Abstract

The study of core electron dynamics through nonlinear spectroscopy requires intense isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet or even X-ray pulses. A robust way to produce these pulses is high-harmonic generation (HHG) in a gas medium. However, the energy upscaling of the process depends on a very demanding next-generation laser technology that provides multi-terawatt (TW) laser pulses with few-optical-cycle duration and controlled electric field. Here, we revisit the HHG process driven by 16-TW sub-two-cycle laser pulses to reach high intensity in the 100-eV spectral region and beyond. We show that the combination of above barrier-suppression intensity with a long generation medium significantly enhances the isolation of attosecond pulses compared to lower intensities and/or shorter media and this way reduces the pulse duration as well as field-stability requirements on the laser driver. This novel regime facilitates the real-time observation of electron dynamics at the attosecond timescale in atoms, molecules, and solids.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

A. S. Johnson, D. R. Austin, D. A. Wood, C. Brahms, A. Gregory, K. B. Holzner, S. Jarosch, E. W. Larsen, S. Parker, C. S. Strüber, P. Ye, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “High-flux soft x-ray harmonic generation from ionization-shaped few-cycle laser pulses,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaar3761 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Bergues, D. E. Rivas, M. Weidman, A. A. Muschet, W. Helml, A. Guggenmos, V. Pervak, U. Kleineberg, G. Marcus, R. Kienberger, D. Charalambidis, P. Tzallas, H. Schröder, F. Krausz, and L. Veisz, “Tabletop nonlinear optics in the 100-eV spectral region,” Optica 5, 237–242 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

S. Kühn, M. Dumergue, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. Füle, T. Csizmadia, B. Farkas, B. Major, Z. Várallyay, E. Cormier, M. Kalashnikov, F. Calegari, M. Devetta, F. Frassetto, E. Månsson, L. Poletto, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, P. Rudawski, S. Maclot, F. Campi, H. Wikmark, C. L. Arnold, C. M. Heyl, P. Johnsson, A. L’Huillier, R. Lopez-Martens, S. Haessler, M. Bocoum, F. Boehle, A. Vernier, G. Iaquaniello, E. Skantzakis, N. Papadakis, C. Kalpouzos, P. Tzallas, F. Lépine, D. Charalambidis, K. Varjú, K. Osvay, and G. Sansone, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50, 095004 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Budriunas, T. Stanislauskas, J. Adamonis, A. Aleknavičius, G. Veitas, D. Gadonas, S. Balickas, A. Michailovas, and A. Varanavičius, “53  W average power CEP-stabilized OPCPA system delivering 5.5 TW few cycle pulses at 1  kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Express 25, 5797–5806 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Hernandez-Garcia, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Isolated broadband attosecond pulse generation with near- and mid-infrared driver pulses via time-gated phase matching,” Opt. Express 25, 11855–11866 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Rompotis, A. Baumann, O. Schepp, T. Maltezopoulos, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot nonlinear spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet,” Optica 4, 871–878 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Kovács, M. Negro, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and V. Tosa, “Attosecond lighthouse above 100  eV from high-harmonic generation of mid-infrared pulses,” J. Opt. 19, 104003 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. R. Barillot, P. Matia-Hernando, D. Greening, D. J. Walke, T. Witting, L. J. Frasinkski, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Towards XUV pump-probe experiments in the femtosecond to sub-femtosecond regime: new measurement of the helium two-photon ionization cross-section,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 683, 38–42 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Helml, I. Grguraš, P. N. Juranić, S. Düsterer, T. Mazza, A. R. Maier, N. Hartmann, M. Ilchen, G. Hartmann, L. Patthey, C. Callegari, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. N. Coffee, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Ultrashort free-electron laser x-ray pulses,” Appl. Sci. 7, 915 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. E. Rivas, A. Borot, D. E. Cardenas, G. Marcus, X. Gu, D. Herrmann, J. Xu, J. Tan, D. Kormin, G. Ma, W. Dallari, G. D. Tsakiris, I. B. Földes, S.-W. Chou, M. Weidman, B. Bergues, T. Wittmann, H. Schröder, P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, O. Razskazovskaya, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and L. Veisz, “Next generation driver for attosecond and laser-plasma physics,” Sci. Rep. 7, 5224 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

