Abstract

Very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) for high-resolution astronomical imaging requires phase-stable frequency references at widely separated radio-telescope antennas. For the first time to our knowledge, we have disseminated a suitable radio-frequency (RF) reference for VLBI over a “real-world” telecom optical-fiber link between radio telescopes that are >100  km apart, by means of an innovative phase-conjugation technique. Bidirectional optical amplification is used in parallel with live traffic, and phase perturbations in the effective optical-fiber path length are compensated. This RF-over-fiber approach obviates the need for separate hydrogen masers at each antenna, offering significant advantages for radio-astronomy facilities such as the Square Kilometer Array.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (6)

F. Riehle, “Optical clock networks,” Nat. Photonics 11, 25–31 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, R. Ambrosini, T. Artz, A. Bertarini, C. Bortolotti, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, G. Maccaferri, M. Nanni, M. Negusini, F. Perini, M. Roma, M. Stagni, M. Zucco, and D. Calonico, “A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fibre link,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40992 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. R. Gozzard, S. W. Schediwy, R. Dodson, M. J. Rioja, M. Hill, B. Lennon, J. McFee, P. Mirtschin, J. Stevens, and K. Grainge, “Astronomical verification of a stabilized frequency reference transfer system for the Square Kilometre Array,” Astron. J. 154, 9 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, M. Lipiński, Ł. Śliwczyński, J. Nawrocki, P. Nogaś, A. Marecki, E. Pazderski, P. Ablewski, M. Bober, R. Ciuryło, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, P. Morzyński, M. Zawada, R. M. Campbell, J. Pieczerak, A. Binczewski, and K. Turza, “Fibre-optic delivery of time and frequency to VLBI station,” Astron. Astrophys. 603, A48 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: the radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61, 288–296 (2017).

S. W. Schediwy, D. R. Gozzard, S. Stobie, J. A. Malan, and K. Grainge, “Stabilized microwave-frequency transfer using optical phase sensing and actuation,” Opt. Lett. 42, 1648–1651 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (11)

R. Huang, G. Wu, H. Li, and J. Chen, “Fiber-optic radio frequency transfer based on passive phase noise compensation with frequency dividing and filtering,” Opt. Lett. 41, 626–629 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. S. Light, A. P. Hilton, R. T. White, C. Perrella, J. D. Anstie, J. G. Hartnett, G. Santarelli, and A. N. Luiten, “Bidirectional microwave and optical signal dissemination,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1014–1017 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, G. Cappellini, L. F. Livi, F. Poggiali, M. S. de Cumis, M. Mancini, G. Pagano, M. Frittelli, A. Mura, G. A. Costanzo, F. Levi, D. Calonico, L. Fallani, J. Catani, and M. Inguscio, “Measuring absolute frequencies beyond the GPS limit via long-haul optical frequency dissemination,” Opt. Express 24, 11865–11875 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wu, Y. Jiang, C. Ma, H. Yu, Z. Bi, and L. Ma, “Coherence transfer of subhertz-linewidth laser light via an optical fiber noise compensated by remote users,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4368–4371 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Li, G. Wu, J. Zhang, J. Shen, and J. Chen, “Multi-access fiber-optic radio frequency transfer with passive phase noise compensation,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5672–5675 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. F. Dierikx, A. E. Wallin, T. Fordell, J. Myyry, P. Koponen, M. Merimaa, T. J. Pinkert, J. C. J. Koelemeij, H. Z. Peek, and R. Smets, “White Rabbit Precision Time Protocol on long-distance fiber links,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 63, 945–952 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Krehlik, Ł. Śliwczyński, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, and M. Lipiński, “ELSTAB—fiber-optic time and frequency distribution technology—a general characterization and fundamental limits,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 63, 993–1004 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhu, B. Wang, C. Gao, and L. J. Wang, “Fiber-based multiple-access frequency synchronization via 1f-2f dissemination,” Chin. Phys. B 25, 090601 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Pan, J. Wei, and F. Zhang, “Passive phase correction for stable radio frequency transfer via optical fiber,” Photon. Netw. Commun. 31, 327–335 (2016).

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, Ch. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (14)

S. Droste, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency dissemination for metrology applications,” C. R. Phys. 16, 524–530 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, Ch. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, M. Zucco, R. Ambrosini, C. Bortolotti, F. Perini, M. Roma, and D. Calonico, “A coherent fiber link for very long baseline interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 62, 1907–1912 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Krehlik, Ł. Śliwczyński, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, and M. Lipiński, “Ultrastable long-distance fibre-optic time transfer, active compensation over a wide range of delays,” Metrologia 52, 82–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ł. Śliwczyński and P. Krehlik, “Multipoint joint time and frequency dissemination in delay-stabilized fiber optic links,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 62, 412–420 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Jiang, Y. Dai, A. Zhang, F. Yin, J. Li, K. Xu, Q. Lv, T. Ren, and G. Tang, “Precise time delay sensing and stable frequency dissemination on arbitrary intermediate point along fiber-optic loop link with RF phase locking assistance,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 7200809 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, Q. Liu, N. Cheng, D. Xu, F. Yang, Y. Gui, and H. Cai, “Joint time and frequency dissemination network over delay-stabilized fiber optic links,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 7901609 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. G. Edwards and C. Phillips, “The long baseline array,” J. Korean Astron. Soc. 30, 659–661 (2015).

