Abstract

Efficient preparation of large, but definite, numbers of photons is of great importance for scaling up and speeding up photonic quantum information processing. Typical single-photon generation techniques based on nonlinear parametric processes face challenges of probabilistic generation. Here we demonstrate efficient synchronization of photons from multiple nonlinear parametric heralded single-photon sources, using quantum memories. Our low-loss optical memories greatly enhance (30×) the generation rate of coincidence photons from two independent sources, while maintaining high indistinguishability (95.7±1.4%) of the synchronized photons. As an application, we perform the first demonstration of parametric-source-based measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution. The synchronization technique demonstrated here paves the way toward efficient quantum communication and larger-scale optical quantum computing.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2017 (1)

M. Gimeno-Segovia, H. Cable, G. J. Mendoza, P. Shadbolt, J. W. Silverstone, J. Carolan, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, and T. Rudolph, New J. Phys. 19, 063013 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (8)

K. Makino, Y. Hashimoto, J.-I. Yoshikawa, H. Ohdan, T. Toyama, P. van Loock, and A. Furusawa, Sci. Adv. 2, e1501772 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D. Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W. Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Commun. 7, 10853 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Aharonovich, D. Englund, and M. Toth, Nat. Photonics 10, 631 (2016).
[Crossref]

X.-L. Wang, L.-K. Chen, W. Li, H. L. Huang, C. Liu, C. Chen, Y.-H. Luo, Z. E. Su, D. Wu, Z. D. Li, H. Lu, Y. Hu, X. Jiang, C.-Z. Peng, L. Li, N. L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 210502 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Comandar, M. Lucamarini, B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, S. W. B. Tam, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, Nat. Photonics 10, 312 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 190501 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. J. Mendoza, R. Santagati, J. Munns, E. Hemsley, M. Piekarek, E. Martín-López, G. D. Marshall, D. Bonneau, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, Optica 3, 127 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Kaneda, K. Garay-Palmett, A. B. U’Ren, and P. G. Kwiat, Opt. Express 24, 10733 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (4)

Z. Tang, Z. Liao, F. Xu, B. Qi, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 190503 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. K. Lo, M. Curty, and K. Tamaki, Nat. Photonics 8, 595 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Abruzzo, H. Kampermann, and D. Bruß, Phys. Rev. A 89, 012301 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Panayi, M. Razavi, X. Ma, and N. Lütkenhaus, New J. Phys. 16, 043005 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

A. M. Childs, D. Gosset, and Z. Webb, Science 339, 791 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Rubenok, J. A. Slater, P. Chan, I. Lucio-Martinez, and W. Tittel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130501 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Ferreira da Silva, D. Vitoreti, G. B. Xavier, G. C. do Amaral, G. P. Temporão, and J. P. von der Weid, Phys. Rev. A 88, 052303 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, W. S. Kolthammer, T. F. M. Champion, M. R. Sprague, P. S. Michelberger, X. Jin, D. G. England, and I. A. Walmsley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 133601 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Tillmann, B. Dakic, R. Heilmann, S. Nolte, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, Nat. Photonics 7, 540 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, D. J. Brod, E. F. Galvão, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, E. Maiorino, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, Nat. Photonics 7, 545 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Pan, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Żukowski, Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 777 (2012).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

Y. Adachi, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 180503 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Mauerer and C. Silberhorn, Phys. Rev. A 75, 050305 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Kok, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Felinto, C. W. Chou, J. Laurat, E. W. Schomburg, H. De Riedmatten, and H. J. Kimble, Nat. Phys. 2, 844 (2006).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C. Hong, Z. Ou, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044 (1987).
[Crossref]

Aaronson, S.

S. Aaronson and A. Arkhipov, in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (ACM, 2011), p. 333.

Abruzzo, S.

S. Abruzzo, H. Kampermann, and D. Bruß, Phys. Rev. A 89, 012301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adachi, Y.

Y. Adachi, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 180503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aharonovich, I.

I. Aharonovich, D. Englund, and M. Toth, Nat. Photonics 10, 631 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arkhipov, A.

S. Aaronson and A. Arkhipov, in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (ACM, 2011), p. 333.

Bonneau, D.

Brod, D. J.

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, D. J. Brod, E. F. Galvão, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, E. Maiorino, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, Nat. Photonics 7, 545 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bruß, D.

S. Abruzzo, H. Kampermann, and D. Bruß, Phys. Rev. A 89, 012301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cable, H.

M. Gimeno-Segovia, H. Cable, G. J. Mendoza, P. Shadbolt, J. W. Silverstone, J. Carolan, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, and T. Rudolph, New J. Phys. 19, 063013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Carolan, J.

