Abstract

While compact and low-loss optical coupling to ultrahigh-quality-factor (Q) crystalline resonators is important for a wide range of applications, the major challenge for achieving this coupling stems from the relatively low refractive index of the crystalline resonator host material compared to those of the standard waveguide coupling materials. We report the first demonstration of a single-mode waveguide structure (prism-waveguide coupler) integrated on a low-loss compact silicon nitride platform resulting in low-loss and efficient coupling to magnesium fluoride crystalline resonators by achieving the phase-matched and the mode-matched evanescent wave coupling. The coupling is characterized with 1 dB loss at 1550 nm wavelength. We further present a photonic integrated chip containing a pair of waveguides successfully coupling light into and out of the resonator, demonstrating a planar-waveguide-coupled crystalline resonator with a loaded Q of 1.9×109. We assemble this waveguide-coupled resonator and a distributed-feedback-laser chip into a butterfly package to realize a miniature Kerr optical frequency comb source using self-injection locking of the distributed feedback laser to the waveguide-coupled crystalline resonator.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (3)

2016 (1)

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip–based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Shang, S. Pathak, B. Guan, G. Liu, and S. Yoo, “Low-loss compact multilayer silicon nitride platform for 3D photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 23, 21334–21342 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (8)

M. J. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, D. T. Spencer, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-low loss waveguide platform and its integration with silicon photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 667–686 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–3982014.
[Crossref]

M. D. Baaske, M. R. Foreman, and F. Vollmer, “Single-molecule nucleic acid interactions monitored on a label-free microcavity biosensor platform,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 933–939 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, J. F. Bauters, M. J. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated waveguide coupled Si3N4 resonators in the ultrahigh-Q regime,” Optica 1, 153–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Farnesi, G. C. Righini, A. Barucci, S. Berneschi, F. Chiavaioli, F. Cosi, S. Pelli, S. Soria, C. Trono, D. Ristic, M. Ferrari, and G. Nunzi Conti, “Coupling light to whispering gallery mode resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9133, 913314 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, N. Picque, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5  μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang and A. M. Armani, “Silica microtoroid resonator sensor with monolithically integrated waveguides,” Opt. Express 21, 23592–23603 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Ghulinyan, F. Ramiro-Manzano, N. Prtljaga, R. Guider, I. Carusotto, A. Pitanti, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Oscillatory vertical coupling between a whispering-gallery resonator and a bus waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 163901 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. D. John, J. S. Barton, C. M. Bruinink, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Planar waveguides with less than 0.1  dB/m propagation loss fabricated with wafer bonding,” Opt. Express 19, 24090–24101 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. N. Conti, S. Berneschi, F. Cosi, S. Pelli, S. Soria, G. C. Righini, M. Dispenza, and A. Secchi, “Planar coupling to high-Q lithium niobate disk resonators,” Opt. Express 19, 3651–3656 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Maleki, “Sources: the optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 5, 728–730 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 063901 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 41–45 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Liang, V. Ilchenko, A. Savchenkov, A. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery-mode-resonator-based ultranarrow linewidth external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2822–2824 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, “Cavity optomechanics: back-action at the mesoscale,” Science 321, 1172–1176 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Optical resonators with ten million finesse,” Opt. Express 15, 6768–6773 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (5)

T. Le, A. A. Savchenkov, H. Tazawa, W. H. Steier, and L. Maleki, “Polymer optical waveguide vertically coupled to high-Q whispering gallery resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 859–861 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering gallery modes I: basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3–14 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes-part II: applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15–32 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Ultra high Q crystalline microcavities,” Opt. Commun. 265, 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. S. Grudinin, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Ultrahigh optical Q factors of crystalline resonators in the linear regime,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063806 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12, 1622–1631 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424, 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Armani, T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Spillane, T. Kippenberg, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, “Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Spillane, T. Kippenberg, and K. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

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1993 (1)

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1987 (1)

1982 (1)

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1973 (1)

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W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
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Barucci, A.

D. Farnesi, G. C. Righini, A. Barucci, S. Berneschi, F. Chiavaioli, F. Cosi, S. Pelli, S. Soria, C. Trono, D. Ristic, M. Ferrari, and G. Nunzi Conti, “Coupling light to whispering gallery mode resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9133, 913314 (2014).
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D. Farnesi, G. C. Righini, A. Barucci, S. Berneschi, F. Chiavaioli, F. Cosi, S. Pelli, S. Soria, C. Trono, D. Ristic, M. Ferrari, and G. Nunzi Conti, “Coupling light to whispering gallery mode resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9133, 913314 (2014).
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G. N. Conti, S. Berneschi, F. Cosi, S. Pelli, S. Soria, G. C. Righini, M. Dispenza, and A. Secchi, “Planar coupling to high-Q lithium niobate disk resonators,” Opt. Express 19, 3651–3656 (2011).
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W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
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Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
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Brasch, V.