P. G. Edwards, “The Australia Telescope National Facility,” J. Korean Astron. Soc. 30, 655–657 (2015).

F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W.-K. Lee, Ch. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 787–797 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Z. Liu, S. Wang, D. Sun, Y. Dong, and W. Hu, “Photonic radio-frequency dissemination via optical fiber with high-phase stability,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2618–2621 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Yu, R. Wang, L. Lu, Y. Zhu, C. Wu, B. Zhang, and P. Wang, “WDM-based radio frequency dissemination in a tree-topology fiber optic network,” Opt. Express 23, 19783–19792 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Chiodo, N. Quintin, F. Stefani, F. Wiotte, E. Camisard, Ch. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, P.-E. Pottie, and O. Lopez, “Cascaded optical fiber link using the internet network for remote clocks comparison,” Opt. Express 23, 33927–33937 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Gao, Y. Bai, J. W. Dong, and L. J. Wang, “Square Kilometre Array Telescope—precision reference frequency synchronisation via 1f-2f dissemination,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13851 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (9)

F. Yin, A. Zhang, Y. Dai, T. Ren, K. Xu, J. Li, J. Lin, and G. Tang, “Phase-conjugation-based fast RF phase stabilization for fiber delivery,” Opt. Express 22, 878–884 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, D. Sun, Y. Dong, W. Xie, H. Shi, L. Yi, and W. Hu, “Distribution of high-stability 10  GHz local oscillator over 100  km optical fiber with accurate phase-correction system,” Opt. Lett. 39, 888–891 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Yin, Z. Wu, Y. Dai, T. Ren, K. Xu, J. Lin, and G. Tang, “Stable fiber-optic time transfer by active radio frequency phase locking,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3054–3057 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wei, F. Zhang, Y. Zhou, D. Ben, and S. Pan, “Stable fiber delivery of radio-frequency signal based on passive phase correction,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3360–3362 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, W. T. Wang, W. H. Sun, W. Y. Wang, and N. H. Zhu, “Stable radio-frequency phase distribution over optical fiber by phase-drift auto-cancellation,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4294–4296 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Li, D. Hou, E. Hu, and J. Zhao, “Phase conjugation frequency dissemination based on harmonics of optical comb at 10–17 instability level,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5058–5061 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Zhang, Y. Dai, F. Yin, T. Ren, K. Xu, J. Li, and G. Tang, “Phase stabilized downlink transmission for wideband radio frequency signal via optical fiber link,” Opt. Express 22, 21560–21566 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Yu, R. Wang, L. Lu, Y. Zhu, C. Wu, B. Zhang, and P. Wang, “Stable radio frequency dissemination by simple hybrid frequency modulation scheme,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5255–5258 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, W. Zhang, R. Le Targat, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Spectral purity transfer between optical wavelengths at the 10–18 level,” Nat. Photonics 8, 219–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

P. Krehlik, Ł. Śliwczyński, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Multipoint dissemination of RF frequency in fiber optic link with stabilized propagation delay,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 60, 1804–1810 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ł. Śliwczyński and J. Kołodziej, “Bidirectional optical amplification in long-distance two-way fiber-optic time and frequency transfer systems,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 62, 253–262 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, A. Czubla, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Dissemination of time and RF frequency via a stabilized fibre optic link over a distance of 420  km,” Metrologia 50, 133–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, Y. Dai, F. Yin, K. Xu, J. Li, and J. Lin, “Stable radio frequency phase delivery by rapid and endless post error cancellation,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1098–1100 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. W. Schediwy, D. Gozzard, K. G. H. Baldwin, B. J. Orr, R. B. Warrington, G. Aben, and A. N. Luiten, “High-precision optical-frequency dissemination on branching optical-fiber networks,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2893–2896 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. He, B. J. Orr, K. G. H. Baldwin, M. J. Wouters, A. N. Luiten, G. Aben, and R. B. Warrington, “Stable radio-frequency transfer over optical fiber by phase-conjugate frequency mixing,” Opt. Express 21, 18754–18764 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

