Abstract

We propose an ultra-compact solid-state autocorrelator fabricated using Si photonics technology that obtains correlation by detecting the overlap of two slow light pulses counter-propagating in a photonic crystal waveguide integrated with a two-photon absorption photodiode array. As the device does not require a mechanical delay scanner, it can be integrated onto a chip and operated without alignment. Using the correlator, we successfully acquired the autocorrelation of picosecond pulses. The nonlinear enhancement of slow light improves sensitivity, resulting in an evaluated detection limit in terms of the product of the peak and average power on the order of 107  W2, which is equal to or even better than that of commercial scanning autocorrelators and 107-fold better than that of conventional single-shot autocorrelators.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

H. Yu, W. Fang, X. Wu, X. Lin, L. Tong, W. Liu, A. Wang, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 3487 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

D. Javorkova and V. Bagnoud, Opt. Express 15, 5439 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Fischer, D. N. Neshev, S. M. Saltiel, A. A. Sukhorukov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031104 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. L. Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photonics 1, 473 (2007).
[Crossref]

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2005 (2)

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 320 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Figueira, L. Cardoso, N. Lopes, and J. Wemans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2709 (2005).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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1987 (1)

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R. N. Gyuzalian, S. B. Sogomonian, and Z. G. Horvath, Opt. Commun. 29, 239 (1979).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

J. Janszky and G. Corradi, Opt. Commun. 23, 293 (1977).
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

Bagnoud, V.

Barry, L. P.

Benech, P.

E. L. Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photonics 1, 473 (2007).
[Crossref]

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E. L. Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photonics 1, 473 (2007).
[Crossref]

Borel, P. I.

Brun, A.

Cardoso, L.

Clark, A.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref]

Coarer, E. L.

E. L. Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photonics 1, 473 (2007).
[Crossref]

Collins, M.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Corradi, G.

J. Janszky and G. Corradi, Opt. Commun. 23, 293 (1977).
[Crossref]

Dudley, J. M.

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. E. Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 17, 2944 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 320 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fainman, Y.

Fang, W.

H. Yu, W. Fang, X. Wu, X. Lin, L. Tong, W. Liu, A. Wang, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 3487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J. M.

E. L. Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photonics 1, 473 (2007).
[Crossref]

Figueira, G.

Fischer, R.

R. Fischer, D. N. Neshev, S. M. Saltiel, A. A. Sukhorukov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Frandsen, L. H.

Fu, L.

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 320 (2005).
[Crossref]

Georges, P.

Ginzburg, P.

A. Hayat, A. Nevet, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 083001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grillet, C.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. E. Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 17, 2944 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gyuzalian, R. N.

R. N. Gyuzalian, S. B. Sogomonian, and Z. G. Horvath, Opt. Commun. 29, 239 (1979).
[Crossref]

Hama, Y.

Hamachi, Y.

Harvey, J. D.

Hayat, A.

A. Hayat, A. Nevet, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 083001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Heidari, M. E.

Horvath, Z. G.

R. N. Gyuzalian, S. B. Sogomonian, and Z. G. Horvath, Opt. Commun. 29, 239 (1979).
[Crossref]

Iglesias, A. G.

Imamura, S.

Ishikura, N.

Ito, H.

Janszky, J.

J. Janszky and G. Corradi, Opt. Commun. 23, 293 (1977).
[Crossref]

Javorkova, D.

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, Opt. Lett 18, 823 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kern, P.

E. L. Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photonics 1, 473 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kinugasa, S.

Kivshar, Y. S.

R. Fischer, D. N. Neshev, S. M. Saltiel, A. A. Sukhorukov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, T.

Krauss, T. F.

Krolikowski, W.

R. Fischer, D. N. Neshev, S. M. Saltiel, A. A. Sukhorukov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kubo, S.

Kuramochi, E.

Lavrinenko, A. V.

Leblond, G.

E. L. Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photonics 1, 473 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lérondel, G.

E. L. Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photonics 1, 473 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. G. Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 16, 6227 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, X.

H. Yu, W. Fang, X. Wu, X. Lin, L. Tong, W. Liu, A. Wang, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 3487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Littler, I.

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 320 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

H. Yu, W. Fang, X. Wu, X. Lin, L. Tong, W. Liu, A. Wang, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 3487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lopes, N.

Mazurenko, T. T.

Monat, C.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. E. Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 17, 2944 (2009).
[Crossref]

Morand, A.

E. L. Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photonics 1, 473 (2007).
[Crossref]

Moss, D. J.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 320 (2005).
[Crossref]

Neshev, D. N.

