Abstract

As a promising integration platform, silicon photonics need on-chip laser sources that dramatically improve capability, while trimming size and power dissipation in a cost-effective way for volume manufacturability. Currently, direct heteroepitaxial growth of III–V laser structures on Si using quantum dots as the active region is a vibrant field of research, with the potential to demonstrate low-cost, high-yield, long-lifetime, and high-temperature devices. Ongoing work is being conducted to reduce the power consumption, maximize the operating temperature, and switch from miscut Si substrates toward the so-called exact (001) Si substrates that are standard in microelectronics fabrication. Here, we demonstrate record-small electrically pumped micro-lasers epitaxially grown on industry standard (001) silicon substrates. Continuous-wave lasing up to 100°C was demonstrated at 1.3 μm communication wavelength. A submilliamp threshold of 0.6 mA was achieved for a micro-laser with a radius of 5 μm. The thresholds and footprints are orders of magnitude smaller than those previously reported lasers epitaxially grown on Si.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (4)

2016 (6)

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Optically pumped 1.3 μm room-temperature InAs quantum-dot micro-disk lasers directly grown on (001) silicon,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1664–1667 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Temperature characteristics of epitaxially grown InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers on silicon for on-chip light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011104 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Song, C. Stagarescu, S. Ristic, A. Behfar, and J. Klamkin, “3D integrated hybrid silicon laser,” Opt. Express 24, 10435–10444 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10, 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, S. Zhang, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “8 × 8 × 40 Gbps fully integrated silicon photonic network on chip,” Optica 3, 785–786 (2016).

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, W. W. Chow, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Sub-wavelength InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers epitaxially grown on exact Si (001) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 221101 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. V. Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9, 837–842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “Growing antiphase-domain-free GaAs thin films out of highly ordered planar nanowire arrays on exact (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 072105 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, M. V. Maximov, A. M. Nadtochiy, S. A. Blokhin, M. A. Bobrov, M. M. Kulagina, S. I. Troshkov, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, E. I. Moiseev, Y. V. Kudashova, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhukov, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of injection quantum dot microdisk lasers,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 643, 012002 (2015).

2014 (2)

A. Y. Liu, C. Zhang, A. Snyder, D. Lubyshev, J. M. Fastenau, A. W. K. Liu, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “MBE growth of P-doped 1.3 μm InAs quantum dot lasers on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32, 02C108 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. R. Heck and J. E. Bowers, “Energy efficient and energy proportional optical interconnects for multi-core processors: driving the need for on-chip sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 332–343 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. Munsch, J. Claudon, N. S. Malik, K. Gilbert, P. Grosse, J. M. Gerard, F. Albert, F. Langer, T. Schlereth, M. M. Pieczarka, S. Hofling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Reitzenstein, “Room temperature, continuous wave lasing in microcylinder and microring quantum dot laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031111 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4, 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Room-temperature continuous-wave lasing in GaN/InGaN microdisks,” Nat. Photonics 1, 61–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. V. Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9, 837–842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Albert, F.

M. Munsch, J. Claudon, N. S. Malik, K. Gilbert, P. Grosse, J. M. Gerard, F. Albert, F. Langer, T. Schlereth, M. M. Pieczarka, S. Hofling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Reitzenstein, “Room temperature, continuous wave lasing in microcylinder and microring quantum dot laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baron, T.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Behfar, A.

Blokhin, S. A.

N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, M. V. Maximov, A. M. Nadtochiy, S. A. Blokhin, M. A. Bobrov, M. M. Kulagina, S. I. Troshkov, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, E. I. Moiseev, Y. V. Kudashova, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhukov, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of injection quantum dot microdisk lasers,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 643, 012002 (2015).

Bobrov, M. A.

N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, M. V. Maximov, A. M. Nadtochiy, S. A. Blokhin, M. A. Bobrov, M. M. Kulagina, S. I. Troshkov, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, E. I. Moiseev, Y. V. Kudashova, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhukov, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of injection quantum dot microdisk lasers,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 643, 012002 (2015).

Bowers, J. E.

