Abstract

Future high-precision free-space optical (FSO) clock networks will require laser links to transmit time-frequency between sites and, with this information, to synchronize the times across widely separated clocks. FSO communication networks already use laser links between remote sites to transmit high-speed data. Here we repurpose a FSO digital communication system and use it directly for two-way time-frequency transfer. We demonstrate synchronization of the time between two sites separated by a turbulent air path of 4 km using binary-phase-modulated continuous-wave laser light. Under synchronization, the two sites exhibit a fractional frequency deviation below 1015 at 1500 s averaging time and a time deviation below 1 ps at averaging times of seconds to hours. Over an 8 h period, the peak-to-peak wander is 16 ps. This method should be applicable to future ground-to-space and intra-satellite links and could lead to an improved global navigation and satellite system.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (4)

D. R. Gozzard, S. W. Schediwy, and K. Grainge, “Simultaneous transfer of stabilized optical and microwave frequencies over fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 87–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Biswas, M. Srinivasan, S. Piazzolla, and D. Hoppe, “Deep space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 10524, 105240U (2018).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, H. Bergeron, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, J.-D. Deschênes, and N. R. Newbury, “Comparing optical oscillators across the air to milliradians in phase and 10−17 in frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 050801 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. He, K. G. H. Baldwin, B. J. Orr, R. B. Warrington, M. J. Wouters, A. N. Luiten, P. Mirtschin, T. Tzioumis, C. Phillips, J. Stevens, B. Lennon, S. Munting, G. Aben, T. Newlands, and T. Rayner, “Long-distance telecom-fiber transfer of a radio-frequency reference for radio astronomy,” Optica 5, 138–146 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

A. Belmonte, M. T. Taylor, L. Hollberg, and J. M. Kahn, “Effect of atmospheric anisoplanatism on earth-to-satellite time transfer over laser communication links,” Opt. Express 25, 15676–15686 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Meyer, R. Fields, and C. Lunde, “TESAT laser communication terminal performance results on 5.6Gbit coherent inter satellite and satellite to ground links,” Proc. SPIE 10565, 105651F (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Kaushal and G. Kaddoum, “Optical communication in space: challenges and mitigation techniques,” Commun. Surveys Tuts. 19, 57–96 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, F. Sun, Q. Bai, D. Chen, Q. Chen, and D. Hou, “Sub-picosecond timing fluctuation suppression in laser-based atmospheric transfer of microwave signal using electronic phase compensation,” Opt. Commun. 401, 18–22 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Riehle, “Optical clock networks,” Nat. Photonics 11, 25–31 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Krehlik, H. Schnatz, and Ł. Śliwczyński, “A hybrid solution for simultaneous transfer of ultrastable optical frequency, RF frequency, and UTC time-tags over optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 64, 1884–1890 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, and P. Wolf, “Impact of turbulence on high-precision ground-satellite frequency transfer with two-way coherent optical links,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033860 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Berceau, M. Taylor, J. M. Kahn, and L. Hollberg, “Space-time reference with an optical link,” Class. Quantum Gravity 33, 135007 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” Comptes Rendus Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Fujieda, D. Piester, T. Gotoh, J. Becker, M. Aida, and A. Bauch, “Carrier-phase two-way satellite frequency transfer over a very long baseline,” Metrologia 51, 253–262 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. A. Khalighi and M. Uysal, “Survey on free space optical communication: a communication theory perspective,” Commun. Surv. Tutor. 16, 2231–2258 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, A. Czubla, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Dissemination of time and RF frequency via a stabilized fibre optic link over a distance of 420  km,” Metrologia 50, 133–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B 110, 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

K. U. Schreiber, I. Prochazka, P. Lauber, U. Hugentobler, W. Schafer, L. Cacciapuoti, and R. Nasca, “Ground-based demonstration of the European laser timing (ELT) experiment,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 728–737 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2, 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

D. Kirchner, H. Ressler, P. Grudler, F. Baumont, C. Veillet, W. Lewandowski, W. Hanson, W. Klepczynski, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison of GPS common-view and two-way satellite time transfer over a baseline of 800  km,” Metrologia 30, 183–192 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Kirchner, “Two-way time transfer via communication satellites,” Proc. IEEE 79, 983–990 (1991).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

Aben, G.

Abgrall, M.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Achkar, J.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” Comptes Rendus Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B 110, 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Aida, M.

