Abstract

Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is an effective noninvasive molecular imaging modality for in vivo tumor research in small animals. However, the quality of BLT reconstruction is limited by the simplified linear model of photon propagation. Here, we proposed a multilayer perceptron-based inverse problem simulation (IPS) method to improve the quality of in vivo tumor BLT reconstruction. Instead of solving the inverse problem of the simplified linear model of photon propagation, the IPS method directly fits the nonlinear relationship between an object surface optical density and its internal bioluminescent source. Both simulation and orthotopic glioma BLT reconstruction experiments demonstrated that IPS greatly improved the reconstruction quality compared with the conventional approach.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (4)

A. Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, and G. E. Hinton, Commun. ACM 60, 84 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. An, J. Liu, G. Zhang, S. Jiang, J. Ye, C. Chi, and J. Tian, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 36, 366 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Ancora, A. Zacharopoulos, J. Ripoll, and G. Zacharakis, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 36, 1086 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, K. Wang, S. Jiang, Y. Liu, T. Ai, and J. Tian, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 36, 2343 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

M. Chehade, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. M. Bulte, Tomography 2, 159 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

K. Wang, C. Chi, Z. Hu, M. Liu, H. Hui, W. Shang, D. Peng, S. Zhang, J. Ye, and H. Liu, Engineering 1, 309 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

X. Chen, D. Yang, Q. Zhang, and J. Liang, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 184702 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Wu, Y. Hu, K. Wang, and J. Tian, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61, 189 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Q. Zhang, D. Yang, and J. Liang, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 024702 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. Ren, X. Chen, H. Wang, X. Qu, G. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, PloS ONE 8, e61304 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

X. Zhang, Y. Lu, and T. Chan, J. Sci. Comput. 50, 519 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

C. Qin, S. Zhu, J. Feng, J. Zhong, X. Ma, P. Wu, and J. Tian, J. Biophoton. 4, 824 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, J. Tian, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, D. Han, and P. Wu, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046016 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

S. Ahn, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, C. A. Bouman, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3921 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Blumensath and M. E. Davies, J. Fourier Anal. Appl. 14, 629 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. H. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

G. Wang, Y. Li, and M. Jiang, Med. Phys. 31, 2289 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, Genes Dev. 17, 545 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Strangman, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, Neuroimage 18, 865 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Y. Lecun, L. Bottou, Y. Bengio, and P. Haffner, Proc. IEEE 86, 2278 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

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1995 (1)

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S. Ahn, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, C. A. Bouman, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3921 (2008).
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Ai, T.

Y. Gao, K. Wang, S. Jiang, Y. Liu, T. Ai, and J. Tian, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 36, 2343 (2017).
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An, Y.

Y. An, J. Liu, G. Zhang, S. Jiang, J. Ye, C. Chi, and J. Tian, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 36, 366 (2017).
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D. Ancora, A. Zacharopoulos, J. Ripoll, and G. Zacharakis, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 36, 1086 (2017).
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M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
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D. P. Kingma and J. Ba, “Adam: a method for stochastic optimization,” arXiv:1412.6980 (2014).

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Y. Lecun, L. Bottou, Y. Bengio, and P. Haffner, Proc. IEEE 86, 2278 (1998).
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Blumensath, T.

T. Blumensath and M. E. Davies, J. Fourier Anal. Appl. 14, 629 (2008).
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Boas, D. A.

G. Strangman, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, Neuroimage 18, 865 (2003).
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Y. Lecun, L. Bottou, Y. Bengio, and P. Haffner, Proc. IEEE 86, 2278 (1998).
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S. Ahn, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, C. A. Bouman, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3921 (2008).
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M. Chehade, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. M. Bulte, Tomography 2, 159 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chan, T.

X. Zhang, Y. Lu, and T. Chan, J. Sci. Comput. 50, 519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chan, T. F.

Chatziioannou, A. F.

Chaudhari, A. J.