A. Y. Liu, J. Peters, X. Huang, D. Jung, J. Norman, M. L. Lee, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave 1.3 μm quantum-dot lasers epitaxially grown on on-axis (001) GaP/Si,” Opt. Lett. 42, 338–341 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Norman, M. J. Kennedy, J. Selvidge, Q. Li, Y. Wan, A. Y. Liu, P. G. Callahan, M. P. Echlin, T. M. Pollock, K. M. Lau, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped continuous wave quantum dot lasers epitaxially grown on patterned, on-axis (001) Si,” Opt. Express 25, 3927–3934 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, S. Zhang, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “8 × 8 × 40 Gbps fully integrated silicon photonic network on chip,” Optica 3, 785–786 (2016).

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Optically pumped 1.3 μm room-temperature InAs quantum-dot micro-disk lasers directly grown on (001) silicon,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1664–1667 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, W. W. Chow, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Sub-wavelength InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers epitaxially grown on exact Si (001) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 221101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Temperature characteristics of epitaxially grown InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers on silicon for on-chip light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011104 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Liu, C. Zhang, A. Snyder, D. Lubyshev, J. M. Fastenau, A. W. K. Liu, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “MBE growth of P-doped 1.3 μm InAs quantum dot lasers on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32, 02C108 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. R. Heck and J. E. Bowers, “Energy efficient and energy proportional optical interconnects for multi-core processors: driving the need for on-chip sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 332–343 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4, 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, T. Okumura, H. Chang, D. T. Spencer, Y. Kuo, A. W. Fang, D. Dai, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically-pumped compact hybrid silicon microring lasers for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 17, 20355–20364 (2009).
[Crossref]

Callahan, P. G.

Campenhout, J. V.

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. V. Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9, 837–842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.

Chen, S.

S. Chen, M. Liao, M. Tang, J. Wu, M. Martin, T. Baron, A. Seeds, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave 1.3 μm InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers monolithically grown on on-axis Si (001) substrates,” Opt. Express 25, 4632–4639 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10, 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chow, W. W.

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, W. W. Chow, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Sub-wavelength InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers epitaxially grown on exact Si (001) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 221101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Claudon, J.

M. Munsch, J. Claudon, N. S. Malik, K. Gilbert, P. Grosse, J. M. Gerard, F. Albert, F. Langer, T. Schlereth, M. M. Pieczarka, S. Hofling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Reitzenstein, “Room temperature, continuous wave lasing in microcylinder and microring quantum dot laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.

Echlin, M. P.

Elliott, S. N.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10, 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fang, A. W.

Fastenau, J. M.

A. Y. Liu, C. Zhang, A. Snyder, D. Lubyshev, J. M. Fastenau, A. W. K. Liu, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “MBE growth of P-doped 1.3 μm InAs quantum dot lasers on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32, 02C108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fiorentino, M.

Forchel, A.

M. Munsch, J. Claudon, N. S. Malik, K. Gilbert, P. Grosse, J. M. Gerard, F. Albert, F. Langer, T. Schlereth, M. M. Pieczarka, S. Hofling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Reitzenstein, “Room temperature, continuous wave lasing in microcylinder and microring quantum dot laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gerard, J. M.

M. Munsch, J. Claudon, N. S. Malik, K. Gilbert, P. Grosse, J. M. Gerard, F. Albert, F. Langer, T. Schlereth, M. M. Pieczarka, S. Hofling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Reitzenstein, “Room temperature, continuous wave lasing in microcylinder and microring quantum dot laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gilbert, K.

M. Munsch, J. Claudon, N. S. Malik, K. Gilbert, P. Grosse, J. M. Gerard, F. Albert, F. Langer, T. Schlereth, M. M. Pieczarka, S. Hofling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Reitzenstein, “Room temperature, continuous wave lasing in microcylinder and microring quantum dot laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gossard, A. C.

