Abstract

Optical and optically assisted trapping has developed into an essential tool for studying and manipulating small objects with applications in numerous fields at the intersection of physics and the life sciences. Here, we report a waveguide-based optofluidic platform that restricts particle movement in two dimensions for full in-plane suppression of Brownian motion based on fluorescence tracking and application of an electrokinetic feedback force. Single-microbead trapping is demonstrated with confinement in two dimensions in a specially designed trapping volume. Tighter particle confinement and a 14× improvement in trap stiffness are achieved compared to 1D trapping along a fluidic channel. This paves the way for a chip-based high-throughput single-molecule analysis platform.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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D. Gao, W. Ding, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, X. Ding, M. Rahman, T. Zhang, C. Lim, and C.-W. Qiu, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17039 (2017).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

2016 (2)

D. Grass, J. Fesel, S. G. Hofer, N. Kiesel, and M. Aspelmeyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 221103 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Ye, R. P. Badman, J. T. Inman, M. Soltani, J. L. Killian, and M. D. Wang, Nano Lett. 16, 6661 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

P. Jing, J. Wu, and L. Y. Lin, ACS Photon. 1, 398 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, Y. Zhao, J. W. Parks, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Nano Lett. 14, 4816 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Y. Zhao, D. Chen, H. Yue, J. B. French, J. Rufo, S. J. Benkovic, and T. J. Huang, Lab Chip 13, 2183 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

Y. Zhao, M. Jenkins, P. Measor, K. Leake, S. Liu, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091104 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. P. Fields and A. E. Cohen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 8937 (2011).
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Q. Wang and W. E. Moerner, ACS Nano 5, 5792 (2011).
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A. E. Cohen and A. P. Fields, ACS Nano 5, 5296 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

S. Kühn, B. S. Phillips, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 10, 189 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, Nano Lett. 10, 2408 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. H. J. Yang and D. Erickson, Lab Chip 10, 769 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

J. Nilsson, M. Evander, B. Hammarström, and T. Laurell, Anal. Chim. Acta 649, 141 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Kühn, P. Measor, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 9, 2212 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. S. Thomas, H. Morgan, and N. G. Green, Lab Chip 9, 1534 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2006 (2)

A. E. Cohen and W. E. Moerner, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 4362 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. S. Dittrich and A. Manz, Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5, 210 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. A. Osborne, C. L. Barnes, S. Balasubramanian, and D. Klenerman, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 3120 (2001).
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2000 (1)

A. Ashkin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 841 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1991 (1)

1986 (1)

Ashkin, A.

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D. Grass, J. Fesel, S. G. Hofer, N. Kiesel, and M. Aspelmeyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 221103 (2016).
[Crossref]

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F. Ye, R. P. Badman, J. T. Inman, M. Soltani, J. L. Killian, and M. D. Wang, Nano Lett. 16, 6661 (2016).
[Crossref]

Balasubramanian, S.

M. A. Osborne, C. L. Barnes, S. Balasubramanian, and D. Klenerman, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 3120 (2001).
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Barnes, C. L.

M. A. Osborne, C. L. Barnes, S. Balasubramanian, and D. Klenerman, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 3120 (2001).
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Baskin, R. J.

Benkovic, S. J.

Y. Zhao, D. Chen, H. Yue, J. B. French, J. Rufo, S. J. Benkovic, and T. J. Huang, Lab Chip 13, 2183 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

Y. Zhao, D. Chen, H. Yue, J. B. French, J. Rufo, S. J. Benkovic, and T. J. Huang, Lab Chip 13, 2183 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chu, S.

Cohen, A. E.

A. P. Fields and A. E. Cohen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 8937 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. E. Cohen and A. P. Fields, ACS Nano 5, 5296 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. E. Cohen and W. E. Moerner, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 4362 (2006).
[Crossref]

Collins, S. D.

Crozier, K.

S. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, Nano Lett. 10, 2408 (2010).
[Crossref]

Deamer, D. W.

S. Liu, Y. Zhao, J. W. Parks, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Nano Lett. 14, 4816 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Kühn, P. Measor, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 9, 2212 (2009).
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Ding, W.

D. Gao, W. Ding, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, X. Ding, M. Rahman, T. Zhang, C. Lim, and C.-W. Qiu, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17039 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ding, X.

D. Gao, W. Ding, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, X. Ding, M. Rahman, T. Zhang, C. Lim, and C.-W. Qiu, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17039 (2017).
[Crossref]

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P. S. Dittrich and A. Manz, Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5, 210 (2006).
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Dziedzic, J. M.

Elson, E.

R. Rigler and E. Elson, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (Springer, 2001).

Erickson, D.

A. H. J. Yang and D. Erickson, Lab Chip 10, 769 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
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Evander, M.

J. Nilsson, M. Evander, B. Hammarström, and T. Laurell, Anal. Chim. Acta 649, 141 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fesel, J.