Y. Nabekawa, Y. Furukawa, T. Okino, A. A. Eilanlou, E. J. Takahashi, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Sub-10-fs control of dissociation pathways in the hydrogen molecular ion with a few-pulse attosecond pulse train,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12835 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Manschwetus, L. Rading, F. Campi, S. Maclot, H. Coudert-Alteirac, J. Lahl, H. Wikmark, P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, B. Farkas, T. Mohamed, A. L’Huillier, and P. Johnsson, “Two-photon double ionization of neon using an intense attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 061402 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Tsatrafyllis, B. Bergues, H. Schröder, L. Veisz, E. Skantzakis, D. Gray, B. Bodi, S. Kuhn, G. D. Tsakiris, D. Charalambidis, and P. Tzallas, “The ion microscope as a tool for quantitative measurements in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21556 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Tosa, K. Kovács, B. Major, E. Balogh, and K. Varjú, “Propagation effects in highly ionised gas media,” Quantum. Electron. 46, 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, A. Guggenmos, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgerdörfer, R. Kienberger, and M. Schultze, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 13, 280–285 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

V. Tosa, J. S. Lee, H. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond pulses generated by the lighthouse effect in Ar gas,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 051801 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Okino, Y. Furukawa, Y. Nabekawa, S. Miyabe, A. A. Eilanlou, E. J. Takahashi, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct observation of an attosecond electron wave packet in a nitrogen molecule,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500356 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Cunningham, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Carrier-envelope phase control of a 10  Hz, 25 TW laser for high-flux extreme ultraviolet quasi-continuum generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 201108 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Guggenmos, M. Jobst, M. Ossiander, S. Radünz, J. Riemensberger, M. Schäffer, A. Akil, C. Jakubeit, P. Böhm, S. Noever, B. Nickel, R. Kienberger, and U. Kleineberg, “Chromium/scandium multilayer mirrors for isolated attosecond pulses at 145  eV,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2846–2849 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Schütte, P. Weber, K. Kovács, E. Balogh, B. Major, V. Tosa, S. Han, M. J. J. Vrakking, K. Varju, and A. Rouzée, “Bright attosecond soft X-ray pulse trains by transient phase-matching in two-color high-order harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 23, 33947–33955 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

P. A. Carpeggiani, P. Tzallas, A. Palacios, D. Gray, F. Martín, and D. Charalambidis, “Disclosing intrinsic molecular dynamics on the 1-fs scale through extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 023420 (2014).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft x-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Guggenmos, R. Rauhut, M. Hofstetter, S. Hertrich, B. Nickel, J. Schmidt, E. M. Gullikson, M. Seibald, W. Schnick, and U. Kleineberg, “Aperiodic CrSc multilayer mirrors for attosecond water window pulses,” Opt. Express 21, 21728–21740 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

K. Schmid and L. Veisz, “Supersonic gas jets for laser-plasma experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 053304 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

M. Schultze, B. Bergues, H. Schröder, F. Krausz, and K. L. Kompa, “Spatially resolved measurement of ionization yields in the focus of an intense laser pulse,” New J. Phys. 13, 033001 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Vozzi, M. Negro, F. Calegari, S. Stagira, K. Kovács, and V. Tosa, “Phase-matching effects in the generation of high-energy photon by mid-infrared few-cycle laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 13, 073003 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe studies of one femtosecond scale electron dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 7, 781–784 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, “Route to attosecond nonlinear spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[Crossref]

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2009 (5)

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2008 (2)

V. V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses by spatial shaping of a femtosecond laser beam,” New J. Phys. 10, 083040 (2008).
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2007 (1)

2004 (1)

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2003 (2)

V. Tosa, E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of high-order harmonics in a self-guided beam,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 063817 (2003).
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2001 (1)

M. Bellini, C. Corsi, and M. C. Gambino, “Neutral depletion and beam defocusing in harmonic generation from strongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 023411 (2001).
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2000 (1)

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
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1999 (1)

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1425 (1999).
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1995 (1)

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1988 (1)

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I. Thomann, A. Bahabad, X. Liu, R. Trebino, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Characterizing isolated attosecond pulses from hollow-core waveguides using multi-cycle driving pulses,” Opt. Express 17, 4611–4633 (2009).
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Balogh, E.