S. Ahn, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, C. A. Bouman, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3921 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chehade, M.

M. Chehade, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. M. Bulte, Tomography 2, 159 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, Q. Zhang, D. Yang, and J. Liang, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 024702 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, D. Yang, Q. Zhang, and J. Liang, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 184702 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Ren, X. Chen, H. Wang, X. Qu, G. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, PloS ONE 8, e61304 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, X. Gao, D. Chen, X. Ma, X. Zhao, M. Shen, X. Li, X. Qu, J. Liang, J. Ripoll, and J. Tian, Opt. Express 18, 19876 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chi, C.

Y. An, J. Liu, G. Zhang, S. Jiang, J. Ye, C. Chi, and J. Tian, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 36, 366 (2017).
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K. Wang, C. Chi, Z. Hu, M. Liu, H. Hui, W. Shang, D. Peng, S. Zhang, J. Ye, and H. Liu, Engineering 1, 309 (2015).
[Crossref]

Collignon, A.

F. Maes, A. Collignon, D. Vandermeulen, G. Marchal, and P. Suetens, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 16, 187 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cong, W.

Darvas, F.

S. Ahn, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, C. A. Bouman, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3921 (2008).
[Crossref]

Davies, M. E.

T. Blumensath and M. E. Davies, J. Fourier Anal. Appl. 14, 629 (2008).
[Crossref]

Delpy, D. T.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
[Crossref]

Douraghy, A.

Feng, J.

C. Qin, S. Zhu, J. Feng, J. Zhong, X. Ma, P. Wu, and J. Tian, J. Biophoton. 4, 824 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Han, J. Tian, S. Zhu, J. Feng, C. Qin, B. Zhang, and X. Yang, Opt. Express 18, 8630 (2010).
[Crossref]

Franceschini, M. A.

G. Strangman, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, Neuroimage 18, 865 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gambhir, S. S.

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, Genes Dev. 17, 545 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gao, H.

Gao, X.

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, K. Wang, S. Jiang, Y. Liu, T. Ai, and J. Tian, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 36, 2343 (2017).
[Crossref]

Haffner, P.

Y. Lecun, L. Bottou, Y. Bengio, and P. Haffner, Proc. IEEE 86, 2278 (1998).
[Crossref]

Han, D.

K. Liu, J. Tian, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, D. Han, and P. Wu, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046016 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Han, J. Tian, S. Zhu, J. Feng, C. Qin, B. Zhang, and X. Yang, Opt. Express 18, 8630 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hinton, G. E.

A. Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, and G. E. Hinton, Commun. ACM 60, 84 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hiraoka, M.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

P. Wu, Y. Hu, K. Wang, and J. Tian, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61, 189 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, Z.

K. Wang, C. Chi, Z. Hu, M. Liu, H. Hui, W. Shang, D. Peng, S. Zhang, J. Ye, and H. Liu, Engineering 1, 309 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hui, H.

K. Wang, C. Chi, Z. Hu, M. Liu, H. Hui, W. Shang, D. Peng, S. Zhang, J. Ye, and H. Liu, Engineering 1, 309 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jacques, S. L.

L. Wang and S. L. Jacques, Monte Carlo Modeling of Light Transport in Multi-Layered Tissues in Standard C (University of Texas, 1992), pp. 4–11.

Jiang, M.

G. Wang, Y. Li, and M. Jiang, Med. Phys. 31, 2289 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jiang, S.

Y. An, J. Liu, G. Zhang, S. Jiang, J. Ye, C. Chi, and J. Tian, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 36, 366 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, K. Wang, S. Jiang, Y. Liu, T. Ai, and J. Tian, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 36, 2343 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kingma, D. P.

D. P. Kingma and J. Ba, “Adam: a method for stochastic optimization,” arXiv:1412.6980 (2014).

Krizhevsky, A.

A. Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, and G. E. Hinton, Commun. ACM 60, 84 (2017).
[Crossref]

Leahy, R. M.