M. Gimeno-Segovia, H. Cable, G. J. Mendoza, P. Shadbolt, J. W. Silverstone, J. Carolan, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, and T. Rudolph, New J. Phys. 19, 063013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chae, C. J.

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D. Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W. Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Commun. 7, 10853 (2016).
[Crossref]

Champion, T. F. M.

J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, W. S. Kolthammer, T. F. M. Champion, M. R. Sprague, P. S. Michelberger, X. Jin, D. G. England, and I. A. Walmsley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 133601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chan, P.

A. Rubenok, J. A. Slater, P. Chan, I. Lucio-Martinez, and W. Tittel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

X.-L. Wang, L.-K. Chen, W. Li, H. L. Huang, C. Liu, C. Chen, Y.-H. Luo, Z. E. Su, D. Wu, Z. D. Li, H. Lu, Y. Hu, X. Jiang, C.-Z. Peng, L. Li, N. L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 210502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 190501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.-K.

X.-L. Wang, L.-K. Chen, W. Li, H. L. Huang, C. Liu, C. Chen, Y.-H. Luo, Z. E. Su, D. Wu, Z. D. Li, H. Lu, Y. Hu, X. Jiang, C.-Z. Peng, L. Li, N. L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 210502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.-J.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 190501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.-Y.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 190501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-A.

X.-L. Wang, L.-K. Chen, W. Li, H. L. Huang, C. Liu, C. Chen, Y.-H. Luo, Z. E. Su, D. Wu, Z. D. Li, H. Lu, Y. Hu, X. Jiang, C.-Z. Peng, L. Li, N. L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 210502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.-B.

J.-W. Pan, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Żukowski, Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 777 (2012).
[Crossref]

Childs, A. M.

A. M. Childs, D. Gosset, and Z. Webb, Science 339, 791 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, D. Y.

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D. Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W. Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Commun. 7, 10853 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chou, C. W.

D. Felinto, C. W. Chou, J. Laurat, E. W. Schomburg, H. De Riedmatten, and H. J. Kimble, Nat. Phys. 2, 844 (2006).
[Crossref]

Christensen, B. G.

Collins, M. J.

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D. Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W. Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Commun. 7, 10853 (2016).
[Crossref]

Comandar, L. C.

L. C. Comandar, M. Lucamarini, B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, S. W. B. Tam, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, Nat. Photonics 10, 312 (2016).
[Crossref]

Crespi, A.

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, D. J. Brod, E. F. Galvão, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, E. Maiorino, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, Nat. Photonics 7, 545 (2013).
[Crossref]

Curty, M.

H. K. Lo, M. Curty, and K. Tamaki, Nat. Photonics 8, 595 (2014).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dakic, B.

M. Tillmann, B. Dakic, R. Heilmann, S. Nolte, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, Nat. Photonics 7, 540 (2013).
[Crossref]

De Riedmatten, H.

D. Felinto, C. W. Chou, J. Laurat, E. W. Schomburg, H. De Riedmatten, and H. J. Kimble, Nat. Phys. 2, 844 (2006).
[Crossref]

do Amaral, G. C.

T. Ferreira da Silva, D. Vitoreti, G. B. Xavier, G. C. do Amaral, G. P. Temporão, and J. P. von der Weid, Phys. Rev. A 88, 052303 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dowling, J. P.

P. Kok, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dynes, J. F.

L. C. Comandar, M. Lucamarini, B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, S. W. B. Tam, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, Nat. Photonics 10, 312 (2016).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D. Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W. Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Commun. 7, 10853 (2016).
[Crossref]

England, D. G.

J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, W. S. Kolthammer, T. F. M. Champion, M. R. Sprague, P. S. Michelberger, X. Jin, D. G. England, and I. A. Walmsley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 133601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Englund, D.

I. Aharonovich, D. Englund, and M. Toth, Nat. Photonics 10, 631 (2016).
[Crossref]

Felinto, D.

D. Felinto, C. W. Chou, J. Laurat, E. W. Schomburg, H. De Riedmatten, and H. J. Kimble, Nat. Phys. 2, 844 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ferreira da Silva, T.

T. Ferreira da Silva, D. Vitoreti, G. B. Xavier, G. C. do Amaral, G. P. Temporão, and J. P. von der Weid, Phys. Rev. A 88, 052303 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fröhlich, B.

L. C. Comandar, M. Lucamarini, B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, S. W. B. Tam, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, Nat. Photonics 10, 312 (2016).
[Crossref]

Furusawa, A.