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M. Bellini, C. Corsi, and M. C. Gambino, “Neutral depletion and beam defocusing in harmonic generation from strongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 023411 (2001).
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B. Bergues, D. E. Rivas, M. Weidman, A. A. Muschet, W. Helml, A. Guggenmos, V. Pervak, U. Kleineberg, G. Marcus, R. Kienberger, D. Charalambidis, P. Tzallas, H. Schröder, F. Krausz, and L. Veisz, “Tabletop nonlinear optics in the 100-eV spectral region,” Optica 5, 237–242 (2018).
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D. E. Rivas, A. Borot, D. E. Cardenas, G. Marcus, X. Gu, D. Herrmann, J. Xu, J. Tan, D. Kormin, G. Ma, W. Dallari, G. D. Tsakiris, I. B. Földes, S.-W. Chou, M. Weidman, B. Bergues, T. Wittmann, H. Schröder, P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, O. Razskazovskaya, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and L. Veisz, “Next generation driver for attosecond and laser-plasma physics,” Sci. Rep. 7, 5224 (2017).
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N. Tsatrafyllis, B. Bergues, H. Schröder, L. Veisz, E. Skantzakis, D. Gray, B. Bodi, S. Kuhn, G. D. Tsakiris, D. Charalambidis, and P. Tzallas, “The ion microscope as a tool for quantitative measurements in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21556 (2016).
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M. Schultze, B. Bergues, H. Schröder, F. Krausz, and K. L. Kompa, “Spatially resolved measurement of ionization yields in the focus of an intense laser pulse,” New J. Phys. 13, 033001 (2011).
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N. Tsatrafyllis, B. Bergues, H. Schröder, L. Veisz, E. Skantzakis, D. Gray, B. Bodi, S. Kuhn, G. D. Tsakiris, D. Charalambidis, and P. Tzallas, “The ion microscope as a tool for quantitative measurements in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21556 (2016).
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Boehle, F.

S. Kühn, M. Dumergue, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. Füle, T. Csizmadia, B. Farkas, B. Major, Z. Várallyay, E. Cormier, M. Kalashnikov, F. Calegari, M. Devetta, F. Frassetto, E. Månsson, L. Poletto, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, P. Rudawski, S. Maclot, F. Campi, H. Wikmark, C. L. Arnold, C. M. Heyl, P. Johnsson, A. L’Huillier, R. Lopez-Martens, S. Haessler, M. Bocoum, F. Boehle, A. Vernier, G. Iaquaniello, E. Skantzakis, N. Papadakis, C. Kalpouzos, P. Tzallas, F. Lépine, D. Charalambidis, K. Varjú, K. Osvay, and G. Sansone, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50, 095004 (2017).
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D. E. Rivas, A. Borot, D. E. Cardenas, G. Marcus, X. Gu, D. Herrmann, J. Xu, J. Tan, D. Kormin, G. Ma, W. Dallari, G. D. Tsakiris, I. B. Földes, S.-W. Chou, M. Weidman, B. Bergues, T. Wittmann, H. Schröder, P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, O. Razskazovskaya, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and L. Veisz, “Next generation driver for attosecond and laser-plasma physics,” Sci. Rep. 7, 5224 (2017).
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M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
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A. S. Johnson, D. R. Austin, D. A. Wood, C. Brahms, A. Gregory, K. B. Holzner, S. Jarosch, E. W. Larsen, S. Parker, C. S. Strüber, P. Ye, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “High-flux soft x-ray harmonic generation from ionization-shaped few-cycle laser pulses,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaar3761 (2018).
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P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073103 (2013).
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E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
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Burgerdörfer, J.

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S. Kühn, M. Dumergue, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. Füle, T. Csizmadia, B. Farkas, B. Major, Z. Várallyay, E. Cormier, M. Kalashnikov, F. Calegari, M. Devetta, F. Frassetto, E. Månsson, L. Poletto, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, P. Rudawski, S. Maclot, F. Campi, H. Wikmark, C. L. Arnold, C. M. Heyl, P. Johnsson, A. L’Huillier, R. Lopez-Martens, S. Haessler, M. Bocoum, F. Boehle, A. Vernier, G. Iaquaniello, E. Skantzakis, N. Papadakis, C. Kalpouzos, P. Tzallas, F. Lépine, D. Charalambidis, K. Varjú, K. Osvay, and G. Sansone, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50, 095004 (2017).
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C. Vozzi, M. Negro, F. Calegari, S. Stagira, K. Kovács, and V. Tosa, “Phase-matching effects in the generation of high-energy photon by mid-infrared few-cycle laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 13, 073003 (2011).
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F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
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W. Helml, I. Grguraš, P. N. Juranić, S. Düsterer, T. Mazza, A. R. Maier, N. Hartmann, M. Ilchen, G. Hartmann, L. Patthey, C. Callegari, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. N. Coffee, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Ultrashort free-electron laser x-ray pulses,” Appl. Sci. 7, 915 (2017).
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S. Kühn, M. Dumergue, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. Füle, T. Csizmadia, B. Farkas, B. Major, Z. Várallyay, E. Cormier, M. Kalashnikov, F. Calegari, M. Devetta, F. Frassetto, E. Månsson, L. Poletto, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, P. Rudawski, S. Maclot, F. Campi, H. Wikmark, C. L. Arnold, C. M. Heyl, P. Johnsson, A. L’Huillier, R. Lopez-Martens, S. Haessler, M. Bocoum, F. Boehle, A. Vernier, G. Iaquaniello, E. Skantzakis, N. Papadakis, C. Kalpouzos, P. Tzallas, F. Lépine, D. Charalambidis, K. Varjú, K. Osvay, and G. Sansone, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50, 095004 (2017).
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B. Manschwetus, L. Rading, F. Campi, S. Maclot, H. Coudert-Alteirac, J. Lahl, H. Wikmark, P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, B. Farkas, T. Mohamed, A. L’Huillier, and P. Johnsson, “Two-photon double ionization of neon using an intense attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 061402 (2016).
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P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073103 (2013).
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Cardenas, D. E.