M. Fujieda, D. Piester, T. Gotoh, J. Becker, M. Aida, and A. Bauch, “Carrier-phase two-way satellite frequency transfer over a very long baseline,” Metrologia 51, 253–262 (2014).
[Crossref]

Albanese, D.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Amy-Klein, A.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” Comptes Rendus Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B 110, 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anderson, J.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Attai, W.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Bai, Q.

S. Chen, F. Sun, Q. Bai, D. Chen, Q. Chen, and D. Hou, “Sub-picosecond timing fluctuation suppression in laser-based atmospheric transfer of microwave signal using electronic phase compensation,” Opt. Commun. 401, 18–22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baldwin, K. G. H.

Barnwell, N.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Bauch, A.

M. Fujieda, D. Piester, T. Gotoh, J. Becker, M. Aida, and A. Bauch, “Carrier-phase two-way satellite frequency transfer over a very long baseline,” Metrologia 51, 253–262 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baumann, E.

L. C. Sinclair, H. Bergeron, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, J.-D. Deschênes, and N. R. Newbury, “Comparing optical oscillators across the air to milliradians in phase and 10−17 in frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 050801 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. C. Swann, M. I. Bodine, I. Khader, J.-D. Deschenes, E. Baumann, L. C. Sinclair, and N. R. Newbury, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Measurement of the impact of turbulence anisoplanatism on precision free-space optical time transfer.”

Baumont, F.

D. Kirchner, H. Ressler, P. Grudler, F. Baumont, C. Veillet, W. Lewandowski, W. Hanson, W. Klepczynski, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison of GPS common-view and two-way satellite time transfer over a baseline of 800  km,” Metrologia 30, 183–192 (1993).
[Crossref]

Becker, J.

M. Fujieda, D. Piester, T. Gotoh, J. Becker, M. Aida, and A. Bauch, “Carrier-phase two-way satellite frequency transfer over a very long baseline,” Metrologia 51, 253–262 (2014).
[Crossref]

Belmonte, A.

Berceau, P.

P. Berceau, M. Taylor, J. M. Kahn, and L. Hollberg, “Space-time reference with an optical link,” Class. Quantum Gravity 33, 135007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bercy, A.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” Comptes Rendus Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bergeron, H.

L. C. Sinclair, H. Bergeron, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, J.-D. Deschênes, and N. R. Newbury, “Comparing optical oscillators across the air to milliradians in phase and 10−17 in frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 050801 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, H. Bergeron, W. C. Swann, I. Khader, K. C. Cossel, M. Cermak, N. R. Newbury, and J.-D. Deschenes, “Femtosecond optical two-way time-frequency transfer in the presence of motion,” arXiv:1808.07040 (2018).

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, I. Khader, K. C. Cossel, M. Cermak, J.-D. Deschênes, and N. R. Newbury, “Femtosecond synchronization of optical clocks off of a flying quadcopter,” arXiv:1808.07870 (2018).

Bertacco, E. K.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Biswas, A.

A. Biswas, M. Srinivasan, S. Piazzolla, and D. Hoppe, “Deep space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 10524, 105240U (2018).
[Crossref]

Bodine, M. I.

W. C. Swann, M. I. Bodine, I. Khader, J.-D. Deschenes, E. Baumann, L. C. Sinclair, and N. R. Newbury, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Measurement of the impact of turbulence anisoplanatism on precision free-space optical time transfer.”

Bourez, M. L.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Buczek, L.

Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, A. Czubla, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Dissemination of time and RF frequency via a stabilized fibre optic link over a distance of 420  km,” Metrologia 50, 133–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cacciapuoti, L.

K. U. Schreiber, I. Prochazka, P. Lauber, U. Hugentobler, W. Schafer, L. Cacciapuoti, and R. Nasca, “Ground-based demonstration of the European laser timing (ELT) experiment,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 728–737 (2010).
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Calonico, D.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Calosso, C. E.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carrasquilla, M.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Cermak, M.

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, I. Khader, K. C. Cossel, M. Cermak, J.-D. Deschênes, and N. R. Newbury, “Femtosecond synchronization of optical clocks off of a flying quadcopter,” arXiv:1808.07870 (2018).