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip–based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
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J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
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Chen, D.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
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Cheng, R.

Chiavaioli, F.

D. Farnesi, G. C. Righini, A. Barucci, S. Berneschi, F. Chiavaioli, F. Cosi, S. Pelli, S. Soria, C. Trono, D. Ristic, M. Ferrari, and G. Nunzi Conti, “Coupling light to whispering gallery mode resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9133, 913314 (2014).
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L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 41–45 (2010).
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W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
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Conti, G. N.

Cosi, F.

D. Farnesi, G. C. Righini, A. Barucci, S. Berneschi, F. Chiavaioli, F. Cosi, S. Pelli, S. Soria, C. Trono, D. Ristic, M. Ferrari, and G. Nunzi Conti, “Coupling light to whispering gallery mode resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9133, 913314 (2014).
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G. N. Conti, S. Berneschi, F. Cosi, S. Pelli, S. Soria, G. C. Righini, M. Dispenza, and A. Secchi, “Planar coupling to high-Q lithium niobate disk resonators,” Opt. Express 19, 3651–3656 (2011).
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Dahmani, B.

Davenport, M. L.

M. J. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, D. T. Spencer, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-low loss waveguide platform and its integration with silicon photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 667–686 (2014).
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De Heyn, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
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De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
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Del’Haye, P.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, N. Picque, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5  μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
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P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 063901 (2011).
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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
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Diddams, S.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
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Dispenza, M.

Driessen, A.

F. Blom, D. Van Dijk, H. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and T. J. Popma, “Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: toward an all-optical switching device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 747–749 (1997).
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Drullinger, R.

Duchesne, D.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 41–45 (2010).
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Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
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Eliyahu, D.

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
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Fan, S.

B. Peng, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–3982014.
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Farnesi, D.

D. Farnesi, G. C. Righini, A. Barucci, S. Berneschi, F. Chiavaioli, F. Cosi, S. Pelli, S. Soria, C. Trono, D. Ristic, M. Ferrari, and G. Nunzi Conti, “Coupling light to whispering gallery mode resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9133, 913314 (2014).
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Feng, S.

K. Shang, S. Pathak, G. Liu, S. Feng, S. Li, W. Lai, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Silicon nitride tri-layer vertical Y-junction and 3D couplers with arbitrary splitting ratio for photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 25, 10474–10483 (2017).
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G. Liu, K. Shang, S. Li, T. Su, Y. Zhang, S. Feng, R. Proietti, S. J. B. Yoo, V. S. Ilchenko, W. Liang, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Low-loss on-chip prism-waveguide coupler to high-Q micro-resonator and optical frequency comb generation,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–3.

Ferrari, M.

D. Farnesi, G. C. Righini, A. Barucci, S. Berneschi, F. Chiavaioli, F. Cosi, S. Pelli, S. Soria, C. Trono, D. Ristic, M. Ferrari, and G. Nunzi Conti, “Coupling light to whispering gallery mode resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9133, 913314 (2014).
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Ferrera, M.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 41–45 (2010).
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Foreman, M. R.

M. D. Baaske, M. R. Foreman, and F. Vollmer, “Single-molecule nucleic acid interactions monitored on a label-free microcavity biosensor platform,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 933–939 (2014).
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Foster, M. A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
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J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
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D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 597–607 (2013).
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J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
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Gavartin, E.

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 063901 (2011).
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Geiselmann, M.

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip–based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
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Ghulinyan, M.

M. Ghulinyan, F. Ramiro-Manzano, N. Prtljaga, R. Guider, I. Carusotto, A. Pitanti, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Oscillatory vertical coupling between a whispering-gallery resonator and a bus waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 163901 (2013).
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Gianfreda, M.

B. Peng, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–3982014.
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Gondarenko, A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
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A. Gondarenko, J. S. Levy, and M. Lipson, “High confinement micron-scale silicon nitride high Q ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17, 11366–11370 (2009).
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Gorodetsky, M.

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 063901 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Gorodetsky and V. Ilchenko, “High-Q optical whispering-gallery microresonators: precession approach for spherical mode analysis and emission patterns with prism couplers,” Opt. Commun. 113, 133–143 (1994).
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Gorodetsky, M. L.

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip–based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
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M. L. Gorodetsky, A. D. Pryamikov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Rayleigh scattering in high-Q microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1051–1057 (2000).
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M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical microsphere resonators: optimal coupling to high-Q whispering-gallery modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 147–154 (1999).
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Grudinin, I. S.