J. Norman, M. J. Kennedy, J. Selvidge, Q. Li, Y. Wan, A. Y. Liu, P. G. Callahan, M. P. Echlin, T. M. Pollock, K. M. Lau, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped continuous wave quantum dot lasers epitaxially grown on patterned, on-axis (001) Si,” Opt. Express 25, 3927–3934 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Liu, J. Peters, X. Huang, D. Jung, J. Norman, M. L. Lee, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave 1.3 μm quantum-dot lasers epitaxially grown on on-axis (001) GaP/Si,” Opt. Lett. 42, 338–341 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Optically pumped 1.3 μm room-temperature InAs quantum-dot micro-disk lasers directly grown on (001) silicon,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1664–1667 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, W. W. Chow, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Sub-wavelength InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers epitaxially grown on exact Si (001) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 221101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Temperature characteristics of epitaxially grown InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers on silicon for on-chip light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011104 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Liu, C. Zhang, A. Snyder, D. Lubyshev, J. M. Fastenau, A. W. K. Liu, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “MBE growth of P-doped 1.3 μm InAs quantum dot lasers on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32, 02C108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grosse, P.

M. Munsch, J. Claudon, N. S. Malik, K. Gilbert, P. Grosse, J. M. Gerard, F. Albert, F. Langer, T. Schlereth, M. M. Pieczarka, S. Hofling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Reitzenstein, “Room temperature, continuous wave lasing in microcylinder and microring quantum dot laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guo, W.

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. V. Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9, 837–842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Haberer, E. D.

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Room-temperature continuous-wave lasing in GaN/InGaN microdisks,” Nat. Photonics 1, 61–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

Heck, M. J. R.

M. J. R. Heck and J. E. Bowers, “Energy efficient and energy proportional optical interconnects for multi-core processors: driving the need for on-chip sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 332–343 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hofling, S.

M. Munsch, J. Claudon, N. S. Malik, K. Gilbert, P. Grosse, J. M. Gerard, F. Albert, F. Langer, T. Schlereth, M. M. Pieczarka, S. Hofling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Reitzenstein, “Room temperature, continuous wave lasing in microcylinder and microring quantum dot laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, E.

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Temperature characteristics of epitaxially grown InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers on silicon for on-chip light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, W. W. Chow, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Sub-wavelength InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers epitaxially grown on exact Si (001) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 221101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Optically pumped 1.3 μm room-temperature InAs quantum-dot micro-disk lasers directly grown on (001) silicon,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1664–1667 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, E. L.

B. Shi, S. Zhu, Q. Li, Y. Wan, E. L. Hu, and K. May Lau, “Continuous-wave optically pumped 1.55 μm InAs/InAlGaAs quantum dot microdisk lasers epitaxially grown on silicon,” ACS Photon. 4, 204–210 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Room-temperature continuous-wave lasing in GaN/InGaN microdisks,” Nat. Photonics 1, 61–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

Jiang, Q.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10, 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jung, D.

Kamp, M.

M. Munsch, J. Claudon, N. S. Malik, K. Gilbert, P. Grosse, J. M. Gerard, F. Albert, F. Langer, T. Schlereth, M. M. Pieczarka, S. Hofling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Reitzenstein, “Room temperature, continuous wave lasing in microcylinder and microring quantum dot laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kennedy, M. J.

Klamkin, J.

Kryzhanovskaya, N. V.

N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, M. V. Maximov, A. M. Nadtochiy, S. A. Blokhin, M. A. Bobrov, M. M. Kulagina, S. I. Troshkov, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, E. I. Moiseev, Y. V. Kudashova, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhukov, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of injection quantum dot microdisk lasers,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 643, 012002 (2015).

Kudashova, Y. V.

N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, M. V. Maximov, A. M. Nadtochiy, S. A. Blokhin, M. A. Bobrov, M. M. Kulagina, S. I. Troshkov, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, E. I. Moiseev, Y. V. Kudashova, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhukov, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of injection quantum dot microdisk lasers,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 643, 012002 (2015).

Kulagina, M. M.

N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, M. V. Maximov, A. M. Nadtochiy, S. A. Blokhin, M. A. Bobrov, M. M. Kulagina, S. I. Troshkov, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, E. I. Moiseev, Y. V. Kudashova, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhukov, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of injection quantum dot microdisk lasers,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 643, 012002 (2015).

Kuo, Y.

Langer, F.

M. Munsch, J. Claudon, N. S. Malik, K. Gilbert, P. Grosse, J. M. Gerard, F. Albert, F. Langer, T. Schlereth, M. M. Pieczarka, S. Hofling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Reitzenstein, “Room temperature, continuous wave lasing in microcylinder and microring quantum dot laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lau, K. M.