C. Gao, B. Wang, W. L. Chen, Y. Bai, J. Miao, X. Zhu, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Fiber-based multiple-access ultrastable frequency dissemination,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4690–4692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Frequency transfer in electronically stabilized fiber optic link exploiting bidirectional optical amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 2573–2580 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Krehlik, Ł. Śliwczyński, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Fiber-optic joint time and frequency transfer with active stabilization of the propagation delay,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 2844–2851 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. T. L. Hsu, Y. He, D. A. Shaddock, R. B. Warrington, and M. B. Gray, “All-digital radio-frequency signal distribution via optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1015–1017 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Warrington, “Two atomic clocks ticking as one,” Science 336, 421–422 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336, 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

P. J. Hancock, P. Roberts, M. J. Kesteven, R. D. Ekers, E. M. Sadler, T. Murphy, M. Massardi, R. Ricci, M. Calabretta, G. de Zotti, P. G. Edwards, J. A. Ekers, C. A. Jackson, M. Leach, C. Phillips, R. J. Sault, L. Staveley-Smith, R. Subrahmanyan, M. A. Walker, and W. E. Wilson, “The Australia telescope 20  GHz survey: hardware, observing strategy, and scanning survey catalog,” Exp. Astron. 32, 147–177 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, L. Chang, Y. Dong, W. Xie, H. He, and W. Hu, “Phase drift cancellation of remote radio frequency transfer using an optoelectronic delay-locked loop,” Opt. Lett. 36, 873–875 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. Amemiya, M. Imae, Y. Fujii, T. Suzuyama, F.-L. Hong, and M. Takamoto, “Precise frequency comparison system using bidirectional optical amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59, 631–640 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 57, 168–174 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

J.-F. Cliche and B. Shillue, “Precision timing control for radioastronomy. Maintaining femtosecond synchronization in the Atacama Large Millimeter Array,” IEEE Control Syst. Mag. 26(1), 19–26 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. T. Garrington, B. Anderson, C. Baines, J. A. Battilana, M. N. Bentley, D. Brown, P. Burgess, P. J. Diamond, G. J. Kitching, R. McCool, T. W. B. Muxlow, R. G. Noble, N. Roddis, R. E. Spencer, and P. Thomasson, “e-MERLIN,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 332–343 (2004).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

Aben, G.

Y. He, B. J. Orr, K. G. H. Baldwin, M. J. Wouters, A. N. Luiten, G. Aben, and R. B. Warrington, “Stable radio-frequency transfer over optical fiber by phase-conjugate frequency mixing,” Opt. Express 21, 18754–18764 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. W. Schediwy, D. Gozzard, K. G. H. Baldwin, B. J. Orr, R. B. Warrington, G. Aben, and A. N. Luiten, “High-precision optical-frequency dissemination on branching optical-fiber networks,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2893–2896 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. G. Baldwin, Y. He, B. Orr, B. Warrington, A. Luiten, P. Mirtschin, T. Tzioumis, C. Phillips, G. Aben, T. Newlands, and T. Rayner, “Dissemination of precise radio-frequency references for environmental sensing over long-haul optical-fiber networks,” in Light, Energy and the Environment, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper ETu3A.3.

Abgrall, M.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, Ch. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ablewski, P.

P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, M. Lipiński, Ł. Śliwczyński, J. Nawrocki, P. Nogaś, A. Marecki, E. Pazderski, P. Ablewski, M. Bober, R. Ciuryło, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, P. Morzyński, M. Zawada, R. M. Campbell, J. Pieczerak, A. Binczewski, and K. Turza, “Fibre-optic delivery of time and frequency to VLBI station,” Astron. Astrophys. 603, A48 (2017).
[Crossref]

Achkar, J.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, Ch. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

Akatsuka, T.

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alachkar, B.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: the radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61, 288–296 (2017).

Al-Masoudi, A.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, Ch. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alnis, J.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336, 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ambrosini, R.

C. Clivati, R. Ambrosini, T. Artz, A. Bertarini, C. Bortolotti, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, G. Maccaferri, M. Nanni, M. Negusini, F. Perini, M. Roma, M. Stagni, M. Zucco, and D. Calonico, “A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fibre link,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40992 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, M. Zucco, R. Ambrosini, C. Bortolotti, F. Perini, M. Roma, and D. Calonico, “A coherent fiber link for very long baseline interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 62, 1907–1912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Amemiya, M.

M. Amemiya, M. Imae, Y. Fujii, T. Suzuyama, F.-L. Hong, and M. Takamoto, “Precise frequency comparison system using bidirectional optical amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59, 631–640 (2010).
[Crossref]

Amy, S.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: the radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61, 288–296 (2017).

Amy-Klein, A.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, Ch. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, Ch. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Chiodo, N. Quintin, F. Stefani, F. Wiotte, E. Camisard, Ch. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, P.-E. Pottie, and O. Lopez, “Cascaded optical fiber link using the internet network for remote clocks comparison,” Opt. Express 23, 33927–33937 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W.-K. Lee, Ch. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 787–797 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Anderson, B.