K. Makino, Y. Hashimoto, J.-I. Yoshikawa, H. Ohdan, T. Toyama, P. van Loock, and A. Furusawa, Sci. Adv. 2, e1501772 (2016).
[Crossref]

Galvão, E. F.

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, D. J. Brod, E. F. Galvão, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, E. Maiorino, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, Nat. Photonics 7, 545 (2013).
[Crossref]

Garay-Palmett, K.

Gimeno-Segovia, M.

M. Gimeno-Segovia, H. Cable, G. J. Mendoza, P. Shadbolt, J. W. Silverstone, J. Carolan, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, and T. Rudolph, New J. Phys. 19, 063013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gosset, D.

A. M. Childs, D. Gosset, and Z. Webb, Science 339, 791 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, Y.

K. Makino, Y. Hashimoto, J.-I. Yoshikawa, H. Ohdan, T. Toyama, P. van Loock, and A. Furusawa, Sci. Adv. 2, e1501772 (2016).
[Crossref]

Heilmann, R.

M. Tillmann, B. Dakic, R. Heilmann, S. Nolte, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, Nat. Photonics 7, 540 (2013).
[Crossref]

Helt, L. G.

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D. Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W. Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Commun. 7, 10853 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hemsley, E.

Hong, C.

C. Hong, Z. Ou, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

X.-L. Wang, L.-K. Chen, W. Li, H. L. Huang, C. Liu, C. Chen, Y.-H. Luo, Z. E. Su, D. Wu, Z. D. Li, H. Lu, Y. Hu, X. Jiang, C.-Z. Peng, L. Li, N. L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 210502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. L.

X.-L. Wang, L.-K. Chen, W. Li, H. L. Huang, C. Liu, C. Chen, Y.-H. Luo, Z. E. Su, D. Wu, Z. D. Li, H. Lu, Y. Hu, X. Jiang, C.-Z. Peng, L. Li, N. L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 210502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, M.-Q.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 190501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Imoto, N.

Y. Adachi, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 180503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 190501 (2016).
[Crossref]

X.-L. Wang, L.-K. Chen, W. Li, H. L. Huang, C. Liu, C. Chen, Y.-H. Luo, Z. E. Su, D. Wu, Z. D. Li, H. Lu, Y. Hu, X. Jiang, C.-Z. Peng, L. Li, N. L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 210502 (2016).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Theoretical and experimental details

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) A scheme to generate M single photons from M HSPSs synchronized by quantum memories. NLC, nonlinear crystal; SPD, single-photon detector; QM, quantum memory. NLCs in general produce single-photon pairs only rarely, and thus simultaneous M-photon generation occurs only with very low probability. QMs can compensate for the relative delay of photons from each source, and release them simultaneously. (b) Our proposed MDI-QKD scheme, in which Charlie can synchronize the photons from two remote HSPSs. In MDI-QKD, Alice and Bob each possess qubit encoders and probabilistic single-photon sources, e.g., HSPSs or faint laser sources. Charlie receives Alice’s and Bob’s photons, performing a Bell-state measurement (BSM) on them. Informed by Charlie’s observation of the Bell state, Alice and Bob know the specific correlation between their respective qubits, perform post-processing, and generate a shared secure key. Therefore, in MDI-QKD, efficient simultaneous generation of single-photon states is more critical to produce higher secure key rates than in a traditional BB84 protocol. A QM module in our scheme delays an early-arrival photon to be sent to the BSM setup simultaneously with a late-arrival photon.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of our experimental setup, with FC, fiber coupler; HWP, half-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; SPD, single-photon detector; PC, Pockels cell; IF, interference filter (Δλ=1.1  nm); DM, dichroic mirror; SMF, single-mode fiber; FPGA, field-programmable gate array; and FS, fiber splitter. See Supplement 1 for experimental details.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Synchronized trigger signal rate, (b) coincidence count rate of synchronized heralded photons, and (c) enhancement factor of coincidence count rates in the synchronized case compared to the asynchronous case, versus maximum storage cycle number N. (d) Observed HOMI for synchronized photons, with N=40. Error bars are estimated by Poissonian photon counting statistics.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Coincidence counts (without subtracting background counts) from BSM of different time-bin encoded photons. (a) {|e,|l} basis. (b) {|+,|} basis. We observed very high contrast in coincidence count rates, implying low quantum bit error rates. (c) and (d) are enlarged figures of (a) and (b), showing the corresponding coincidence counts without synchronization, in light colors; while error probabilities are similar, the count rates are 30× lower. Coincidence counts are collected for Np=4×109 pump pulses in each data point.

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