L. C. Sinclair, H. Bergeron, W. C. Swann, I. Khader, K. C. Cossel, M. Cermak, N. R. Newbury, and J.-D. Deschenes, “Femtosecond optical two-way time-frequency transfer in the presence of motion,” arXiv:1808.07040 (2018).

Chanteau, B.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” Comptes Rendus Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chardonnet, C.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” Comptes Rendus Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B 110, 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chavez, J.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Chen, D.

S. Chen, F. Sun, Q. Bai, D. Chen, Q. Chen, and D. Hou, “Sub-picosecond timing fluctuation suppression in laser-based atmospheric transfer of microwave signal using electronic phase compensation,” Opt. Commun. 401, 18–22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2, 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

S. Chen, F. Sun, Q. Bai, D. Chen, Q. Chen, and D. Hou, “Sub-picosecond timing fluctuation suppression in laser-based atmospheric transfer of microwave signal using electronic phase compensation,” Opt. Commun. 401, 18–22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, F. Sun, Q. Bai, D. Chen, Q. Chen, and D. Hou, “Sub-picosecond timing fluctuation suppression in laser-based atmospheric transfer of microwave signal using electronic phase compensation,” Opt. Commun. 401, 18–22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, J. Shang, D. Wang, C. Ci, W. Zhang, B. Liu, H. Wu, S. Yu, and Z. Zhang, “Frequency dissemination over 1000  km optical fiber with 10–21 frequency instability,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. JW2A.152.

Ci, C.

X. Chen, J. Shang, D. Wang, C. Ci, W. Zhang, B. Liu, H. Wu, S. Yu, and Z. Zhang, “Frequency dissemination over 1000  km optical fiber with 10–21 frequency instability,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. JW2A.152.

Clivati, C.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Coddington, I.

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
[Crossref]

Conan, J.-M.

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, and P. Wolf, “Impact of turbulence on high-precision ground-satellite frequency transfer with two-way coherent optical links,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033860 (2016).
[Crossref]

Conklin, J. W.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Cossel, K. C.

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, I. Khader, K. C. Cossel, M. Cermak, J.-D. Deschênes, and N. R. Newbury, “Femtosecond synchronization of optical clocks off of a flying quadcopter,” arXiv:1808.07870 (2018).

L. C. Sinclair, H. Bergeron, W. C. Swann, I. Khader, K. C. Cossel, M. Cermak, N. R. Newbury, and J.-D. Deschenes, “Femtosecond optical two-way time-frequency transfer in the presence of motion,” arXiv:1808.07040 (2018).

Costanzo, G. A.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Courde, C.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Cox, J. A.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2, 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cvijetic, M.

M. Cvijetic and I. Djordjevic, Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks (Artech House, 2013).

Czubla, A.

Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, A. Czubla, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Dissemination of time and RF frequency via a stabilized fibre optic link over a distance of 420  km,” Metrologia 50, 133–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dennis, M. L.

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Deschenes, J.-D.

W. C. Swann, M. I. Bodine, I. Khader, J.-D. Deschenes, E. Baumann, L. C. Sinclair, and N. R. Newbury, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Measurement of the impact of turbulence anisoplanatism on precision free-space optical time transfer.”

L. C. Sinclair, H. Bergeron, W. C. Swann, I. Khader, K. C. Cossel, M. Cermak, N. R. Newbury, and J.-D. Deschenes, “Femtosecond optical two-way time-frequency transfer in the presence of motion,” arXiv:1808.07040 (2018).

Deschênes, J.-D.

L. C. Sinclair, H. Bergeron, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, J.-D. Deschênes, and N. R. Newbury, “Comparing optical oscillators across the air to milliradians in phase and 10−17 in frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 050801 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, I. Khader, K. C. Cossel, M. Cermak, J.-D. Deschênes, and N. R. Newbury, “Femtosecond synchronization of optical clocks off of a flying quadcopter,” arXiv:1808.07870 (2018).

Djeroud, K.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Djordjevic, I.

M. Cvijetic and I. Djordjevic, Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks (Artech House, 2013).

Dougherty, D.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Douglass, J.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Droste, S.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Exertier, P.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Fields, R.

M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Meyer, R. Fields, and C. Lunde, “TESAT laser communication terminal performance results on 5.6Gbit coherent inter satellite and satellite to ground links,” Proc. SPIE 10565, 105651F (2017).
[Crossref]

Formoso, O.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Frittelli, M.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fujieda, M.

