Abstract

Aluminum nitride and silicon nitride have recently emerged as important nonlinear optical materials in integrated photonics for their quadratic and cubic optical nonlinearity, respectively. A composite aluminum nitride and silicon nitride waveguide structure, if realized, will simultaneously allow highly efficient second- and third-harmonic generation on the same chip platform and therefore assists 2f-3f self-referenced frequency combs. On-chip third-harmonic generation, being a higher-order nonlinear optics effect, is more demanding than second-harmonic generation due to the large frequency difference between the fundamental- and third-harmonic frequencies, which implies a large change of refractive indices and more stringent requirements on phase matching. In this work we demonstrate high-efficiency third-harmonic generation in a high-Q composite aluminum nitride/silicon nitride ring cavity. By carefully engineering the microring resonator geometry of the bilayer structure to optimize the quality factor, mode volume, and modal overlap of the optical fields, we report a maximum conversion efficiency of 180%  W2, corresponding to an absolute conversion efficiency of 0.16%. This composite photonic chip design provides a solution for efficient frequency conversion over a large wavelength span, broadband comb generation, and self-referenced frequency combs.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Second-harmonic generation in aluminum nitride microrings with 2500%/W conversion efficiency

Xiang Guo, Chang-Ling Zou, and Hong X. Tang
Optica 3(10) 1126-1131 (2016)

Harmonic generation in silicon nitride ring resonators

Jacob S. Levy, Mark A. Foster, Alexander L. Gaeta, and Michal Lipson
Opt. Express 19(12) 11415-11421 (2011)

Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride microring resonator

Hojoong Jung, Chi Xiong, King Y. Fong, Xufeng Zhang, and Hong X. Tang
Opt. Lett. 38(15) 2810-2813 (2013)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. B. Papp, K. Beha, P. Del’Haye, F. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator frequency comb optical clock,” Optica 1, 10–14 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Keilmann, C. Gohle, and R. Holzwarth, “Time-domain mid-infrared frequency-comb spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1542–1544 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  6. X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, M.-G. Suh, and K. Vahala, “Soliton frequency comb at microwave rates in a high-Q silica microresonator,” Optica 2, 1078–1085 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. W. Haakestad, T. P. Lamour, N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Intracavity trace molecular detection with a broadband mid-IR frequency comb source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 631–640 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. C. Cruz, D. L. Maser, T. Johnson, G. Ycas, A. Klose, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs based on difference frequency generation for molecular spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 23, 26814–26824 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325–342 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Roslund, R. M. de Araujo, S. Jiang, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, “Wavelength-multiplexed quantum networks with ultrafast frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 109–112 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, and H. X. Tang, “Second-harmonic generation in aluminum nitride microrings with 2500%/W conversion efficiency,” Optica 3, 1126–1131 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. Levy, Y. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3398–3400 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. Jung, C. Xiong, K. Y. Fong, X. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, “Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride microring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2810–2813 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Liu, Y. Xuan, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, A. J. Metcalf, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Investigation of mode coupling in normal-dispersion silicon nitride microresonators for Kerr frequency comb generation,” Optica 1, 137–144 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, J. Liu, H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave-spanning dissipative Kerr soliton frequency combs in Si3N4 microresonators,” Optica 4, 684–691 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  16. Q. Li, T. C. Briles, D. A. Westly, T. E. Drake, J. R. Stone, B. R. Ilic, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Stably accessing octave-spanning microresonator frequency combs in the soliton regime,” Optica 4, 193–203 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  17. X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 1–3.
  18. V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326, 681 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  21. V. Brasch, E. Lucas, J. D. Jost, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Self-referenced photonic chip soliton Kerr frequency comb,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16202 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  22. L. Wang, L. Chang, N. Volet, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, H. Guo, T. J. Kippenberg, and J. E. Bowers, “Frequency comb generation in the green using silicon nitride microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 631–638 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. F. Kajzar and J. Messier, “Third-harmonic generation in liquids,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2352–2363 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. Lippitz, M. V. Dijk, and M. Orrit, “Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5, 799–802 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  25. G. H. C. New and J. F. Ward, “Optical third-harmonic generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 556–559 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  26. S.-Y. Hong, J. I. Dadap, N. Petrone, P.-C. Yeh, J. Hone, and R. M. Osgood, “Optical third-harmonic generation in graphene,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 021014 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Harmonic generation in silicon nitride ring resonators,” Opt. Express 19, 11415–11421 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  28. T. Carmon and K. Vahala, “Visible continuous emission from a silica microphotonic device by third-harmonic generation,” Nat. Phys. 3, 430–435 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  29. B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 206–210 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  30. G. Grinblat, Y. Li, M. P. Nielsen, R. F. Oulton, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced third harmonic generation in single germanium nanodisks excited at the anapole mode,” Nano Lett. 16, 4635–4640 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  31. W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 223501 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  32. C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14, 095014 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  33. X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, and H. X. Tang, “70  dB long-pass filter on a nanophotonic chip,” Opt. Express 24, 21167–21176 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  34. T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12, 4742–4750 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2017 (3)