D. E. Rivas, A. Borot, D. E. Cardenas, G. Marcus, X. Gu, D. Herrmann, J. Xu, J. Tan, D. Kormin, G. Ma, W. Dallari, G. D. Tsakiris, I. B. Földes, S.-W. Chou, M. Weidman, B. Bergues, T. Wittmann, H. Schröder, P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, O. Razskazovskaya, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and L. Veisz, “Next generation driver for attosecond and laser-plasma physics,” Sci. Rep. 7, 5224 (2017).
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P. A. Carpeggiani, P. Tzallas, A. Palacios, D. Gray, F. Martín, and D. Charalambidis, “Disclosing intrinsic molecular dynamics on the 1-fs scale through extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 023420 (2014).
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W. Helml, I. Grguraš, P. N. Juranić, S. Düsterer, T. Mazza, A. R. Maier, N. Hartmann, M. Ilchen, G. Hartmann, L. Patthey, C. Callegari, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. N. Coffee, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Ultrashort free-electron laser x-ray pulses,” Appl. Sci. 7, 915 (2017).
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E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
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E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
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E. Cunningham, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Carrier-envelope phase control of a 10  Hz, 25 TW laser for high-flux extreme ultraviolet quasi-continuum generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 201108 (2015).
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B. Bergues, D. E. Rivas, M. Weidman, A. A. Muschet, W. Helml, A. Guggenmos, V. Pervak, U. Kleineberg, G. Marcus, R. Kienberger, D. Charalambidis, P. Tzallas, H. Schröder, F. Krausz, and L. Veisz, “Tabletop nonlinear optics in the 100-eV spectral region,” Optica 5, 237–242 (2018).
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D. E. Rivas, A. Borot, D. E. Cardenas, G. Marcus, X. Gu, D. Herrmann, J. Xu, J. Tan, D. Kormin, G. Ma, W. Dallari, G. D. Tsakiris, I. B. Földes, S.-W. Chou, M. Weidman, B. Bergues, T. Wittmann, H. Schröder, P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, O. Razskazovskaya, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and L. Veisz, “Next generation driver for attosecond and laser-plasma physics,” Sci. Rep. 7, 5224 (2017).
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S. Kühn, M. Dumergue, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. Füle, T. Csizmadia, B. Farkas, B. Major, Z. Várallyay, E. Cormier, M. Kalashnikov, F. Calegari, M. Devetta, F. Frassetto, E. Månsson, L. Poletto, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, P. Rudawski, S. Maclot, F. Campi, H. Wikmark, C. L. Arnold, C. M. Heyl, P. Johnsson, A. L’Huillier, R. Lopez-Martens, S. Haessler, M. Bocoum, F. Boehle, A. Vernier, G. Iaquaniello, E. Skantzakis, N. Papadakis, C. Kalpouzos, P. Tzallas, F. Lépine, D. Charalambidis, K. Varjú, K. Osvay, and G. Sansone, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50, 095004 (2017).
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N. Tsatrafyllis, B. Bergues, H. Schröder, L. Veisz, E. Skantzakis, D. Gray, B. Bodi, S. Kuhn, G. D. Tsakiris, D. Charalambidis, and P. Tzallas, “The ion microscope as a tool for quantitative measurements in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21556 (2016).
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P. A. Carpeggiani, P. Tzallas, A. Palacios, D. Gray, F. Martín, and D. Charalambidis, “Disclosing intrinsic molecular dynamics on the 1-fs scale through extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 023420 (2014).