M. Fujieda, D. Piester, T. Gotoh, J. Becker, M. Aida, and A. Bauch, “Carrier-phase two-way satellite frequency transfer over a very long baseline,” Metrologia 51, 253–262 (2014).
[Crossref]

Giorgetta, F. R.

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
[Crossref]

Godone, A.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gotoh, T.

M. Fujieda, D. Piester, T. Gotoh, J. Becker, M. Aida, and A. Bauch, “Carrier-phase two-way satellite frequency transfer over a very long baseline,” Metrologia 51, 253–262 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gozzard, D. R.

D. R. Gozzard, S. W. Schediwy, and K. Grainge, “Simultaneous transfer of stabilized optical and microwave frequencies over fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 87–90 (2018).
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Grainge, K.

D. R. Gozzard, S. W. Schediwy, and K. Grainge, “Simultaneous transfer of stabilized optical and microwave frequencies over fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 87–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

Graves, B.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gregory, M.

M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Meyer, R. Fields, and C. Lunde, “TESAT laser communication terminal performance results on 5.6Gbit coherent inter satellite and satellite to ground links,” Proc. SPIE 10565, 105651F (2017).
[Crossref]

Grein, M. E.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” in Free-Space Laser Communication and Atmospheric Propagation XXVI (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2014), Vol. 8971, p. 89710V.

Grosche, G.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grudler, P.

D. Kirchner, H. Ressler, P. Grudler, F. Baumont, C. Veillet, W. Lewandowski, W. Hanson, W. Klepczynski, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison of GPS common-view and two-way satellite time transfer over a baseline of 800  km,” Metrologia 30, 183–192 (1993).
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Guillemot, P.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Haboucha, A.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” Comptes Rendus Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hanson, J.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Hanson, W.

D. Kirchner, H. Ressler, P. Grudler, F. Baumont, C. Veillet, W. Lewandowski, W. Hanson, W. Klepczynski, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison of GPS common-view and two-way satellite time transfer over a baseline of 800  km,” Metrologia 30, 183–192 (1993).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Heine, F.

M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Meyer, R. Fields, and C. Lunde, “TESAT laser communication terminal performance results on 5.6Gbit coherent inter satellite and satellite to ground links,” Proc. SPIE 10565, 105651F (2017).
[Crossref]

Hollberg, L.

Holzwarth, R.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hoppe, D.

A. Biswas, M. Srinivasan, S. Piazzolla, and D. Hoppe, “Deep space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 10524, 105240U (2018).
[Crossref]

Hou, D.

S. Chen, F. Sun, Q. Bai, D. Chen, Q. Chen, and D. Hou, “Sub-picosecond timing fluctuation suppression in laser-based atmospheric transfer of microwave signal using electronic phase compensation,” Opt. Commun. 401, 18–22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hugentobler, U.

K. U. Schreiber, I. Prochazka, P. Lauber, U. Hugentobler, W. Schafer, L. Cacciapuoti, and R. Nasca, “Ground-based demonstration of the European laser timing (ELT) experiment,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 728–737 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hughes, D.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jaroux, B.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Jiang, H.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” Comptes Rendus Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

Juarez, J.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Juarez, J. C.

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kaddoum, G.

H. Kaushal and G. Kaddoum, “Optical communication in space: challenges and mitigation techniques,” Commun. Surveys Tuts. 19, 57–96 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kahn, J. M.

Kämpfner, H.

M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Meyer, R. Fields, and C. Lunde, “TESAT laser communication terminal performance results on 5.6Gbit coherent inter satellite and satellite to ground links,” Proc. SPIE 10565, 105651F (2017).
[Crossref]

Kanj, A.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” Comptes Rendus Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B 110, 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kansky, J. E.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” in Free-Space Laser Communication and Atmospheric Propagation XXVI (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2014), Vol. 8971, p. 89710V.

Kärtner, F. X.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2, 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kaushal, H.

H. Kaushal and G. Kaddoum, “Optical communication in space: challenges and mitigation techniques,” Commun. Surveys Tuts. 19, 57–96 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kéfélian, F.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” Comptes Rendus Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

Khader, I.

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. C. Swann, M. I. Bodine, I. Khader, J.-D. Deschenes, E. Baumann, L. C. Sinclair, and N. R. Newbury, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Measurement of the impact of turbulence anisoplanatism on precision free-space optical time transfer.”

