87, 035120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dinu, R.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

Emboras, A.

A. Emboras, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, W. Heni, U. Koch, P. Ma, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 4600408 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Hoessbacher, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Emboras, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. Hillerkuss, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, Optica 1, 198 (2014).
[Crossref]

Engheta, N.

M. Silveirinha and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 157403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fedoryshyn, Y.

A. Emboras, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, W. Heni, U. Koch, P. Ma, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 4600408 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Hoessbacher, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Emboras, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. Hillerkuss, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, Optica 1, 198 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

Freude, W.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[Crossref]

Geib, K. M.

S. Campione, M. G. Wood, D. K. Serkland, S. Parameswaran, J. Ihlefeld, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, K. M. Geib, and G. A. Keeler, IEEE. Photon. J. 9, 6601307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Haffner, C.

A. Emboras, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, W. Heni, U. Koch, P. Ma, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 4600408 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hafner, C.

U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, J. Niegemann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. J. 8, 4800813 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Emboras, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, W. Heni, U. Koch, P. Ma, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 4600408 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Hoessbacher, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Emboras, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. Hillerkuss, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, Optica 1, 198 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heni, W.

A. Emboras, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, W. Heni, U. Koch, P. Ma, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 4600408 (2015).
[Crossref]

Henry, M. D.

M. D. Henry, S. Walavalkar, A. Homyk, and A. Scherer, Nanotechnology 20, 255305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

C. Hoessbacher, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Emboras, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. Hillerkuss, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, Optica 1, 198 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hoessbacher, C.

U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, J. Niegemann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. J. 8, 4800813 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Emboras, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, W. Heni, U. Koch, P. Ma, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 4600408 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Hoessbacher, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Emboras, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. Hillerkuss, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, Optica 1, 198 (2014).
[Crossref]

Homyk, A.

M. D. Henry, S. Walavalkar, A. Homyk, and A. Scherer, Nanotechnology 20, 255305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ihlefeld, J.

S. Campione, M. G. Wood, D. K. Serkland, S. Parameswaran, J. Ihlefeld, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, K. M. Geib, and G. A. Keeler, IEEE. Photon. J. 9, 6601307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ishikura, N.

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[Crossref]

Keeler, G. A.

S. Campione, M. G. Wood, D. K. Serkland, S. Parameswaran, J. Ihlefeld, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, K. M. Geib, and G. A. Keeler, IEEE. Photon. J. 9, 6601307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kelly, K.

Y. Yang, K. Kelly, E. Sachet, S. Campione, T. S. Luk, J.-P. Maria, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, Nat. Photonics 11, 390 (2017).
[Crossref]

Koch, U.

U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, J. Niegemann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. J. 8, 4800813 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Emboras, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, W. Heni, U. Koch, P. Ma, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 4600408 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kohl, M.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Hoessbacher, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Emboras, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. Hillerkuss, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, Optica 1, 198 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Korn, D.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kriesch, A.

H. W. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 14, 6463 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C.-C.

Kwong, D. L.

Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, Nanophotonics 1, 17 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. W.

H. W. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 14, 6463 (2014).
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, J. Niegemann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. J. 8, 4800813 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Emboras, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, W. Heni, U. Koch, P. Ma, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 4600408 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Hoessbacher, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Emboras, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. Hillerkuss, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, Optica 1, 198 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Li, J.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liao, S.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

Lu, Z.

K. Shi and Z. Lu, Opt. Commun. 370, 22 (2016).
[Crossref]

Luk, T. S.

Y. Yang, K. Kelly, E. Sachet, S. Campione, T. S. Luk, J.-P. Maria, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, Nat. Photonics 11, 390 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Campione, M. G. Wood, D. K. Serkland, S. Parameswaran, J. Ihlefeld, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, K. M. Geib, and G. A. Keeler, IEEE. Photon. J. 9, 6601307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ma, P.

A. Emboras, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, W. Heni, U. Koch, P. Ma, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 4600408 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, R.-M.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, Nanophotonics 1, 17 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mackenzie, A. P.

J. R. Bellingham, A. P. Mackenzie, and W. A. Phillips, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2506 (1991).
[Crossref]

Maria, J.-P.

Y. Yang, K. Kelly, E. Sachet, S. Campione, T. S. Luk, J.-P. Maria, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, Nat. Photonics 11, 390 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[Crossref]

Melikyan, A.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Hoessbacher, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Emboras, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. Hillerkuss, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, Optica 1, 198 (2014).
[Crossref]

Muehlbrandt, S.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Muslija, A.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Naik, G. V.

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, Adv. Mater. 25, 3264 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H. C.

Niegemann, J.

U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, J. Niegemann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. J. 8, 4800813 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Emboras, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, W. Heni, U. Koch, P. Ma, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 4600408 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pala, R.

H. W. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 14, 6463 (2014).
[Crossref]

Palmer, R.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[Crossref]

Papadakis, G.

H. W. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 14, 6463 (2014).
[Crossref]

Parameswaran, S.

S. Campione, M. G. Wood, D. K. Serkland, S. Parameswaran, J. Ihlefeld, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, K. M. Geib, and G. A. Keeler, IEEE. Photon. J. 9, 6601307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Peschel, U.

H. W. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 14, 6463 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phillips, W. A.

J. R. Bellingham, A. P. Mackenzie, and W. A. Phillips, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2506 (1991).
[Crossref]

Qian, W.

