Abstract

In attosecond and strong-field physics, the acquisition of data in an acceptable time demands the combination of high peak power with high average power. We report a 21 W mid-IR optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (OPCPA) that generates 131 μJ and 97 fs (sub-9-cycle) pulses at a 160 kHz repetition rate and at a center wavelength of 3.25 μm. Pulse-to-pulse stability of the carrier envelope phase (CEP)-stable output is excellent with a 0.33% rms over 288 million pulses (30 min) and compression close to a single optical cycle was achieved through soliton self-compression inside a gas-filled mid-IR antiresonant-guiding photonic crystal fiber. Without any additional compression device, stable generation of 14.5 fs (1.35-optical-cycle) pulses was achieved at an average power of 9.6 W. The resulting peak power of 3.9 GW in combination with the near-single-cycle duration and intrinsic CEP stability makes our OPCPA a key-enabling technology for the next generation of extreme photonics, strong-field attosecond research, and coherent x-ray science.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (3)

2016 (8)

P. Uebel, M. C. Gunendi, M. H. Frosz, G. Ahmed, N. N. Edavalath, J.-M. Ménard, and P. St.J. Russell, “Broadband robustly single-mode hollow-core PCF by resonant filtering of higher-order modes,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1961–1964 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Rigaud, A. Van de Walle, M. Hanna, N. Forget, F. Guichard, Y. Zaouter, K. Guesmi, F. Druon, and P. Georges, “Supercontinuum-seeded few-cycle mid-infrared OPCPA system,” Opt. Express 24, 26494–26502 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Wolter, M. G. Pullen, A.-T. Le, M. Baudisch, K. Doblhoff-Dier, A. Senftleben, H. Hemmer, C. D. Schroter, J. Ullrich, T. Pfeifer, R. Moshammer, S. Grafe, O. Vendrell, C. D. Lin, and J. BIegert, “Ultrafast electron diffraction imaging of bond breaking in di-ionized acetylene,” Science 354, 308–312 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Shumakova, P. Malevich, S. Alisauskas, A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, D. Faccio, D. Kartashov, A. Baltuska, and A. Pugzlys, “Multi-millijoule few-cycle mid-infrared pulses through nonlinear self-compression in bulk,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12877 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. V. Mitrofanov, A. A. Voronin, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, S. I. Mitryukovsky, A. B. Fedotov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Meshchankin, V. Shumakova, S. Alisauskas, A. Pugzlys, V. Ya. Panchenko, A. Balruska, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Subterawatt few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from a single filament,” Optica 3, 299–302 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Fan, T. Balciunas, T. Kanai, T. Flory, G. Andriukaitis, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, and A. Baltuska, “Hollow-core-waveguide compression of multi-millijoule CEP-stable 3.2 μm pulses,” Optica 3, 1308 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Baudisch, B. Wolter, M. Pullen, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “High power multi-color OPCPA source with simultaneous femtosecond deep-UV to mid-IR outputs,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3583–3586 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Teichmann, F. Silva, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “0.5-keV Soft x-ray attosecond continua,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11493 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft x-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Wolter, M. G. Pullen, M. Baudisch, M. Sclafani, M. Hemmer, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schroter, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and J. Biegert, “Strong-field physics with mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 021034 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. G. Pullen, B. Wolter, A. T. Le, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schroter, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, C. D. Lin, and J. Biegert, “Imaging an aligned polyatomic molecule with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7262 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Mero, F. Noack, F. Bach, V. Petrov, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “High-average-power, 50-fs parametric amplifier front-end at 155  μm,” Opt. Express 23, 33157–33163 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of air constituents at mid-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5794–5797 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

M. Hemmer, M. Baudisch, A. Thai, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Self-compression to sub-3-cycle duration of mid-infrared optical pulses in dielectrics,” Opt. Express. 21, 28095–28102 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. N. Kolyadin, A. F. Kosolapov, A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and E. M. Bianov, “Light transmission in negative curvature hollow core fiber in extremely high material loss region,” Opt. Express 21, 9514–9519 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Low loss silica hollow core fibers for 3-4  μm spectral region,” Opt. Express 20, 11153–11158 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Biegert, P. K. Bates, and O. Chalus, “New mid-infrared light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 531–540 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483, 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. H. García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron’Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dorner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2004 (1)