2016 (5)

L. Wang, L. Chang, N. Volet, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, H. Guo, T. J. Kippenberg, and J. E. Bowers, “Frequency comb generation in the green using silicon nitride microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 631–638 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Grinblat, Y. Li, M. P. Nielsen, R. F. Oulton, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced third harmonic generation in single germanium nanodisks excited at the anapole mode,” Nano Lett. 16, 4635–4640 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, and H. X. Tang, “70  dB long-pass filter on a nanophotonic chip,” Opt. Express 24, 21167–21176 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, and H. X. Tang, “Second-harmonic generation in aluminum nitride microrings with 2500%/W conversion efficiency,” Optica 3, 1126–1131 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (3)

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 223501 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14, 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2009 (2)

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326, 681 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 206–210 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. Carmon and K. Vahala, “Visible continuous emission from a silica microphotonic device by third-harmonic generation,” Nat. Phys. 3, 430–435 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Lippitz, M. V. Dijk, and M. Orrit, “Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5, 799–802 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

F. Kajzar and J. Messier, “Third-harmonic generation in liquids,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2352–2363 (1985).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

G. H. C. New and J. F. Ward, “Optical third-harmonic generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 556–559 (1967).
[Crossref]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bartels, A.

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326, 681 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beha, K.

Bergquist, J. C.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

L. Wang, L. Chang, N. Volet, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, H. Guo, T. J. Kippenberg, and J. E. Bowers, “Frequency comb generation in the green using silicon nitride microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 631–638 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brasch, V.

V. Brasch, E. Lucas, J. D. Jost, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Self-referenced photonic chip soliton Kerr frequency comb,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16202 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

Briles, T. C.

Carmon, T.

T. Carmon and K. Vahala, “Visible continuous emission from a silica microphotonic device by third-harmonic generation,” Nat. Phys. 3, 430–435 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12, 4742–4750 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chang, L.

L. Wang, L. Chang, N. Volet, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, H. Guo, T. J. Kippenberg, and J. E. Bowers, “Frequency comb generation in the green using silicon nitride microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 631–638 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Coddington, I.

Corcoran, B.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 206–210 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cruz, F. C.

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Curtis, E. A.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dadap, J. I.

S.-Y. Hong, J. I. Dadap, N. Petrone, P.-C. Yeh, J. Hone, and R. M. Osgood, “Optical third-harmonic generation in graphene,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 021014 (2013).
[Crossref]

de Araujo, R. M.

J. Roslund, R. M. de Araujo, S. Jiang, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, “Wavelength-multiplexed quantum networks with ultrafast frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 109–112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Del’Haye, P.

S. B. Papp, K. Beha, P. Del’Haye, F. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator frequency comb optical clock,” Optica 1, 10–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

Q. Li, T. C. Briles, D. A. Westly, T. E. Drake, J. R. Stone, B. R. Ilic, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Stably accessing octave-spanning microresonator frequency combs in the soliton regime,” Optica 4, 193–203 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. C. Cruz, D. L. Maser, T. Johnson, G. Ycas, A. Klose, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs based on difference frequency generation for molecular spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 23, 26814–26824 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. B. Papp, K. Beha, P. Del’Haye, F. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator frequency comb optical clock,” Optica 1, 10–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326, 681 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dijk, M. V.

M. Lippitz, M. V. Dijk, and M. Orrit, “Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5, 799–802 (2005).
[Crossref]

Drake, T. E.

Drullinger, R. E.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 206–210 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fabre, C.

J. Roslund, R. M. de Araujo, S. Jiang, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, “Wavelength-multiplexed quantum networks with ultrafast frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 109–112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fong, K. Y.

H. Jung, C. Xiong, K. Y. Fong, X. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, “Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride microring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2810–2813 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14, 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Geiselmann, M.

V. Brasch, E. Lucas, J. D. Jost, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Self-referenced photonic chip soliton Kerr frequency comb,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16202 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

Giorgetta, F. R.

Gohle, C.

Gorodetsky, M. L.

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grillet, C.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 206–210 (2009).
[Crossref]

Grinblat, G.