L. C. Sinclair, H. Bergeron, W. C. Swann, I. Khader, K. C. Cossel, M. Cermak, N. R. Newbury, and J.-D. Deschenes, “Femtosecond optical two-way time-frequency transfer in the presence of motion,” arXiv:1808.07040 (2018).

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, I. Khader, K. C. Cossel, M. Cermak, J.-D. Deschênes, and N. R. Newbury, “Femtosecond synchronization of optical clocks off of a flying quadcopter,” arXiv:1808.07870 (2018).

Khalighi, M. A.

M. A. Khalighi and M. Uysal, “Survey on free space optical communication: a communication theory perspective,” Commun. Surv. Tutor. 16, 2231–2258 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2, 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kirchner, D.

D. Kirchner, H. Ressler, P. Grudler, F. Baumont, C. Veillet, W. Lewandowski, W. Hanson, W. Klepczynski, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison of GPS common-view and two-way satellite time transfer over a baseline of 800  km,” Metrologia 30, 183–192 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. Kirchner, “Two-way time transfer via communication satellites,” Proc. IEEE 79, 983–990 (1991).
[Crossref]

Klepczynski, W.

D. Kirchner, H. Ressler, P. Grudler, F. Baumont, C. Veillet, W. Lewandowski, W. Hanson, W. Klepczynski, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison of GPS common-view and two-way satellite time transfer over a baseline of 800  km,” Metrologia 30, 183–192 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kolodzy, P.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Krehlik, P.

P. Krehlik, H. Schnatz, and Ł. Śliwczyński, “A hybrid solution for simultaneous transfer of ultrastable optical frequency, RF frequency, and UTC time-tags over optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 64, 1884–1890 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, A. Czubla, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Dissemination of time and RF frequency via a stabilized fibre optic link over a distance of 420  km,” Metrologia 50, 133–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lafon, R. E.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” in Free-Space Laser Communication and Atmospheric Propagation XXVI (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2014), Vol. 8971, p. 89710V.

Lauber, P.

K. U. Schreiber, I. Prochazka, P. Lauber, U. Hugentobler, W. Schafer, L. Cacciapuoti, and R. Nasca, “Ground-based demonstration of the European laser timing (ELT) experiment,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 728–737 (2010).
[Crossref]

Laurent, P.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Lennon, B.

Leon, S.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Levi, F.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lewandowski, W.

D. Kirchner, H. Ressler, P. Grudler, F. Baumont, C. Veillet, W. Lewandowski, W. Hanson, W. Klepczynski, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison of GPS common-view and two-way satellite time transfer over a baseline of 800  km,” Metrologia 30, 183–192 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lipinski, M.

Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, A. Czubla, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Dissemination of time and RF frequency via a stabilized fibre optic link over a distance of 420  km,” Metrologia 50, 133–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

X. Chen, J. Shang, D. Wang, C. Ci, W. Zhang, B. Liu, H. Wu, S. Yu, and Z. Zhang, “Frequency dissemination over 1000  km optical fiber with 10–21 frequency instability,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. JW2A.152.

Lopez, O.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” Comptes Rendus Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B 110, 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Luiten, A. N.

Lunde, C.

M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Meyer, R. Fields, and C. Lunde, “TESAT laser communication terminal performance results on 5.6Gbit coherent inter satellite and satellite to ground links,” Proc. SPIE 10565, 105651F (2017).
[Crossref]

Mariey, H.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Martin, T.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Martinot-Lagarde, G.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Meyer, R.

M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Meyer, R. Fields, and C. Lunde, “TESAT laser communication terminal performance results on 5.6Gbit coherent inter satellite and satellite to ground links,” Proc. SPIE 10565, 105651F (2017).
[Crossref]

Mirtschin, P.

Munting, S.

Mura, A.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Murphy, D. V.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” in Free-Space Laser Communication and Atmospheric Propagation XXVI (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2014), Vol. 8971, p. 89710V.

Nasca, R.

K. U. Schreiber, I. Prochazka, P. Lauber, U. Hugentobler, W. Schafer, L. Cacciapuoti, and R. Nasca, “Ground-based demonstration of the European laser timing (ELT) experiment,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 728–737 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nelson, A.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Nelson, C. W.

Newbury, N. R.