D. Grass, J. Fesel, S. G. Hofer, N. Kiesel, and M. Aspelmeyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 221103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fields, A. P.

A. P. Fields and A. E. Cohen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 8937 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. E. Cohen and A. P. Fields, ACS Nano 5, 5296 (2011).
[Crossref]

French, J. B.

Y. Zhao, D. Chen, H. Yue, J. B. French, J. Rufo, S. J. Benkovic, and T. J. Huang, Lab Chip 13, 2183 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, D.

D. Gao, W. Ding, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, X. Ding, M. Rahman, T. Zhang, C. Lim, and C.-W. Qiu, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17039 (2017).
[Crossref]

Grass, D.

D. Grass, J. Fesel, S. G. Hofer, N. Kiesel, and M. Aspelmeyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 221103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Green, N. G.

R. S. Thomas, H. Morgan, and N. G. Green, Lab Chip 9, 1534 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hammarström, B.

J. Nilsson, M. Evander, B. Hammarström, and T. Laurell, Anal. Chim. Acta 649, 141 (2009).
[Crossref]

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P. Rodríguez-Sevilla, L. Labrador-Páez, D. Jaque, and P. Haro-González, J. Mater. Chem. B 5, 9085 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hawkins, A. R.

S. Liu, Y. Zhao, J. W. Parks, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Nano Lett. 14, 4816 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, M. Jenkins, P. Measor, K. Leake, S. Liu, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091104 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kühn, B. S. Phillips, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 10, 189 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Kühn, P. Measor, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 9, 2212 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. J. Lunt, P. Measor, B. S. Phillips, S. Kühn, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Opt. Express 16, 20981 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hofer, S. G.

D. Grass, J. Fesel, S. G. Hofer, N. Kiesel, and M. Aspelmeyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 221103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Howitt, D. G.

Huang, T. J.

Y. Zhao, D. Chen, H. Yue, J. B. French, J. Rufo, S. J. Benkovic, and T. J. Huang, Lab Chip 13, 2183 (2013).
[Crossref]

Inman, J. T.

F. Ye, R. P. Badman, J. T. Inman, M. Soltani, J. L. Killian, and M. D. Wang, Nano Lett. 16, 6661 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jaque, D.

P. Rodríguez-Sevilla, L. Labrador-Páez, D. Jaque, and P. Haro-González, J. Mater. Chem. B 5, 9085 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jenkins, M.

Y. Zhao, M. Jenkins, P. Measor, K. Leake, S. Liu, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jing, P.

P. Jing, J. Wu, and L. Y. Lin, ACS Photon. 1, 398 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kiesel, N.

D. Grass, J. Fesel, S. G. Hofer, N. Kiesel, and M. Aspelmeyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 221103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Killian, J. L.

F. Ye, R. P. Badman, J. T. Inman, M. Soltani, J. L. Killian, and M. D. Wang, Nano Lett. 16, 6661 (2016).
[Crossref]

Klenerman, D.

M. A. Osborne, C. L. Barnes, S. Balasubramanian, and D. Klenerman, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 3120 (2001).
[Crossref]

Klug, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kühn, S.

S. Kühn, B. S. Phillips, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 10, 189 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Kühn, P. Measor, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 9, 2212 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. J. Lunt, P. Measor, B. S. Phillips, S. Kühn, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Opt. Express 16, 20981 (2008).
[Crossref]

Labrador-Páez, L.

P. Rodríguez-Sevilla, L. Labrador-Páez, D. Jaque, and P. Haro-González, J. Mater. Chem. B 5, 9085 (2017).
[Crossref]

Laurell, T.

J. Nilsson, M. Evander, B. Hammarström, and T. Laurell, Anal. Chim. Acta 649, 141 (2009).
[Crossref]

Leake, K.

Y. Zhao, M. Jenkins, P. Measor, K. Leake, S. Liu, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lim, C.

D. Gao, W. Ding, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, X. Ding, M. Rahman, T. Zhang, C. Lim, and C.-W. Qiu, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17039 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lin, L. Y.

P. Jing, J. Wu, and L. Y. Lin, ACS Photon. 1, 398 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.

S. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, Nano Lett. 10, 2408 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

S. Liu, Y. Zhao, J. W. Parks, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Nano Lett. 14, 4816 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, M. Jenkins, P. Measor, K. Leake, S. Liu, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lunt, E. J.

S. Kühn, B. S. Phillips, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 10, 189 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Kühn, P. Measor, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 9, 2212 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. J. Lunt, P. Measor, B. S. Phillips, S. Kühn, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Opt. Express 16, 20981 (2008).
[Crossref]

Manz, A.

P. S. Dittrich and A. Manz, Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5, 210 (2006).
[Crossref]

Measor, P.