S. T. Garrington, B. Anderson, C. Baines, J. A. Battilana, M. N. Bentley, D. Brown, P. Burgess, P. J. Diamond, G. J. Kitching, R. McCool, T. W. B. Muxlow, R. G. Noble, N. Roddis, R. E. Spencer, and P. Thomasson, “e-MERLIN,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 332–343 (2004).
[Crossref]

Anstie, J. D.

Argence, B.

D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, W. Zhang, R. Le Targat, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Spectral purity transfer between optical wavelengths at the 10–18 level,” Nat. Photonics 8, 219–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

Artz, T.

C. Clivati, R. Ambrosini, T. Artz, A. Bertarini, C. Bortolotti, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, G. Maccaferri, M. Nanni, M. Negusini, F. Perini, M. Roma, M. Stagni, M. Zucco, and D. Calonico, “A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fibre link,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40992 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

B. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Gao, Y. Bai, J. W. Dong, and L. J. Wang, “Square Kilometre Array Telescope—precision reference frequency synchronisation via 1f-2f dissemination,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13851 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Gao, B. Wang, W. L. Chen, Y. Bai, J. Miao, X. Zhu, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Fiber-based multiple-access ultrastable frequency dissemination,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4690–4692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baines, C.

S. T. Garrington, B. Anderson, C. Baines, J. A. Battilana, M. N. Bentley, D. Brown, P. Burgess, P. J. Diamond, G. J. Kitching, R. McCool, T. W. B. Muxlow, R. G. Noble, N. Roddis, R. E. Spencer, and P. Thomasson, “e-MERLIN,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 332–343 (2004).
[Crossref]

Baldwin, K. G.

K. G. Baldwin, Y. He, B. Orr, B. Warrington, A. Luiten, P. Mirtschin, T. Tzioumis, C. Phillips, G. Aben, T. Newlands, and T. Rayner, “Dissemination of precise radio-frequency references for environmental sensing over long-haul optical-fiber networks,” in Light, Energy and the Environment, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper ETu3A.3.

Baldwin, K. G. H.

Barbosa, D.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: the radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61, 288–296 (2017).

Battilana, J. A.

S. T. Garrington, B. Anderson, C. Baines, J. A. Battilana, M. N. Bentley, D. Brown, P. Burgess, P. J. Diamond, G. J. Kitching, R. McCool, T. W. B. Muxlow, R. G. Noble, N. Roddis, R. E. Spencer, and P. Thomasson, “e-MERLIN,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 332–343 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ben, D.

Bentley, M. N.

S. T. Garrington, B. Anderson, C. Baines, J. A. Battilana, M. N. Bentley, D. Brown, P. Burgess, P. J. Diamond, G. J. Kitching, R. McCool, T. W. B. Muxlow, R. G. Noble, N. Roddis, R. E. Spencer, and P. Thomasson, “e-MERLIN,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 332–343 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bercy, A.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, Ch. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W.-K. Lee, Ch. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 787–797 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bertarini, A.

C. Clivati, R. Ambrosini, T. Artz, A. Bertarini, C. Bortolotti, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, G. Maccaferri, M. Nanni, M. Negusini, F. Perini, M. Roma, M. Stagni, M. Zucco, and D. Calonico, “A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fibre link,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40992 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bi, Z.

Bilicki, S.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, Ch. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Binczewski, A.

P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, M. Lipiński, Ł. Śliwczyński, J. Nawrocki, P. Nogaś, A. Marecki, E. Pazderski, P. Ablewski, M. Bober, R. Ciuryło, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, P. Morzyński, M. Zawada, R. M. Campbell, J. Pieczerak, A. Binczewski, and K. Turza, “Fibre-optic delivery of time and frequency to VLBI station,” Astron. Astrophys. 603, A48 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bize, S.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bober, M.

P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, M. Lipiński, Ł. Śliwczyński, J. Nawrocki, P. Nogaś, A. Marecki, E. Pazderski, P. Ablewski, M. Bober, R. Ciuryło, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, P. Morzyński, M. Zawada, R. M. Campbell, J. Pieczerak, A. Binczewski, and K. Turza, “Fibre-optic delivery of time and frequency to VLBI station,” Astron. Astrophys. 603, A48 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bommineni, M.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: the radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61, 288–296 (2017).

Bookjans, E.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, Ch. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bortolotti, C.

C. Clivati, R. Ambrosini, T. Artz, A. Bertarini, C. Bortolotti, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, G. Maccaferri, M. Nanni, M. Negusini, F. Perini, M. Roma, M. Stagni, M. Zucco, and D. Calonico, “A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fibre link,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40992 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, M. Zucco, R. Ambrosini, C. Bortolotti, F. Perini, M. Roma, and D. Calonico, “A coherent fiber link for very long baseline interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 62, 1907–1912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bourke, T. L.