J. Norman, M. J. Kennedy, J. Selvidge, Q. Li, Y. Wan, A. Y. Liu, P. G. Callahan, M. P. Echlin, T. M. Pollock, K. M. Lau, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped continuous wave quantum dot lasers epitaxially grown on patterned, on-axis (001) Si,” Opt. Express 25, 3927–3934 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Optically pumped 1.3 μm room-temperature InAs quantum-dot micro-disk lasers directly grown on (001) silicon,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1664–1667 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, W. W. Chow, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Sub-wavelength InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers epitaxially grown on exact Si (001) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 221101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Temperature characteristics of epitaxially grown InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers on silicon for on-chip light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “Growing antiphase-domain-free GaAs thin films out of highly ordered planar nanowire arrays on exact (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 072105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. H.

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Room-temperature continuous-wave lasing in GaN/InGaN microdisks,” Nat. Photonics 1, 61–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. L.

Li, Q.

J. Norman, M. J. Kennedy, J. Selvidge, Q. Li, Y. Wan, A. Y. Liu, P. G. Callahan, M. P. Echlin, T. M. Pollock, K. M. Lau, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped continuous wave quantum dot lasers epitaxially grown on patterned, on-axis (001) Si,” Opt. Express 25, 3927–3934 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Shi, S. Zhu, Q. Li, Y. Wan, E. L. Hu, and K. May Lau, “Continuous-wave optically pumped 1.55 μm InAs/InAlGaAs quantum dot microdisk lasers epitaxially grown on silicon,” ACS Photon. 4, 204–210 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Temperature characteristics of epitaxially grown InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers on silicon for on-chip light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, W. W. Chow, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Sub-wavelength InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers epitaxially grown on exact Si (001) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 221101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Optically pumped 1.3 μm room-temperature InAs quantum-dot micro-disk lasers directly grown on (001) silicon,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1664–1667 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “Growing antiphase-domain-free GaAs thin films out of highly ordered planar nanowire arrays on exact (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 072105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10, 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, D.

Liao, M.

Lipovskii, A. A.

N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, M. V. Maximov, A. M. Nadtochiy, S. A. Blokhin, M. A. Bobrov, M. M. Kulagina, S. I. Troshkov, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, E. I. Moiseev, Y. V. Kudashova, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhukov, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of injection quantum dot microdisk lasers,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 643, 012002 (2015).

Liu, A. W. K.

A. Y. Liu, C. Zhang, A. Snyder, D. Lubyshev, J. M. Fastenau, A. W. K. Liu, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “MBE growth of P-doped 1.3 μm InAs quantum dot lasers on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32, 02C108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, A. Y.

J. Norman, M. J. Kennedy, J. Selvidge, Q. Li, Y. Wan, A. Y. Liu, P. G. Callahan, M. P. Echlin, T. M. Pollock, K. M. Lau, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped continuous wave quantum dot lasers epitaxially grown on patterned, on-axis (001) Si,” Opt. Express 25, 3927–3934 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Liu, J. Peters, X. Huang, D. Jung, J. Norman, M. L. Lee, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave 1.3 μm quantum-dot lasers epitaxially grown on on-axis (001) GaP/Si,” Opt. Lett. 42, 338–341 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, W. W. Chow, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Sub-wavelength InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers epitaxially grown on exact Si (001) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 221101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Optically pumped 1.3 μm room-temperature InAs quantum-dot micro-disk lasers directly grown on (001) silicon,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1664–1667 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Temperature characteristics of epitaxially grown InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers on silicon for on-chip light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011104 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Liu, C. Zhang, A. Snyder, D. Lubyshev, J. M. Fastenau, A. W. K. Liu, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “MBE growth of P-doped 1.3 μm InAs quantum dot lasers on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32, 02C108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

S. Chen, M. Liao, M. Tang, J. Wu, M. Martin, T. Baron, A. Seeds, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave 1.3 μm InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers monolithically grown on on-axis Si (001) substrates,” Opt. Express 25, 4632–4639 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10, 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lubyshev, D.