G. Grinblat, Y. Li, M. P. Nielsen, R. F. Oulton, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced third harmonic generation in single germanium nanodisks excited at the anapole mode,” Nano Lett. 16, 4635–4640 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guo, H.

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, J. Liu, H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave-spanning dissipative Kerr soliton frequency combs in Si3N4 microresonators,” Optica 4, 684–691 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, L. Chang, N. Volet, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, H. Guo, T. J. Kippenberg, and J. E. Bowers, “Frequency comb generation in the green using silicon nitride microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 631–638 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

Haakestad, M. W.

Hall, J. L.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Han, Y.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

Hansch, T. W.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

Heinecke, D.

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326, 681 (2009).
[Crossref]

Herkommer, C.

Herr, T.

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Keilmann, C. Gohle, and R. Holzwarth, “Time-domain mid-infrared frequency-comb spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1542–1544 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hone, J.

S.-Y. Hong, J. I. Dadap, N. Petrone, P.-C. Yeh, J. Hone, and R. M. Osgood, “Optical third-harmonic generation in graphene,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 021014 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hong, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Hong, J. I. Dadap, N. Petrone, P.-C. Yeh, J. Hone, and R. M. Osgood, “Optical third-harmonic generation in graphene,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 021014 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ilic, B. R.

Itano, W. M.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jiang, S.

J. Roslund, R. M. de Araujo, S. Jiang, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, “Wavelength-multiplexed quantum networks with ultrafast frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 109–112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Johnson, T.

Jones, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jost, J. D.

V. Brasch, E. Lucas, J. D. Jost, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Self-referenced photonic chip soliton Kerr frequency comb,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16202 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jung, H.

Kajzar, F.

F. Kajzar and J. Messier, “Third-harmonic generation in liquids,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2352–2363 (1985).
[Crossref]

Karpov, M.

Keilmann, F.

Kippenberg, T. J.

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, J. Liu, H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave-spanning dissipative Kerr soliton frequency combs in Si3N4 microresonators,” Optica 4, 684–691 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, E. Lucas, J. D. Jost, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Self-referenced photonic chip soliton Kerr frequency comb,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16202 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, L. Chang, N. Volet, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, H. Guo, T. J. Kippenberg, and J. E. Bowers, “Frequency comb generation in the green using silicon nitride microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 631–638 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[Crossref]

Klose, A.

Krauss, T.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 206–210 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lamour, T. P.

Leaird, D. E.

Lee, H.

Lee, W. D.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Leindecker, N.

Levy, J.

Levy, J. S.

Li, H.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

Li, Q.

Li, Y.

G. Grinblat, Y. Li, M. P. Nielsen, R. F. Oulton, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced third harmonic generation in single germanium nanodisks excited at the anapole mode,” Nano Lett. 16, 4635–4640 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lihachev, G.

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lippitz, M.

M. Lippitz, M. V. Dijk, and M. Orrit, “Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5, 799–802 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Liu, J.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

Liu, Y.

Lucas, E.

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, J. Liu, H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave-spanning dissipative Kerr soliton frequency combs in Si3N4 microresonators,” Optica 4, 684–691 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, E. Lucas, J. D. Jost, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Self-referenced photonic chip soliton Kerr frequency comb,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16202 (2017).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

Maier, S. A.

G. Grinblat, Y. Li, M. P. Nielsen, R. F. Oulton, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced third harmonic generation in single germanium nanodisks excited at the anapole mode,” Nano Lett. 16, 4635–4640 (2016).
[Crossref]

Marandi, A.

Maser, D. L.

Messier, J.

F. Kajzar and J. Messier, “Third-harmonic generation in liquids,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2352–2363 (1985).
[Crossref]

Metcalf, A. J.

Monat, C.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 206–210 (2009).
[Crossref]

Moss, D.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 206–210 (2009).
[Crossref]

New, G. H. C.

G. H. C. New and J. F. Ward, “Optical third-harmonic generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 556–559 (1967).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, M. P.

G. Grinblat, Y. Li, M. P. Nielsen, R. F. Oulton, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced third harmonic generation in single germanium nanodisks excited at the anapole mode,” Nano Lett. 16, 4635–4640 (2016).
[Crossref]

O’Faolain, L.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 206–210 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oates, C. W.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Okawachi, Y.

Orrit, M.

M. Lippitz, M. V. Dijk, and M. Orrit, “Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5, 799–802 (2005).
[Crossref]

Osgood, R. M.

S.-Y. Hong, J. I. Dadap, N. Petrone, P.-C. Yeh, J. Hone, and R. M. Osgood, “Optical third-harmonic generation in graphene,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 021014 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oulton, R. F.