S. Ahn, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, C. A. Bouman, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3921 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lecun, Y.

Y. Lecun, L. Bottou, Y. Bengio, and P. Haffner, Proc. IEEE 86, 2278 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, X.

Li, Y.

G. Wang, Y. Li, and M. Jiang, Med. Phys. 31, 2289 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liang, J.

X. Chen, Q. Zhang, D. Yang, and J. Liang, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 024702 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, D. Yang, Q. Zhang, and J. Liang, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 184702 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Ren, X. Chen, H. Wang, X. Qu, G. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, PloS ONE 8, e61304 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, X. Gao, D. Chen, X. Ma, X. Zhao, M. Shen, X. Li, X. Qu, J. Liang, J. Ripoll, and J. Tian, Opt. Express 18, 19876 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

K. Wang, C. Chi, Z. Hu, M. Liu, H. Hui, W. Shang, D. Peng, S. Zhang, J. Ye, and H. Liu, Engineering 1, 309 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Y. An, J. Liu, G. Zhang, S. Jiang, J. Ye, C. Chi, and J. Tian, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 36, 366 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

K. Liu, J. Tian, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, D. Han, and P. Wu, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046016 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

K. Wang, C. Chi, Z. Hu, M. Liu, H. Hui, W. Shang, D. Peng, S. Zhang, J. Ye, and H. Liu, Engineering 1, 309 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Gao, K. Wang, S. Jiang, Y. Liu, T. Ai, and J. Tian, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 36, 2343 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

Luo, J.

Lv, Y.

Ma, X.

Maes, F.

F. Maes, A. Collignon, D. Vandermeulen, G. Marchal, and P. Suetens, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 16, 187 (1997).
[Crossref]

Marchal, G.

F. Maes, A. Collignon, D. Vandermeulen, G. Marchal, and P. Suetens, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 16, 187 (1997).
[Crossref]

Massoud, T. F.

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, Genes Dev. 17, 545 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. H. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[Crossref]

Peng, D.

K. Wang, C. Chi, Z. Hu, M. Liu, H. Hui, W. Shang, D. Peng, S. Zhang, J. Ye, and H. Liu, Engineering 1, 309 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qin, C.

C. Qin, S. Zhu, J. Feng, J. Zhong, X. Ma, P. Wu, and J. Tian, J. Biophoton. 4, 824 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, J. Tian, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, D. Han, and P. Wu, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046016 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Han, J. Tian, S. Zhu, J. Feng, C. Qin, B. Zhang, and X. Yang, Opt. Express 18, 8630 (2010).
[Crossref]

Qu, X.

Ren, S.

S. Ren, X. Chen, H. Wang, X. Qu, G. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, PloS ONE 8, e61304 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ripoll, J.

D. Ancora, A. Zacharopoulos, J. Ripoll, and G. Zacharakis, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 36, 1086 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, X. Gao, D. Chen, X. Ma, X. Zhao, M. Shen, X. Li, X. Qu, J. Liang, J. Ripoll, and J. Tian, Opt. Express 18, 19876 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. H. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schweiger, M.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shang, W.

K. Wang, C. Chi, Z. Hu, M. Liu, H. Hui, W. Shang, D. Peng, S. Zhang, J. Ye, and H. Liu, Engineering 1, 309 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shen, M.

Srivastava, A. K.

M. Chehade, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. M. Bulte, Tomography 2, 159 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stout, D.

Strangman, G.

G. Strangman, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, Neuroimage 18, 865 (2003).
[Crossref]

Suetens, P.

F. Maes, A. Collignon, D. Vandermeulen, G. Marchal, and P. Suetens, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 16, 187 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sutskever, I.

A. Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, and G. E. Hinton, Commun. ACM 60, 84 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.