L. C. Sinclair, H. Bergeron, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, J.-D. Deschênes, and N. R. Newbury, “Comparing optical oscillators across the air to milliradians in phase and 10−17 in frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 050801 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. C. Swann, M. I. Bodine, I. Khader, J.-D. Deschenes, E. Baumann, L. C. Sinclair, and N. R. Newbury, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Measurement of the impact of turbulence anisoplanatism on precision free-space optical time transfer.”

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, I. Khader, K. C. Cossel, M. Cermak, J.-D. Deschênes, and N. R. Newbury, “Femtosecond synchronization of optical clocks off of a flying quadcopter,” arXiv:1808.07870 (2018).

L. C. Sinclair, H. Bergeron, W. C. Swann, I. Khader, K. C. Cossel, M. Cermak, N. R. Newbury, and J.-D. Deschenes, “Femtosecond optical two-way time-frequency transfer in the presence of motion,” arXiv:1808.07040 (2018).

Newlands, T.

Nguyen, A. N.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Noel, T.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Nydam, S.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Oneto, J. L.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Orr, B. J.

Oyadomari, K.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Ozimek, F.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Paris, J.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Pease, J.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Petrillo, K. G.

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phillips, C.

Piazzolla, S.

A. Biswas, M. Srinivasan, S. Piazzolla, and D. Hoppe, “Deep space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 10524, 105240U (2018).
[Crossref]

Pierron, F.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Pierron, M.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Piester, D.

M. Fujieda, D. Piester, T. Gotoh, J. Becker, M. Aida, and A. Bauch, “Carrier-phase two-way satellite frequency transfer over a very long baseline,” Metrologia 51, 253–262 (2014).
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Pike, A.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
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Pistella, F.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Poli, N.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pottie, P.-E.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” Comptes Rendus Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B 110, 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Predehl, K.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
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Priscal, C.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Prochazka, I.

K. U. Schreiber, I. Prochazka, P. Lauber, U. Hugentobler, W. Schafer, L. Cacciapuoti, and R. Nasca, “Ground-based demonstration of the European laser timing (ELT) experiment,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 728–737 (2010).
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Rayner, T.

Ressler, H.

D. Kirchner, H. Ressler, P. Grudler, F. Baumont, C. Veillet, W. Lewandowski, W. Hanson, W. Klepczynski, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison of GPS common-view and two-way satellite time transfer over a baseline of 800  km,” Metrologia 30, 183–192 (1993).
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Riehle, F.

F. Riehle, “Optical clock networks,” Nat. Photonics 11, 25–31 (2017).
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Ritz, T.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Robert, C.

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, and P. Wolf, “Impact of turbulence on high-precision ground-satellite frequency transfer with two-way coherent optical links,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033860 (2016).
[Crossref]

Roberts, S.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Rovera, D.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” Comptes Rendus Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B 110, 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Samain, E.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Santarelli, G.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” Comptes Rendus Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B 110, 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schafer, W.

K. U. Schreiber, I. Prochazka, P. Lauber, U. Hugentobler, W. Schafer, L. Cacciapuoti, and R. Nasca, “Ground-based demonstration of the European laser timing (ELT) experiment,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 728–737 (2010).
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Schediwy, S. W.

D. R. Gozzard, S. W. Schediwy, and K. Grainge, “Simultaneous transfer of stabilized optical and microwave frequencies over fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 87–90 (2018).
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Schnatz, H.

P. Krehlik, H. Schnatz, and Ł. Śliwczyński, “A hybrid solution for simultaneous transfer of ultrastable optical frequency, RF frequency, and UTC time-tags over optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 64, 1884–1890 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schreiber, K. U.

K. U. Schreiber, I. Prochazka, P. Lauber, U. Hugentobler, W. Schafer, L. Cacciapuoti, and R. Nasca, “Ground-based demonstration of the European laser timing (ELT) experiment,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 728–737 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schulein, R. T.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” in Free-Space Laser Communication and Atmospheric Propagation XXVI (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2014), Vol. 8971, p. 89710V.

Serra, P.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Shang, J.

X. Chen, J. Shang, D. Wang, C. Ci, W. Zhang, B. Liu, H. Wu, S. Yu, and Z. Zhang, “Frequency dissemination over 1000  km optical fiber with 10–21 frequency instability,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. JW2A.152.

Shapiro, J. H.

Sinclair, L. C.