G. Grinblat, Y. Li, M. P. Nielsen, R. F. Oulton, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced third harmonic generation in single germanium nanodisks excited at the anapole mode,” Nano Lett. 16, 4635–4640 (2016).
[Crossref]

Papp, S. B.

Pernice, W. H. P.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 223501 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14, 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Petrone, N.

S.-Y. Hong, J. I. Dadap, N. Petrone, P.-C. Yeh, J. Hone, and R. M. Osgood, “Optical third-harmonic generation in graphene,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 021014 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, M. H. P.

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, J. Liu, H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave-spanning dissipative Kerr soliton frequency combs in Si3N4 microresonators,” Optica 4, 684–691 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, L. Chang, N. Volet, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, H. Guo, T. J. Kippenberg, and J. E. Bowers, “Frequency comb generation in the green using silicon nitride microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 631–638 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qi, M.

Quinlan, F.

Ranka, J. K.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Roslund, J.

J. Roslund, R. M. de Araujo, S. Jiang, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, “Wavelength-multiplexed quantum networks with ultrafast frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 109–112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Saha, K.

Schliesser, A.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schuck, C.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 223501 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14, 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, K.

Stone, J. R.

Suh, M.-G.

Sun, C.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

Sun, X.

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14, 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tang, H. X.

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, and H. X. Tang, “70  dB long-pass filter on a nanophotonic chip,” Opt. Express 24, 21167–21176 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, and H. X. Tang, “Second-harmonic generation in aluminum nitride microrings with 2500%/W conversion efficiency,” Optica 3, 1126–1131 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Jung, C. Xiong, K. Y. Fong, X. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, “Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride microring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2810–2813 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14, 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 223501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Treps, N.

J. Roslund, R. M. de Araujo, S. Jiang, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, “Wavelength-multiplexed quantum networks with ultrafast frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 109–112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K.

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, M.-G. Suh, and K. Vahala, “Soliton frequency comb at microwave rates in a high-Q silica microresonator,” Optica 2, 1078–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon and K. Vahala, “Visible continuous emission from a silica microphotonic device by third-harmonic generation,” Nat. Phys. 3, 430–435 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Vogel, K. R.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Volet, N.

L. Wang, L. Chang, N. Volet, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, H. Guo, T. J. Kippenberg, and J. E. Bowers, “Frequency comb generation in the green using silicon nitride microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 631–638 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Y. Liu, Y. Xuan, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, A. J. Metcalf, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Investigation of mode coupling in normal-dispersion silicon nitride microresonators for Kerr frequency comb generation,” Optica 1, 137–144 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, L. Chang, N. Volet, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, H. Guo, T. J. Kippenberg, and J. E. Bowers, “Frequency comb generation in the green using silicon nitride microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 631–638 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

Wang, P.-H.

Ward, J. F.

G. H. C. New and J. F. Ward, “Optical third-harmonic generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 556–559 (1967).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

Weiner, A. M.

Wen, Y.

Westly, D. A.

White, T.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 206–210 (2009).
[Crossref]

Windeler, R. S.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wineland, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xiong, B.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

Xiong, C.

H. Jung, C. Xiong, K. Y. Fong, X. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, “Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride microring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2810–2813 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14, 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 223501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xuan, Y.

Xue, X.

Yan, J.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

Yang, K. Y.

Yang, L.

Yang, Q.-F.

Ycas, G.

Ye, J.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yeh, P.-C.

S.-Y. Hong, J. I. Dadap, N. Petrone, P.-C. Yeh, J. Hone, and R. M. Osgood, “Optical third-harmonic generation in graphene,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 021014 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yi, X.

Zervas, M.

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, J. Liu, H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave-spanning dissipative Kerr soliton frequency combs in Si3N4 microresonators,” Optica 4, 684–691 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, L. Chang, N. Volet, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, H. Guo, T. J. Kippenberg, and J. E. Bowers, “Frequency comb generation in the green using silicon nitride microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 631–638 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

Zou, C.-L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 223501 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

L. Wang, L. Chang, N. Volet, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, H. Guo, T. J. Kippenberg, and J. E. Bowers, “Frequency comb generation in the green using silicon nitride microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 631–638 (2016).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

V. Brasch, E. Lucas, J. D. Jost, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Self-referenced photonic chip soliton Kerr frequency comb,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16202 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

M. Lippitz, M. V. Dijk, and M. Orrit, “Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5, 799–802 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Grinblat, Y. Li, M. P. Nielsen, R. F. Oulton, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced third harmonic generation in single germanium nanodisks excited at the anapole mode,” Nano Lett. 16, 4635–4640 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 206–210 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Roslund, R. M. de Araujo, S. Jiang, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, “Wavelength-multiplexed quantum networks with ultrafast frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 109–112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