Y. An, J. Liu, G. Zhang, S. Jiang, J. Ye, C. Chi, and J. Tian, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 36, 366 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, K. Wang, S. Jiang, Y. Liu, T. Ai, and J. Tian, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 36, 2343 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Wu, Y. Hu, K. Wang, and J. Tian, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61, 189 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Ren, X. Chen, H. Wang, X. Qu, G. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, PloS ONE 8, e61304 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, J. Tian, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, D. Han, and P. Wu, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046016 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Qin, S. Zhu, J. Feng, J. Zhong, X. Ma, P. Wu, and J. Tian, J. Biophoton. 4, 824 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Han, J. Tian, S. Zhu, J. Feng, C. Qin, B. Zhang, and X. Yang, Opt. Express 18, 8630 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, X. Gao, D. Chen, X. Ma, X. Zhao, M. Shen, X. Li, X. Qu, J. Liang, J. Ripoll, and J. Tian, Opt. Express 18, 19876 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Lu, X. Zhang, A. Douraghy, D. Stout, J. Tian, T. F. Chan, and A. F. Chatziioannou, Opt. Express 17, 8062 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Lv, J. Tian, W. Cong, G. Wang, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, Opt. Express 14, 8211 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vandermeulen, D.

F. Maes, A. Collignon, D. Vandermeulen, G. Marchal, and P. Suetens, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 16, 187 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

S. Ren, X. Chen, H. Wang, X. Qu, G. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, PloS ONE 8, e61304 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Lv, J. Tian, W. Cong, G. Wang, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, Opt. Express 14, 8211 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, Y. Li, and M. Jiang, Med. Phys. 31, 2289 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

S. Ren, X. Chen, H. Wang, X. Qu, G. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, PloS ONE 8, e61304 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

Y. Gao, K. Wang, S. Jiang, Y. Liu, T. Ai, and J. Tian, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 36, 2343 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, C. Chi, Z. Hu, M. Liu, H. Hui, W. Shang, D. Peng, S. Zhang, J. Ye, and H. Liu, Engineering 1, 309 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Wu, Y. Hu, K. Wang, and J. Tian, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61, 189 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

L. Wang and S. L. Jacques, Monte Carlo Modeling of Light Transport in Multi-Layered Tissues in Standard C (University of Texas, 1992), pp. 4–11.

Wang, L. H. V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. H. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[Crossref]

Weissleder, R.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. H. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, P.

P. Wu, Y. Hu, K. Wang, and J. Tian, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61, 189 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, J. Tian, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, D. Han, and P. Wu, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046016 (2011).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Single-source BLT reconstruction in varied mesh settings. (a) Illustration of different organ distributions between the standard and organ varied meshes; (b)–(e) axial slices showing the true and IPS-reconstructed sources (zooming in the region of source). The depth increases from 2.2 to 3.7 mm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Dual-source BLT reconstruction with different barycenter gaps (4–7 mm). (a) 3D rendering visualization of the true sources, IPS, and FIST reconstructed sources, when gap=7  mm; (b)–(e) axial slices showing the dual-source reconstructions in different gaps given by IPS and FIST.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. In vivo orthotopic glioma BLT reconstruction in two mouse models with different tumor distributions. (a) 3D rendering of BLT reconstructed by different methods, MRI, and their fusion in CT; (b) axial slices of BLT; (c) BLT-MRI fused images reconstructed by IPS and FIST; (d) GFP fluorescence imaging and H&E staining results of cryo-slices. Note: The results of FIST and IPS were reconstructed in the corresponding CT-based mesh and the standard mesh, respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Quantitative Evaluation of IPS for Single-Source Reconstruction

Equations (7)

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ϕ=Ax,
ReLUλ>0(xi)={0xi<λxixiλ,
xt+1=shrink(ATϕ+(IATA)xt)=shrink(Bcon+Wconxt),
ϕmul=iKsetϕi,
xtrmul=iKsetxtri,
Ck=isk(Pi×xi/iskxi),
BCE=kSsetCrekCtrk2,