L. C. Sinclair, H. Bergeron, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, J.-D. Deschênes, and N. R. Newbury, “Comparing optical oscillators across the air to milliradians in phase and 10−17 in frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 050801 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. C. Swann, M. I. Bodine, I. Khader, J.-D. Deschenes, E. Baumann, L. C. Sinclair, and N. R. Newbury, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Measurement of the impact of turbulence anisoplanatism on precision free-space optical time transfer.”

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, I. Khader, K. C. Cossel, M. Cermak, J.-D. Deschênes, and N. R. Newbury, “Femtosecond synchronization of optical clocks off of a flying quadcopter,” arXiv:1808.07870 (2018).

L. C. Sinclair, H. Bergeron, W. C. Swann, I. Khader, K. C. Cossel, M. Cermak, N. R. Newbury, and J.-D. Deschenes, “Femtosecond optical two-way time-frequency transfer in the presence of motion,” arXiv:1808.07040 (2018).

Sliwczynski, L.

P. Krehlik, H. Schnatz, and Ł. Śliwczyński, “A hybrid solution for simultaneous transfer of ultrastable optical frequency, RF frequency, and UTC time-tags over optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 64, 1884–1890 (2017).
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Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, A. Czubla, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Dissemination of time and RF frequency via a stabilized fibre optic link over a distance of 420  km,” Metrologia 50, 133–145 (2013).
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Sluz, J.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
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Souza, K. T.

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
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Srinivasan, M.

A. Biswas, M. Srinivasan, S. Piazzolla, and D. Hoppe, “Deep space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 10524, 105240U (2018).
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Stadler, B.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
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Stefani, F.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” Comptes Rendus Phys. 16, 531–539 (2015).
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Stevens, J.

Stotts, L. B.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stupl, J.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Sun, F.

S. Chen, F. Sun, Q. Bai, D. Chen, Q. Chen, and D. Hou, “Sub-picosecond timing fluctuation suppression in laser-based atmospheric transfer of microwave signal using electronic phase compensation,” Opt. Commun. 401, 18–22 (2017).
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Sutyrin, D. V.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Swann, W. C.

L. C. Sinclair, H. Bergeron, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, J.-D. Deschênes, and N. R. Newbury, “Comparing optical oscillators across the air to milliradians in phase and 10−17 in frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 050801 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. C. Swann, M. I. Bodine, I. Khader, J.-D. Deschenes, E. Baumann, L. C. Sinclair, and N. R. Newbury, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Measurement of the impact of turbulence anisoplanatism on precision free-space optical time transfer.”

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, I. Khader, K. C. Cossel, M. Cermak, J.-D. Deschênes, and N. R. Newbury, “Femtosecond synchronization of optical clocks off of a flying quadcopter,” arXiv:1808.07870 (2018).

L. C. Sinclair, H. Bergeron, W. C. Swann, I. Khader, K. C. Cossel, M. Cermak, N. R. Newbury, and J.-D. Deschenes, “Femtosecond optical two-way time-frequency transfer in the presence of motion,” arXiv:1808.07040 (2018).

Takayama, Y.

Takenaka, H.

Taylor, M.

P. Berceau, M. Taylor, J. M. Kahn, and L. Hollberg, “Space-time reference with an optical link,” Class. Quantum Gravity 33, 135007 (2016).
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Taylor, M. T.

Tino, G.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Torre, J.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Toyoshima, M.

Tzioumis, T.

Udem, T.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Uhrich, P.

D. Kirchner, H. Ressler, P. Grudler, F. Baumont, C. Veillet, W. Lewandowski, W. Hanson, W. Klepczynski, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison of GPS common-view and two-way satellite time transfer over a baseline of 800  km,” Metrologia 30, 183–192 (1993).
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Uysal, M.

M. A. Khalighi and M. Uysal, “Survey on free space optical communication: a communication theory perspective,” Commun. Surv. Tutor. 16, 2231–2258 (2014).
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Veillet, C.

D. Kirchner, H. Ressler, P. Grudler, F. Baumont, C. Veillet, W. Lewandowski, W. Hanson, W. Klepczynski, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison of GPS common-view and two-way satellite time transfer over a baseline of 800  km,” Metrologia 30, 183–192 (1993).
[Crossref]

Viot, H.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Wang, D.