T. Carmon and K. Vahala, “Visible continuous emission from a silica microphotonic device by third-harmonic generation,” Nat. Phys. 3, 430–435 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14, 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (6)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

F. Kajzar and J. Messier, “Third-harmonic generation in liquids,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2352–2363 (1985).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

G. H. C. New and J. F. Ward, “Optical third-harmonic generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 556–559 (1967).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

S.-Y. Hong, J. I. Dadap, N. Petrone, P.-C. Yeh, J. Hone, and R. M. Osgood, “Optical third-harmonic generation in graphene,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 021014 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326, 681 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Effective index of the fundamental TE mode of the fundamental (solid red curve) and higher-order modes of the third-harmonic light (dotted curve) with varying ring widths. The intersecting points of the red curve with the other lines denote the ring widths that satisfy the phase matching. The phase-matched TE modes are marked with the corresponding labels from Table 1. (b) A cross section of the composite waveguide. 330 nm of AlN and Si 3 N 4 were grown on a 3.3 μm thick SiO 2 layer on top of an undoped Si substrate.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) SEM image of a ring resonator device. (b) A top view of the TH light scattered from the ring. (c) A block diagram of the experimental setup including the Andor system situated on top of the ring resonator to collect scattered light. An IR continuous-wave pump source was amplified by an (EDFA) and coupled into the ring resonator through a WDM. Two visible photodetectors and one IR photodetector were used to monitor the TH output and transmission, respectively. (d) The third-harmonic generation spectrum with respect to the input pump wavelength. Data were taken using the Andor Spectrograph 193i. At each pump wavelength input, TH light scattered from the ring was collected by the spectrograph with a slit opening of 50 μm and an integration time of one second. The linewidth of the THG wavelength is due to the limit in resolution of the Andor spectrograph.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Transmission at low input pump power. The resonance within the shaded region was used for generating TH light. (b) The transmission at high power of the IR pump resonance. The red curve and blue curve denote the experimentally observed and the simulated resonance, respectively. The triangular shape resonance is a result of the thermal shifting of the 1541.2 nm resonance at high temperatures. The large shift is due to a high confinement of thermal energy within the waveguide. (c) The TH response with respect to the pump wavelength. The response (green) is modeled by a Lorentzian-shaped curve (blue).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Study of the THG power dependence using a continuous-wave (CW) laser input. The horizontal axis shows the amount of pump power that is coupled into the resonance at the phase-matched wavelength. The solid curve indicates the model prediction of the output power at high input powers, where a difference in resonance shift speeds causes a resonance wavelength mismatch and subsequently a deviation from a cubic power dependence. (b) The temperature dependence of the THG. The temperature was tuned by coupling a CW input into a resonance away from the wavelength at which THG occurs. The absolute temperature was then calibrated for by measuring the thermal shift in the IR resonances. Simultaneously, a low-duty cycle modulated laser with an average power of 4 mW was used for THG. This scheme was implemented to avoid the thermal shift at high CW input powers. A Lorentzian-shaped temperature dependence curve with a FWHM of 10.6°C is fitted.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Phase-Matched Widths from Simulations with the Respective Mode Profiles and Calculated Overlap Factor ζ

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H = ω a a a + ω b b b + g [ ( a ) 3 b + a 3 b ] + ϵ p ( a e i ω p t + a e i ω p t ) ,
g ζ 3 ω a 2 ϵ 0 2 π R χ ( 3 ) ( r ) ϵ a 3 ϵ b δ ( m b 3 m a ) ,
ζ = d r d z [ u a , z * ( r , z ) ] 3 u b , z ( r , z ) [ d r d z | u a , z ( r , z ) 2 | ] 3 / 2 [ d r d z | u b , z ( r , z ) 2 | ] 1 / 2 .
η = g 2 16 Q a , 0 3 Q b , 0 2 ω a 6 .
d d t α = i [ ( ω a ω p ) κ a c Δ T ] α i κ a , 1 ϵ p = 0 ,
d d t Δ T = K | α | 2 γ th Δ T = 0 .
P THG 2 g 2 κ b , 1 ( 2 κ a , 1 κ a 2 ) 3 ω b ( ω p ) 3 ( P p ) 3 [ 2 π c λ a λ b ( ( λ a 0 3 λ b 0 ) + ( d a 3 d b ) T ) ] 2 + κ b 2 .
η = P THG P p 3 ω b ( ω p ) 3 16 g 2 κ b , 1 κ a , 1 3 κ a 6 [ 2 π c λ a λ b ( d a 3 d b ) T ] 2 + κ b 2 .

Metrics