Y. Zhao, M. Jenkins, P. Measor, K. Leake, S. Liu, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091104 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kühn, P. Measor, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 9, 2212 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. J. Lunt, P. Measor, B. S. Phillips, S. Kühn, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Opt. Express 16, 20981 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moerner, W. E.

Q. Wang and W. E. Moerner, ACS Nano 5, 5792 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. E. Cohen and W. E. Moerner, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 4362 (2006).
[Crossref]

Moore, S. D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[Crossref]

Morgan, H.

R. S. Thomas, H. Morgan, and N. G. Green, Lab Chip 9, 1534 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nagy, A.

K. C. Neuman and A. Nagy, Nat. Methods 5, 491 (2008).
[Crossref]

Neuman, K. C.

K. C. Neuman and A. Nagy, Nat. Methods 5, 491 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

D. Gao, W. Ding, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, X. Ding, M. Rahman, T. Zhang, C. Lim, and C.-W. Qiu, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17039 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nilsson, J.

J. Nilsson, M. Evander, B. Hammarström, and T. Laurell, Anal. Chim. Acta 649, 141 (2009).
[Crossref]

Osborne, M. A.

M. A. Osborne, C. L. Barnes, S. Balasubramanian, and D. Klenerman, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 3120 (2001).
[Crossref]

Parks, J. W.

S. Liu, Y. Zhao, J. W. Parks, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Nano Lett. 14, 4816 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phillips, B. S.

S. Kühn, B. S. Phillips, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 10, 189 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Kühn, P. Measor, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 9, 2212 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. J. Lunt, P. Measor, B. S. Phillips, S. Kühn, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Opt. Express 16, 20981 (2008).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C.-W.

D. Gao, W. Ding, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, X. Ding, M. Rahman, T. Zhang, C. Lim, and C.-W. Qiu, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17039 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rahman, M.

D. Gao, W. Ding, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, X. Ding, M. Rahman, T. Zhang, C. Lim, and C.-W. Qiu, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17039 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rigler, R.

R. Rigler and E. Elson, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (Springer, 2001).

Rodríguez-Sevilla, P.

P. Rodríguez-Sevilla, L. Labrador-Páez, D. Jaque, and P. Haro-González, J. Mater. Chem. B 5, 9085 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rufo, J.

Y. Zhao, D. Chen, H. Yue, J. B. French, J. Rufo, S. J. Benkovic, and T. J. Huang, Lab Chip 13, 2183 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B. S.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, H.

S. Liu, Y. Zhao, J. W. Parks, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Nano Lett. 14, 4816 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, M. Jenkins, P. Measor, K. Leake, S. Liu, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091104 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kühn, B. S. Phillips, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 10, 189 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Kühn, P. Measor, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 9, 2212 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. J. Lunt, P. Measor, B. S. Phillips, S. Kühn, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Opt. Express 16, 20981 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schonbrun, E.

S. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, Nano Lett. 10, 2408 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, F.

Shimizu, K.

Soltani, M.

F. Ye, R. P. Badman, J. T. Inman, M. Soltani, J. L. Killian, and M. D. Wang, Nano Lett. 16, 6661 (2016).
[Crossref]

Takuma, H.

Thomas, R. S.

R. S. Thomas, H. Morgan, and N. G. Green, Lab Chip 9, 1534 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, M. D.

F. Ye, R. P. Badman, J. T. Inman, M. Soltani, J. L. Killian, and M. D. Wang, Nano Lett. 16, 6661 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang and W. E. Moerner, ACS Nano 5, 5792 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

P. Jing, J. Wu, and L. Y. Lin, ACS Photon. 1, 398 (2014).
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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Supplemental document
» Visualization 1       Video of particle trapping event

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Device design and characterization. (a) Outline of the novel 2D ABEL trapping device. (b) SEM image of a fabricated device with LC, SC interconnection (inset: trapping region). (c) Optical mode profiles of the SC waveguide (solid line “Sim.,” dotted line “Exp.”). (d) Optical intensity profiles at the central trapping region with Z 1 and Z 2 excited. (e) Optical intensity profiles at the central trapping region with X 1 and X 2 excited.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. 2D ABEL trapping principle. (a) Subdivision of the central trapping region for position identification with a particle sitting at segment 1 (brown circle) and corresponding feedback force directions (blue and green arrows). (b) Excitation scheme (top green and blue traces) with an example of the encoded fluorescence pattern (red) when the particle resides at segment 1, and the corresponding counter states (bottom blue and green traces). (c) Still picture of a trapped particle at the trapping center.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Trapping property analysis. (a) Trajectories of 2D (red) and 1D (blue) trapped particles during the trapping period. (b) Extracted position histogram along the Z direction. (c) Extracted position histogram along the X direction. (d) FCS curve of a free-flowing particle. (e) FCS curve of the trapped particle.

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