R. Braun, T. L. Bourke, J. A. Green, E. F. Keane, and J. Wagg, Advancing Astrophysics with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA Organisation, 2015), pp. 1–9.

Boven, P.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: the radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61, 288–296 (2017).

Braddock, R.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: the radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61, 288–296 (2017).

Braun, R.

R. Braun, T. L. Bourke, J. A. Green, E. F. Keane, and J. Wagg, Advancing Astrophysics with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA Organisation, 2015), pp. 1–9.

Brown, D.

S. T. Garrington, B. Anderson, C. Baines, J. A. Battilana, M. N. Bentley, D. Brown, P. Burgess, P. J. Diamond, G. J. Kitching, R. McCool, T. W. B. Muxlow, R. G. Noble, N. Roddis, R. E. Spencer, and P. Thomasson, “e-MERLIN,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 332–343 (2004).
[Crossref]

Buczek, L.

P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, M. Lipiński, Ł. Śliwczyński, J. Nawrocki, P. Nogaś, A. Marecki, E. Pazderski, P. Ablewski, M. Bober, R. Ciuryło, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, P. Morzyński, M. Zawada, R. M. Campbell, J. Pieczerak, A. Binczewski, and K. Turza, “Fibre-optic delivery of time and frequency to VLBI station,” Astron. Astrophys. 603, A48 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Krehlik, Ł. Śliwczyński, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, and M. Lipiński, “ELSTAB—fiber-optic time and frequency distribution technology—a general characterization and fundamental limits,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 63, 993–1004 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Krehlik, Ł. Śliwczyński, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, and M. Lipiński, “Ultrastable long-distance fibre-optic time transfer, active compensation over a wide range of delays,” Metrologia 52, 82–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, A. Czubla, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Dissemination of time and RF frequency via a stabilized fibre optic link over a distance of 420  km,” Metrologia 50, 133–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Krehlik, Ł. Śliwczyński, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Multipoint dissemination of RF frequency in fiber optic link with stabilized propagation delay,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 60, 1804–1810 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Frequency transfer in electronically stabilized fiber optic link exploiting bidirectional optical amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 2573–2580 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Krehlik, Ł. Śliwczyński, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Fiber-optic joint time and frequency transfer with active stabilization of the propagation delay,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 2844–2851 (2012).
[Crossref]

Burgess, P.

S. T. Garrington, B. Anderson, C. Baines, J. A. Battilana, M. N. Bentley, D. Brown, P. Burgess, P. J. Diamond, G. J. Kitching, R. McCool, T. W. B. Muxlow, R. G. Noble, N. Roddis, R. E. Spencer, and P. Thomasson, “e-MERLIN,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 332–343 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cai, H.

W. Chen, Q. Liu, N. Cheng, D. Xu, F. Yang, Y. Gui, and H. Cai, “Joint time and frequency dissemination network over delay-stabilized fiber optic links,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 7901609 (2015).
[Crossref]

Calabretta, M.

P. J. Hancock, P. Roberts, M. J. Kesteven, R. D. Ekers, E. M. Sadler, T. Murphy, M. Massardi, R. Ricci, M. Calabretta, G. de Zotti, P. G. Edwards, J. A. Ekers, C. A. Jackson, M. Leach, C. Phillips, R. J. Sault, L. Staveley-Smith, R. Subrahmanyan, M. A. Walker, and W. E. Wilson, “The Australia telescope 20  GHz survey: hardware, observing strategy, and scanning survey catalog,” Exp. Astron. 32, 147–177 (2011).
[Crossref]

Calonico, D.

C. Clivati, R. Ambrosini, T. Artz, A. Bertarini, C. Bortolotti, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, G. Maccaferri, M. Nanni, M. Negusini, F. Perini, M. Roma, M. Stagni, M. Zucco, and D. Calonico, “A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fibre link,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40992 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, G. Cappellini, L. F. Livi, F. Poggiali, M. S. de Cumis, M. Mancini, G. Pagano, M. Frittelli, A. Mura, G. A. Costanzo, F. Levi, D. Calonico, L. Fallani, J. Catani, and M. Inguscio, “Measuring absolute frequencies beyond the GPS limit via long-haul optical frequency dissemination,” Opt. Express 24, 11865–11875 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, M. Zucco, R. Ambrosini, C. Bortolotti, F. Perini, M. Roma, and D. Calonico, “A coherent fiber link for very long baseline interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 62, 1907–1912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Camisard, E.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, Ch. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Chiodo, N. Quintin, F. Stefani, F. Wiotte, E. Camisard, Ch. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, P.-E. Pottie, and O. Lopez, “Cascaded optical fiber link using the internet network for remote clocks comparison,” Opt. Express 23, 33927–33937 (2015).
[Crossref]

Campbell, R. M.