X. Chen, J. Shang, D. Wang, C. Ci, W. Zhang, B. Liu, H. Wu, S. Yu, and Z. Zhang, “Frequency dissemination over 1000  km optical fiber with 10–21 frequency instability,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. JW2A.152.

Warrington, R. B.

Waxman, E.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Willis, M. M.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” in Free-Space Laser Communication and Atmospheric Propagation XXVI (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2014), Vol. 8971, p. 89710V.

Wolf, J.

J. Anderson, N. Barnwell, M. Carrasquilla, J. Chavez, O. Formoso, A. Nelson, T. Noel, S. Nydam, J. Pease, F. Pistella, T. Ritz, S. Roberts, P. Serra, E. Waxman, J. W. Conklin, W. Attai, J. Hanson, A. N. Nguyen, K. Oyadomari, C. Priscal, J. Stupl, J. Wolf, and B. Jaroux, “Sub-nanosecond ground-to-space clock synchronization for nanosatellites using pulsed optical links,” Adv. Space Res. (2017).

Wolf, P.

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, and P. Wolf, “Impact of turbulence on high-precision ground-satellite frequency transfer with two-way coherent optical links,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033860 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wouters, M. J.

Wu, H.

X. Chen, J. Shang, D. Wang, C. Ci, W. Zhang, B. Liu, H. Wu, S. Yu, and Z. Zhang, “Frequency dissemination over 1000  km optical fiber with 10–21 frequency instability,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. JW2A.152.

Young, D. W.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

X. Chen, J. Shang, D. Wang, C. Ci, W. Zhang, B. Liu, H. Wu, S. Yu, and Z. Zhang, “Frequency dissemination over 1000  km optical fiber with 10–21 frequency instability,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. JW2A.152.

Zhang, W.

X. Chen, J. Shang, D. Wang, C. Ci, W. Zhang, B. Liu, H. Wu, S. Yu, and Z. Zhang, “Frequency dissemination over 1000  km optical fiber with 10–21 frequency instability,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. JW2A.152.

Zhang, Z.

X. Chen, J. Shang, D. Wang, C. Ci, W. Zhang, B. Liu, H. Wu, S. Yu, and Z. Zhang, “Frequency dissemination over 1000  km optical fiber with 10–21 frequency instability,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. JW2A.152.

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Supplemental Figures S1 and S2

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) High-level schematic of the experimental setup. Master and remote sites are co-located because of their laboratory-based clocks and existing infrastructure [36], so that the link is folded via an intermediary flat mirror. (b) Diagram of the full pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) and data exchange on the half-duplex link. For each PRBS, two timestamps are determined, one at each site. The signals launched from the master site are shown in blue, while the ones launched from the remote site are shown in red. Data packets are time-multiplexed across the same link and are shown in bold. (c) Transceiver design for the remote site. The binary modulation is written onto the phase of the 1546 nm DFB laser through small-angle phase modulation by an EOM. FPGA, field programmable gate array; FSO terminal, free-space optical terminal; EOM, electro-optic phase modulator; DFB, distributed feedback.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Clock difference at 1 s sample rate and (b) clock correction applied to the remote clock under active synchronization over approximately 4 km of air. The standard deviation is 4 ps over 8 h with a temperature-driven peak-to-peak wander of 16 ps. The system corrects for 1  μs of timing excursion between the clocks over the measurement period, demonstrating a suppression of five orders of magnitude. Data is resampled to 1 Hz.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Timing power spectral density of the clock time difference at 4 km (red) and over a shorted link (blue) under active synchronization and for a free-running system (yellow). Traces smoothed for visibility. The right axis shows the equivalent phase noise PSD for a nominal carrier frequency of 10 MHz.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Modified Allan deviation at 4 km (red) and over a shorted link (blue) under active synchronization and for a free-running system (yellow). The inverse synchronization bandwidth of the system is where the traces cross at 10 s.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Time deviation for synchronized clocks over 4 km link (red dots) and shorted link (blue dots), and time deviation for free-running unsynchronized clocks (yellow dots). The estimated free-running time deviation for remote clock based on a quartz oscillator is higher (dashed yellow line) but with synchronization should also drop to 1 ps (red dashed line) above 10 s.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Standard deviation of the measured clock time offset versus power (bottom axis) and carrier-to-noise ratio (top axis) at the 2 kHz update rate.

Equations (1)

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ΔTAB=TBATAA2TABTBB2+ΔTcal.