Reano, R. M.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sachet, E.

Y. Yang, K. Kelly, E. Sachet, S. Campione, T. S. Luk, J.-P. Maria, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, Nat. Photonics 11, 390 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sakai, Y.

Scalora, M.

S. Campione, D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, and F. Capolino, Phys. Rev. B 87, 035120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

M. D. Henry, S. Walavalkar, A. Homyk, and A. Scherer, Nanotechnology 20, 255305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schindler, P. C.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Serkland, D. K.

S. Campione, M. G. Wood, D. K. Serkland, S. Parameswaran, J. Ihlefeld, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, K. M. Geib, and G. A. Keeler, IEEE. Photon. J. 9, 6601307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shafiiha, R.

Shah Hosseini, E.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, Adv. Mater. 25, 3264 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shi, K.

K. Shi and Z. Lu, Opt. Commun. 370, 22 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shinkawa, M.

Silveirinha, M.

M. Silveirinha and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 157403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sinclair, M. B.

Y. Yang, K. Kelly, E. Sachet, S. Campione, T. S. Luk, J.-P. Maria, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, Nat. Photonics 11, 390 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sommer, M.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sorace-Agaskar, C. M.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sorger, V. J.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, Nanophotonics 1, 17 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[Crossref]

Timurdogan, E.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vincenti, M. A.

S. Campione, D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, and F. Capolino, Phys. Rev. B 87, 035120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Walavalkar, S.

M. D. Henry, S. Walavalkar, A. Homyk, and A. Scherer, Nanotechnology 20, 255305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Watts, M. R.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wendt, J. R.

S. Campione, M. G. Wood, D. K. Serkland, S. Parameswaran, J. Ihlefeld, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, K. M. Geib, and G. A. Keeler, IEEE. Photon. J. 9, 6601307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wood, M. G.

S. Campione, M. G. Wood, D. K. Serkland, S. Parameswaran, J. Ihlefeld, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, K. M. Geib, and G. A. Keeler, IEEE. Photon. J. 9, 6601307 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. G. Wood, J. R. Burr, and R. M. Reano, Opt. Express 24, 23481 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Chen, M. G. Wood, and R. M. Reano, Opt. Lett. 40, 1599 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, K. Kelly, E. Sachet, S. Campione, T. S. Luk, J.-P. Maria, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, Nat. Photonics 11, 390 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, Nanophotonics 1, 17 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Zhu, S.

Adv. Mater. (1)

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, Adv. Mater. 25, 3264 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. R. Bellingham, A. P. Mackenzie, and W. A. Phillips, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2506 (1991).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Emboras, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, W. Heni, U. Koch, P. Ma, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 4600408 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, J. Niegemann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. J. 8, 4800813 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE. Photon. J. (1)

S. Campione, M. G. Wood, D. K. Serkland, S. Parameswaran, J. Ihlefeld, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, K. M. Geib, and G. A. Keeler, IEEE. Photon. J. 9, 6601307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

H. W. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 14, 6463 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (1)

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, Nanophotonics 1, 17 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

M. D. Henry, S. Walavalkar, A. Homyk, and A. Scherer, Nanotechnology 20, 255305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, K. Kelly, E. Sachet, S. Campione, T. S. Luk, J.-P. Maria, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, Nat. Photonics 11, 390 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Shi and Z. Lu, Opt. Commun. 370, 22 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Campione, D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, and F. Capolino, Phys. Rev. B 87, 035120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Silveirinha and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 157403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Supplemental measurement results

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematics of the ENZ modulator. (a) Perspective view of the modulator, with a cut-away view of the layers in the active region. (b) Cross-sectional view of the modulator. Upon application of a bias voltage, an accumulation layer possessing ENZ behavior near 1.55 μm is formed (white dashed line). Note that the implanted silicon would normally be considered the “gate metal,” but we are calling the TCO “semiconductor” contact the gate metal. Hence, voltage polarities will be reversed for accumulation and depletion modes.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Principle of operation of the TCO film. (a) Real (ϵ) and imaginary (ϵ) material permittivity versus wavelength for two carrier concentrations as determined by oxygen flow during oxide deposition. Drude model parameters from ellipsometry fitting for the blue curves: ϵ=3.43, ωp=1.24·1015  rad/s, and γ=1.57·1014  rad/s. Drude model parameters from ellipsometry fitting for the green curves: ϵ=3.84, ωp=6.7·1014  rad/s, and γ=1.62·1014  rad/s. Films are measured after deposition and annealing. Extracted carrier concentrations, n, from the Drude model are given in the legend. (b)–(e) TE mode field profiles. Field profiles in (c) and (e) highlight field concentration in the dashed box near the sidewall in (b) in depletion and accumulation, respectively. Field profiles in (d) are taken along y=0.19  μm. All field profiles are normalized to the peak value of the blue curve in (d).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. False-color SEM image of the ENZ modulator.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. DC electro-optical characterization of a 4-μm-long modulator. Transmission values are normalized to the value at Vgate=+3V to remove the wavelength dependence of the grating couplers. Measurements in dark blue show no modulation for a control device without the TCO layer.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Digital modulation at 2.5 Gb/s in the 4-μm-long ENZ modulator. The eye diagram is measured with an avalanche photodiode with a gain of 14,000 V/W and has an optical modulation amplitude of 25  dBm.

Equations (1)

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ϵDrude=ϵωp2ω(ω+iγ),

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