P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, M. Lipiński, Ł. Śliwczyński, J. Nawrocki, P. Nogaś, A. Marecki, E. Pazderski, P. Ablewski, M. Bober, R. Ciuryło, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, P. Morzyński, M. Zawada, R. M. Campbell, J. Pieczerak, A. Binczewski, and K. Turza, “Fibre-optic delivery of time and frequency to VLBI station,” Astron. Astrophys. 603, A48 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cappellini, G.

Catani, J.

Chambon, D.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chang, L.

Chanteau, B.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, Ch. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chardonnet, Ch.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, Ch. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, Ch. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Chiodo, N. Quintin, F. Stefani, F. Wiotte, E. Camisard, Ch. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, P.-E. Pottie, and O. Lopez, “Cascaded optical fiber link using the internet network for remote clocks comparison,” Opt. Express 23, 33927–33937 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W.-K. Lee, Ch. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 787–797 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, W.

W. Chen, Q. Liu, N. Cheng, D. Xu, F. Yang, Y. Gui, and H. Cai, “Joint time and frequency dissemination network over delay-stabilized fiber optic links,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 7901609 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. L.

Cheng, N.

W. Chen, Q. Liu, N. Cheng, D. Xu, F. Yang, Y. Gui, and H. Cai, “Joint time and frequency dissemination network over delay-stabilized fiber optic links,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 7901609 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chiodo, N.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, Ch. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Chiodo, N. Quintin, F. Stefani, F. Wiotte, E. Camisard, Ch. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, P.-E. Pottie, and O. Lopez, “Cascaded optical fiber link using the internet network for remote clocks comparison,” Opt. Express 23, 33927–33937 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ciurylo, R.

P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, M. Lipiński, Ł. Śliwczyński, J. Nawrocki, P. Nogaś, A. Marecki, E. Pazderski, P. Ablewski, M. Bober, R. Ciuryło, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, P. Morzyński, M. Zawada, R. M. Campbell, J. Pieczerak, A. Binczewski, and K. Turza, “Fibre-optic delivery of time and frequency to VLBI station,” Astron. Astrophys. 603, A48 (2017).
[Crossref]

Clairon, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cliche, J.-F.

J.-F. Cliche and B. Shillue, “Precision timing control for radioastronomy. Maintaining femtosecond synchronization in the Atacama Large Millimeter Array,” IEEE Control Syst. Mag. 26(1), 19–26 (2006).
[Crossref]

Clivati, C.

C. Clivati, R. Ambrosini, T. Artz, A. Bertarini, C. Bortolotti, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, G. Maccaferri, M. Nanni, M. Negusini, F. Perini, M. Roma, M. Stagni, M. Zucco, and D. Calonico, “A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fibre link,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40992 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, G. Cappellini, L. F. Livi, F. Poggiali, M. S. de Cumis, M. Mancini, G. Pagano, M. Frittelli, A. Mura, G. A. Costanzo, F. Levi, D. Calonico, L. Fallani, J. Catani, and M. Inguscio, “Measuring absolute frequencies beyond the GPS limit via long-haul optical frequency dissemination,” Opt. Express 24, 11865–11875 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, M. Zucco, R. Ambrosini, C. Bortolotti, F. Perini, M. Roma, and D. Calonico, “A coherent fiber link for very long baseline interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 62, 1907–1912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Costanzo, G. A.

C. Clivati, G. Cappellini, L. F. Livi, F. Poggiali, M. S. de Cumis, M. Mancini, G. Pagano, M. Frittelli, A. Mura, G. A. Costanzo, F. Levi, D. Calonico, L. Fallani, J. Catani, and M. Inguscio, “Measuring absolute frequencies beyond the GPS limit via long-haul optical frequency dissemination,” Opt. Express 24, 11865–11875 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, M. Zucco, R. Ambrosini, C. Bortolotti, F. Perini, M. Roma, and D. Calonico, “A coherent fiber link for very long baseline interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 62, 1907–1912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cygan, A.

P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, M. Lipiński, Ł. Śliwczyński, J. Nawrocki, P. Nogaś, A. Marecki, E. Pazderski, P. Ablewski, M. Bober, R. Ciuryło, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, P. Morzyński, M. Zawada, R. M. Campbell, J. Pieczerak, A. Binczewski, and K. Turza, “Fibre-optic delivery of time and frequency to VLBI station,” Astron. Astrophys. 603, A48 (2017).
[Crossref]

Czubla, A.

Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, A. Czubla, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Dissemination of time and RF frequency via a stabilized fibre optic link over a distance of 420  km,” Metrologia 50, 133–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dai, Y.

Daussy, C.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Daussy, Ch.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Davis, J.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: the radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61, 288–296 (2017).

de Cumis, M. S.

de Zotti, G.