R. Fischer, D. N. Neshev, S. M. Saltiel, A. A. Sukhorukov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nevet, A.

A. Hayat, A. Nevet, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 083001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Notomi, M.

O’Faolain, L.

Oba, K.

Orenstein, M.

A. Hayat, A. Nevet, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 083001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pedersen, J. F.

Reid, D. T.

Roger, G.

Royer, P.

E. L. Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photonics 1, 473 (2007).
[Crossref]

Salin, F.

Saltiel, S. M.

R. Fischer, D. N. Neshev, S. M. Saltiel, A. A. Sukhorukov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, J.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

H. Yu, W. Fang, X. Wu, X. Lin, L. Tong, W. Liu, A. Wang, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 3487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shinkawa, M.

Sibbett, W.

Sogomonian, S. B.

R. N. Gyuzalian, S. B. Sogomonian, and Z. G. Horvath, Opt. Commun. 29, 239 (1979).
[Crossref]

Stefanon, I.

E. L. Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photonics 1, 473 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sukhorukov, A. A.

R. Fischer, D. N. Neshev, S. M. Saltiel, A. A. Sukhorukov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sun, P. C.

Suzuki, K.

Takagi, Y.

Thomsen, B.

Tong, L.

H. Yu, W. Fang, X. Wu, X. Lin, L. Tong, W. Liu, A. Wang, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 3487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Trebino, R.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, Opt. Lett 18, 823 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wang, A.

H. Yu, W. Fang, X. Wu, X. Lin, L. Tong, W. Liu, A. Wang, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 3487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wemans, J.

White, T. P.

Wu, X.

H. Yu, W. Fang, X. Wu, X. Lin, L. Tong, W. Liu, A. Wang, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 3487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiong, C.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yazawa, N.

Yoshihara, K.

Yu, H.

H. Yu, W. Fang, X. Wu, X. Lin, L. Tong, W. Liu, A. Wang, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 3487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Fischer, D. N. Neshev, S. M. Saltiel, A. A. Sukhorukov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 320 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

H. Yu, W. Fang, X. Wu, X. Lin, L. Tong, W. Liu, A. Wang, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 3487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

E. L. Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photonics 1, 473 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Janszky and G. Corradi, Opt. Commun. 23, 293 (1977).
[Crossref]

R. N. Gyuzalian, S. B. Sogomonian, and Z. G. Horvath, Opt. Commun. 29, 239 (1979).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett (1)

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, Opt. Lett 18, 823 (1993).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Hayat, A. Nevet, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 083001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

“G12072-54: InGaAs PIN photodiode with preamp,” Spec Sheet (Hamamatsu Photonics, 2011).

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of proposed autocorrelator and correlation waveforms obtained from integrated TPA-PD array.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Theoretical correlation waveforms. (a) The waveform observable with sufficient resolution, and (b) with practical resolution of 5 μm. In (b), dashed line depicts the envelope component. The red and blue lines show the intensities individually induced by pulses incident from the left and right, respectively. FWHM of pulse and ng of LSPCW are set at 3 ps and 20, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fabricated device and its optical and electrical characteristics. (a) Total and magnified images. For clarity, p- and n-doped regions are red- and blue-colored, respectively. (b) Transmission and ng spectra of LSPCW with wavelength resolutions of 0.1 and 0.6 nm, respectively. The transmission is normalized to that of Si wire of the same length. (c) Responsivity characteristics of center TPA-PD (circles) and linear and square fittings to PpkPav and Ppk (gray line), respectively, which were obtained for 4.5-ps Gaussian pulse at 40-MHz repetition.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Autocorrelation waveforms produced by fabricated device (orange circle and fitting curve) and commercial scanning autocorrelator (gray line). In each curve, the peak value is 1.0 and other values are estimated by counting the number of divisions in the vertical axis. Inset shows the relation of pulse FWHM measured by the device to that by a commercial one.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Precision (standard deviation σ from Gaussian fitting) of observed correlation waveforms evaluated for (a) pulse FWHM Δτ, (b) center wavelength λ, (c) input pulse power Ppk, (and PpkPav), and (d) polarization angle. σ>0.2 is not acceptable even for rough observation of the correlation.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E1(z,t)=I1(z,t)exp[jωt(jk+α)z],E2(z,t)=I2(z,t)exp[jωt(jk+α)(Lz)],
N(z)|E1(z,t)+E2(z,t)|4dt.