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Ultra high Q crystalline microcavities,” Opt. Commun. 265, 33–38 (2006).
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I. S. Grudinin, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Ultrahigh optical Q factors of crystalline resonators in the linear regime,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063806 (2006).
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Guan, B.

Guider, R.

M. Ghulinyan, F. Ramiro-Manzano, N. Prtljaga, R. Guider, I. Carusotto, A. Pitanti, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Oscillatory vertical coupling between a whispering-gallery resonator and a bus waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 163901 (2013).
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Hansch, T. W.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, N. Picque, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5  μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
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Hartinger, K.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
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Haus, H.

He, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
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Heck, M. J.

D. T. Spencer, J. F. Bauters, M. J. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated waveguide coupled Si3N4 resonators in the ultrahigh-Q regime,” Optica 1, 153–157 (2014).
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M. J. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, D. T. Spencer, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-low loss waveguide platform and its integration with silicon photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 667–686 (2014).
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Heck, M. J. R.

Heideman, R. G.

Herr, T.

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip–based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, N. Picque, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5  μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 063901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
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Himeno, A.

A. Himeno, K. Kato, and T. Miya, “Silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 913–924 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hoekstra, H.

F. Blom, D. Van Dijk, H. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and T. J. Popma, “Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: toward an all-optical switching device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 747–749 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hofer, J.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, N. Picque, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5  μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hollberg, L.

Holzwarth, R.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, N. Picque, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5  μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 063901 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ilchenko, V.

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Camera photo of a transparent ultrahigh-Q MgF 2 resonator on the holding pedestal. (b) Geometric dimension of the cross-section view of a half-resonator with 1330 μm radius, 150 μm height, and 20-μm-high wedge region for the WGM shown in red.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Lowest-order WGM profile within the resonator with approximate 10    μm × 15    μm ( x    axis × y    axis ) mode size. (b) Ring-down measurement of the resonator indicating intrinsic Q-factor of 6 × 10 9 .
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Geometric configuration of prism-waveguide couplers maintaining phase synchronized coupling toward the resonator (used in FDTD simulation): G denotes the gap distance between the photonic integrated chip (PIC) and resonator; D denotes the distance between the tip of prism-waveguide coupler and the reflection surface normal; d denotes the distance between the tip of the prism-waveguide coupler and the edge of PIC; tw denotes the tip core width; θ denotes the reflection angle; L denotes the length of the taper structure. (b) Testing PIC ( 10    mm × 4.5    mm ) containing individual prism-waveguide couplers with variations in θ , d, and tw. (c) PIC ( 3.6    mm × 0.42    mm ) containing a pair of prism-waveguide couplers (single prism-waveguide coupler with the best performance tested through mask shown in (b) and an end-to-end waveguide for alignment assistance). (d) Add–drop resonator system, analogy to our testing setup for single prism-waveguide coupler: bottom red dashed rectangular region represents prism-waveguide-to-resonator coupling area with self-coupling ratio r 1 , cross-coupling ratio k 1 , and additional loss γ ; top red dashed rectangular region represents free-space prism to resonator coupling area with self-coupling ratio r 2 , cross-coupling ratio k 2 , and no additional loss (ideal prism) (e) The semi-numerical simulation results of the drop port transmission power at different gap values [G in (a)] between the prism-waveguide chip and the resonator at 1550 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Important fabrication steps: 1.  Si 3 N 4 LPCVD deposition; 2.  Si 3 N 4 waveguide core patterning; 3.  SiO 2 overcladding deposition; 4. PIC facet deep etching followed by XeF 2 release of substrate silicon at PIC edge. (b) Fabricated PIC picture at left, center, and right position based on mask shown in Fig. 3(c).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Measurement setup for single prism-waveguide coupler and straight calibration waveguides (shown in green lines). The insert is the microscope picture of the fabricated chip containing prism-waveguide couplers aligned to a resonator where silicon substrate released region [step 4 in Fig. 4(a)] is shown in blue dotted rectangle. (b) Normalized transmitted power received at the light pipe from (a) in weak loading regime, indicating the unloaded bandwidth of 100 kHz, Q-factor 1.9 × 10 9 .
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Photograph of the injection-locking setup illustrating two chips containing single prism-waveguide coupler implemented to a resonator. (1) is the resonator, (2) and (3) are the prism-waveguide coupler PIC, (4) and (5) are fiber launchers.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) 3D schematic illustration of paired-prism-waveguide couplers coupled to the resonator for comb generation. (b) Illustration of the packaged Kerr frequency comb source. (c) Photo of packaged planar-waveguide coupled comb source. (d) Representative Kerr frequency comb output from the package.

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