P. J. Hancock, P. Roberts, M. J. Kesteven, R. D. Ekers, E. M. Sadler, T. Murphy, M. Massardi, R. Ricci, M. Calabretta, G. de Zotti, P. G. Edwards, J. A. Ekers, C. A. Jackson, M. Leach, C. Phillips, R. J. Sault, L. Staveley-Smith, R. Subrahmanyan, M. A. Walker, and W. E. Wilson, “The Australia telescope 20  GHz survey: hardware, observing strategy, and scanning survey catalog,” Exp. Astron. 32, 147–177 (2011).
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C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, Ch. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
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Gupta, Y.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: the radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61, 288–296 (2017).

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Hammond, J.

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P. J. Hancock, P. Roberts, M. J. Kesteven, R. D. Ekers, E. M. Sadler, T. Murphy, M. Massardi, R. Ricci, M. Calabretta, G. de Zotti, P. G. Edwards, J. A. Ekers, C. A. Jackson, M. Leach, C. Phillips, R. J. Sault, L. Staveley-Smith, R. Subrahmanyan, M. A. Walker, and W. E. Wilson, “The Australia telescope 20  GHz survey: hardware, observing strategy, and scanning survey catalog,” Exp. Astron. 32, 147–177 (2011).
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Hsu, M. T. L.

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P. Krehlik, Ł. Śliwczyński, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, and M. Lipiński, “Ultrastable long-distance fibre-optic time transfer, active compensation over a wide range of delays,” Metrologia 52, 82–88 (2015).
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P. Krehlik, Ł. Śliwczyński, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Multipoint dissemination of RF frequency in fiber optic link with stabilized propagation delay,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 60, 1804–1810 (2013).
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Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Frequency transfer in electronically stabilized fiber optic link exploiting bidirectional optical amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 2573–2580 (2012).
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P. Krehlik, Ł. Śliwczyński, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Fiber-optic joint time and frequency transfer with active stabilization of the propagation delay,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 2844–2851 (2012).
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D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, W. Zhang, R. Le Targat, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Spectral purity transfer between optical wavelengths at the 10–18 level,” Nat. Photonics 8, 219–223 (2014).
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K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336, 441–444 (2012).
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[Crossref]

P. Krehlik, Ł. Śliwczyński, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, and M. Lipiński, “Ultrastable long-distance fibre-optic time transfer, active compensation over a wide range of delays,” Metrologia 52, 82–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

P. Krehlik, Ł. Śliwczyński, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Multipoint dissemination of RF frequency in fiber optic link with stabilized propagation delay,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 60, 1804–1810 (2013).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, Ch. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
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N. Chiodo, N. Quintin, F. Stefani, F. Wiotte, E. Camisard, Ch. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, P.-E. Pottie, and O. Lopez, “Cascaded optical fiber link using the internet network for remote clocks comparison,” Opt. Express 23, 33927–33937 (2015).
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F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W.-K. Lee, Ch. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 787–797 (2015).
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C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
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Z. Jiang, Y. Dai, A. Zhang, F. Yin, J. Li, K. Xu, Q. Lv, T. Ren, and G. Tang, “Precise time delay sensing and stable frequency dissemination on arbitrary intermediate point along fiber-optic loop link with RF phase locking assistance,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 7200809 (2015).
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Mammen, S.

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C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, Ch. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
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Mirtschin, P.

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K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: the radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61, 288–296 (2017).

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T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
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K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: the radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61, 288–296 (2017).

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P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, M. Lipiński, Ł. Śliwczyński, J. Nawrocki, P. Nogaś, A. Marecki, E. Pazderski, P. Ablewski, M. Bober, R. Ciuryło, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, P. Morzyński, M. Zawada, R. M. Campbell, J. Pieczerak, A. Binczewski, and K. Turza, “Fibre-optic delivery of time and frequency to VLBI station,” Astron. Astrophys. 603, A48 (2017).
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K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: the radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61, 288–296 (2017).

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T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
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Muxlow, T. W. B.

S. T. Garrington, B. Anderson, C. Baines, J. A. Battilana, M. N. Bentley, D. Brown, P. Burgess, P. J. Diamond, G. J. Kitching, R. McCool, T. W. B. Muxlow, R. G. Noble, N. Roddis, R. E. Spencer, and P. Thomasson, “e-MERLIN,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 332–343 (2004).
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E. F. Dierikx, A. E. Wallin, T. Fordell, J. Myyry, P. Koponen, M. Merimaa, T. J. Pinkert, J. C. J. Koelemeij, H. Z. Peek, and R. Smets, “White Rabbit Precision Time Protocol on long-distance fiber links,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 63, 945–952 (2016).
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Nanni, M.