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M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft x-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2361–E2367 (2014).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) and (b) Two single-shot measurements of the spatiospectral energy density distribution of the XUV beam generated from the 10 cm neon gas cell at optimum conditions (NIR laser intensity of 2×1015  W/cm2). The measurement reveals slight spectral modulations, a cutoff energy at approximately 130 eV (2% shot-to-shot RMS stability), and the presence of off-axis even harmonics. Spatiospectral energy density distribution from our theoretical model for a CEP of (c) ϕCEP=0, and (d) ϕCEP=π/2. The calculation accurately reproduces the features observed in the single-shot measurements. (e) Comparison of the on-axis lineout of the measured spatiospectral energy density at high and low intensities. (f) and (g) Two single-shot measurements of the spatiospectral energy density distribution of the XUV beam generated from the 10 cm neon gas cell at a reduced intensity of 5×1014  W/cm2. At this intensity the expected changes between modulations and continuum in the cutoff-energy region are recovered.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Single-shot measurement of the spatiospectral energy density distribution of the XUV beam generated from the 1.5 mm neon gas jet, exhibiting (a) on-axis and (b) off-axis emission. In the experiment, the spatial energy-density distribution varies randomly from shot to shot (see additional shots in Supplement 1). (c) Single-shot measurement of the spatiospectral energy density distribution of the XUV beam generated from the 5 cm gas cell. Significant energy is present off-axis in comparison to Fig. 1, (a)–(b), showing also a higher cutoff energy. Additionally, spectral modulations are visible throughout the whole measured region, not allowing the isolation of single pulses. The lack of signal at radii above 2 mm is due to changes in the detector’s clear aperture, unrelated to these specific measurements. Calculated spatially resolved spectra for a 1.5 mm length gas jet for a CEP value of (d) ϕCEP=0 and (e) ϕCEP=π/2. Only the changes obtained when varying the CEP can accurately reproduce the differences between (a) and (b). (f) Calculated spatially resolved spectra for the 5 cm cell, again reproducing the features of the spectrum shown in (c).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Spatial distribution of the driving laser peak intensity inside the 10 cm gas cell. Two different regions can be distinguished: the reshaping and the steady regions [separated by dashed line in (b)]. After a strong intensity decrease in the reshaping region, the beam acquires a flat-top shape with a stable intensity value around 8×1014  W/cm2. (b) On-axis intensity as a function of cell length, for an intensity of 1.4×1015, 1.5×1015, and 1.6×1015  W/cm2. The same stabilized peak intensity value is achieved after propagation for the three values of the input intensity. (c) Spatially resolved instantaneous intensity at the cell’s output plane. Due to the large differences in ionization as a function of radius, a dynamic wavefront bending is induced upon propagation.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Normalized spatially resolved instantaneous intensity of harmonics at the cutoff-energy region (115 eV, 11 eV bandwidth), arising from the (a) 1.5 mm jet, (b) 5 cm cell, and (c) 10 cm cell, at the detector plane located 12 m away from the generation target. For the first two cases, the radiation is distributed over a wide area, and double pulses are obtained on axis. However, with the 10 cm long cell, the on- and off-axis radiation (region 1, green circle and region 2, red circle, respectively) becomes spatiotemporaly isolated in the detector plane. (d) After focusing the pulses with a 12.5 mm mirror, the spatial separation of the two sequential pulses is maintained due to their different divergence, caused by dynamic wavefront bend of the driving laser.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Normalized spatially resolved instantaneous intensity of harmonics at the cutoff-energy region (115 eV, 11 eV bandwidth), for the 10 cm long gas cell, for an input CEP of (a) ϕCEP=0, (b) ϕCEP=π/4, and (c) ϕCEP=π/2 at the detector plane 12 m away from the cell’s output [same plot as Fig. 4(c)]. For all three CEP values, the spatiotemporal isolation is maintained. Comparison of the on-axis (r<1  mm) normalized instantaneous intensity between the 5 cm (red line) and 10 cm cell (blue line) for an input CEP of (d) ϕCEP=0, (e) ϕCEP=π/4, and (f) ϕCEP=π/2, at the detector plane. In comparison, the on-axis temporal isolation is not yet achieved after only 5 cm propagation for all three CEP values.

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