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813–855 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St.J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298, 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref]

C.-M. Chen and P. L. Kelley, “Nonlinear pulse compression in optical fibers: scaling laws and numerical analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1961–1963 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

B. Shan and Z. Chang, “Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cutoff by using a long-wavelength driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 011804 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron diffraction: a new tool for probing ultrafast molecular dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259, 313–320 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

J. L. Archambault, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and J. Bures, “Loss calculations for antiresonant wave-guides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 416–423 (1993).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

E. M. Dianov, P. V. Mamyshev, and A. M. Prokhorov, “Nonlinear fiber optics,” Quantum Electron. 18, 1–15 (1988).

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

1985 (1)

H. J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, “Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2 determined by third harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 56, 67–72 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

1964 (1)

S. Marcatili, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).
[Crossref]

Adler, F.

Agostini, P.

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483, 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813–855 (2004).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fibre Optics (Academic, 2007).

Ahmed, G.

Alisauskas, S.

A. V. Mitrofanov, A. A. Voronin, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, S. I. Mitryukovsky, A. B. Fedotov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Meshchankin, V. Shumakova, S. Alisauskas, A. Pugzlys, V. Ya. Panchenko, A. Balruska, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Subterawatt few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from a single filament,” Optica 3, 299–302 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Shumakova, P. Malevich, S. Alisauskas, A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, D. Faccio, D. Kartashov, A. Baltuska, and A. Pugzlys, “Multi-millijoule few-cycle mid-infrared pulses through nonlinear self-compression in bulk,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12877 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. H. García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron’Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Andriukaitis, G.

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[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup of the high-power, mid-IR OPCPA system. (a) The seed is generated by a two-color fiber front-end in combination with a DFG stage. Afterward, the mid-IR pulses are stretched and consecutively amplified in a preamplifier and two booster amplifiers. Maximum conversion efficiencies are achieved by multiple use of the pump beam and by individually tailored seed-to-pump pulse durations. The mid-IR output is compressed in a bulk stretcher and (b) the final compression to a single optical cycle is performed using an Ar-filled ARR-PCF.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectrum of the mid-IR seed from the DFG (dashed black curve) together with the spectra from each OPA stage (solid curves) and the final output (filled and solid red curve).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Output characteristics of the mid-IR OPCPA system. SHG-FROG retrieval of the mid-IR output pulses, showing (a) the spectral amplitude and phase, and (b) the temporal amplitude and instantaneous frequency. (c) The pulse-to-pulse power stability measured over 30 min. The inset shows the output beam profile.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured transmission loss (red shaded) together with the dispersion obtained via the Marcatili [37] model (gray) and fitting FEM calculations (blue) for a 88 μm core evacuated fiber with 1.2 μm core wall thickness. The inset shows a scanning electron microscope image of the ARR-PCF fiber.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured self-compressed FWHM pulse duration of mid-IR pulses in the ARR-PCF for different noble gas atmospheres and pressures.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Spectra measured at the output of a 14.9 cm long length of fiber and (b) the corresponding temporal profile. Both are shown as functions of the Ar pressure inside the fiber. The temporal information was obtained by retrieving the traces measured with the SH-FROG.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Simulated spectral and (b) temporal evolution of the experimental input pulse along a 25-cm-long ARR-PCF filled with 12 bar Ar. The dashed lines show the experimental fiber length of 16.9 cm. (c) The spectral and (d) the temporal profiles for the fiber length of 16.9-cm-long ARR-PCF at the fiber output.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Measured spectral density (shaded profile), spectral profile (red), and spectral phase (green) retrieved from the SH-FROG trace. (b) The retrieved temporal profile (blue) and retrieved instantaneous frequency (red) showing that about 60% of the energy is contained in the main peak. (c) The measured and (d) retrieved SH-FROG traces.

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