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P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, M. Lipiński, Ł. Śliwczyński, J. Nawrocki, P. Nogaś, A. Marecki, E. Pazderski, P. Ablewski, M. Bober, R. Ciuryło, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, P. Morzyński, M. Zawada, R. M. Campbell, J. Pieczerak, A. Binczewski, and K. Turza, “Fibre-optic delivery of time and frequency to VLBI station,” Astron. Astrophys. 603, A48 (2017).
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K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: the radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61, 288–296 (2017).

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C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, Ch. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
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P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, J. Kołodziej, M. Lipiński, Ł. Śliwczyński, J. Nawrocki, P. Nogaś, A. Marecki, E. Pazderski, P. Ablewski, M. Bober, R. Ciuryło, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, P. Morzyński, M. Zawada, R. M. Campbell, J. Pieczerak, A. Binczewski, and K. Turza, “Fibre-optic delivery of time and frequency to VLBI station,” Astron. Astrophys. 603, A48 (2017).
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K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: the radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61, 288–296 (2017).

Schediwy, S. W.

Schilizzi, R.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: the radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61, 288–296 (2017).

Schnatz, H.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, Ch. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
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IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control (6)

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Metrologia (2)

Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, A. Czubla, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Dissemination of time and RF frequency via a stabilized fibre optic link over a distance of 420  km,” Metrologia 50, 133–145 (2013).
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Opt. Express (7)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

RFOF transfer schematic. The local (master) and remote (slave) oscillators communicate via a long-distance single-mode optical-fiber link terminated at each end by an optical circulator (OC). The slave laser output is amplitude-modulated at RFS but experiences phase shifts (“Fiber” in blue) during propagation on the fiber link. The perturbed output (RFS+Fiber) is difference-frequency-mixed with twice the master frequency (2RFM) to amplitude-modulate the master-laser output. Following retransmission, the fiber phase shift then cancels via algebraic phase conjugation, and the output (2RFMRFS) is difference-frequency-mixed with RFS. The phase difference (2RFM2RFS) is then nulled using a proportional integral (PI) servo to reference the slave to RFM. Input from the local atomic clock and output to a remote radio-telescope antenna are depicted as icons.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Layout of VLBI radio-astronomy experiments using RFOF reference transfer. A 155-km AARNET optical-fiber link (blue) connects radio-telescope antennas at ATCA (near Narrabri) and Mopra (near Coonabarabran) via two telecom huts where bidirectional EDFAs are installed. One configuration (purple) transfers the hydrogen-maser reference at Mopra to an ATCA antenna for VLBI demonstrations with a 115-km baseline. Another (red) extends RF transfer over 310 km via a parallel pair of optical fibers looped back at Mopra to test the phase stability of RFOF transfer between a subset of ATCA antennas.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

RFOF loop-back transfer configurations for phase-stability experiments. The RF reference derived from a hydrogen maser at ATCA (Narrabri) is sent to Mopra and looped back to ATCA over a 310-km fiber link (red double-ended arrows). Configurations for the master and slave RF references are shown as black single-headed arrows (dashed for extra connections to the second path of the split antenna).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

RFOF transfer performance over the 310-km fiber link. (a) Fractional frequency stability, plotted in the form of Allan deviation σ versus averaging time τ, for two different measurements (i) and (ii) at f=20  MHz over the 310-km ATCA–Mopra–ATCA loop-back fiber link on successive days. Trace (iii) shows the fractional frequency stability at f=5  MHz between two independent hydrogen masers co-located at ATCA. (b) Raw phase-transfer fluctuations versus elapsed time for the same measurements (i) and (ii) on successive days. (c) Phase-noise spectral density versus frequency measured on day 1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

VLBI measurements demonstrating reference-frequency transfer between pairs of antennas that are 115 km apart. These VLBI measurements at f8.4  GHz involved three radio-astronomy antennas, one at Mopra (with its own local frequency reference) and two at ATCA, with their respective frequency references provided (i) locally at ATCA and (ii) by RFOF transfer from Mopra, via the 155-km fiber link. The phase difference between traces (i) and (ii) is also displayed in trace (iii), arbitrarily displaced downwards by 150°.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Phase stability for the split-antenna RFOF experiment. The top panel shows the RF phase variation at f8.4  GHz for the two split-antenna signal-processing paths (red and black) for three successive time periods. Periods (a) and (c): both paths have a local hydrogen-maser reference. Period (b): the red channel uses the reference sent via the 310-km optical-fiber link. The middle panels show the phase difference (on a 10× finer scale relative to the top panels) between the two split-antenna paths—with the fixed phase offset between the two period (b) signals removed. The bottom panels show floor-level temperature variations in the ATCA instrument room where the hydrogen maser and associated electronics are housed.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Impact on RFOF transfer of phase fluctuations in the input RF reference. Responses of the RFOF phase detector to (a) triangle, (b) sine, and (c) square waveforms’ phase fluctuations in RFM and identical RFS using 50 km of spooled fiber. Phase fluctuations in three different forms were simulated by using a signal generator.