A. Y. Liu, C. Zhang, A. Snyder, D. Lubyshev, J. M. Fastenau, A. W. K. Liu, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “MBE growth of P-doped 1.3 μm InAs quantum dot lasers on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32, 02C108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Malik, N. S.

M. Munsch, J. Claudon, N. S. Malik, K. Gilbert, P. Grosse, J. M. Gerard, F. Albert, F. Langer, T. Schlereth, M. M. Pieczarka, S. Hofling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Reitzenstein, “Room temperature, continuous wave lasing in microcylinder and microring quantum dot laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Martin, M.

Maximov, M. V.

N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, M. V. Maximov, A. M. Nadtochiy, S. A. Blokhin, M. A. Bobrov, M. M. Kulagina, S. I. Troshkov, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, E. I. Moiseev, Y. V. Kudashova, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhukov, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of injection quantum dot microdisk lasers,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 643, 012002 (2015).

May Lau, K.

B. Shi, S. Zhu, Q. Li, Y. Wan, E. L. Hu, and K. May Lau, “Continuous-wave optically pumped 1.55 μm InAs/InAlGaAs quantum dot microdisk lasers epitaxially grown on silicon,” ACS Photon. 4, 204–210 (2017).
[Crossref]

Merckling, C.

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. V. Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9, 837–842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Moiseev, E. I.

N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, M. V. Maximov, A. M. Nadtochiy, S. A. Blokhin, M. A. Bobrov, M. M. Kulagina, S. I. Troshkov, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, E. I. Moiseev, Y. V. Kudashova, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhukov, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of injection quantum dot microdisk lasers,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 643, 012002 (2015).

Munsch, M.

M. Munsch, J. Claudon, N. S. Malik, K. Gilbert, P. Grosse, J. M. Gerard, F. Albert, F. Langer, T. Schlereth, M. M. Pieczarka, S. Hofling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Reitzenstein, “Room temperature, continuous wave lasing in microcylinder and microring quantum dot laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nadtochiy, A. M.

N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, M. V. Maximov, A. M. Nadtochiy, S. A. Blokhin, M. A. Bobrov, M. M. Kulagina, S. I. Troshkov, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, E. I. Moiseev, Y. V. Kudashova, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhukov, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of injection quantum dot microdisk lasers,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 643, 012002 (2015).

Nakamura, S.

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Room-temperature continuous-wave lasing in GaN/InGaN microdisks,” Nat. Photonics 1, 61–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ng, K. W.

Q. Li, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “Growing antiphase-domain-free GaAs thin films out of highly ordered planar nanowire arrays on exact (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 072105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Norman, J.

Okumura, T.

Pantouvaki, M.

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. V. Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9, 837–842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peters, J.

Peters, J. D.

Pieczarka, M. M.

M. Munsch, J. Claudon, N. S. Malik, K. Gilbert, P. Grosse, J. M. Gerard, F. Albert, F. Langer, T. Schlereth, M. M. Pieczarka, S. Hofling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Reitzenstein, “Room temperature, continuous wave lasing in microcylinder and microring quantum dot laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pollock, T. M.

Reitzenstein, S.

M. Munsch, J. Claudon, N. S. Malik, K. Gilbert, P. Grosse, J. M. Gerard, F. Albert, F. Langer, T. Schlereth, M. M. Pieczarka, S. Hofling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Reitzenstein, “Room temperature, continuous wave lasing in microcylinder and microring quantum dot laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ristic, S.

Ross, I.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10, 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schlereth, T.

M. Munsch, J. Claudon, N. S. Malik, K. Gilbert, P. Grosse, J. M. Gerard, F. Albert, F. Langer, T. Schlereth, M. M. Pieczarka, S. Hofling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Reitzenstein, “Room temperature, continuous wave lasing in microcylinder and microring quantum dot laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Seeds, A.

Seeds, A. J.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10, 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Selvidge, J.

Sharma, R.

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Room-temperature continuous-wave lasing in GaN/InGaN microdisks,” Nat. Photonics 1, 61–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shi, B.

B. Shi, S. Zhu, Q. Li, Y. Wan, E. L. Hu, and K. May Lau, “Continuous-wave optically pumped 1.55 μm InAs/InAlGaAs quantum dot microdisk lasers epitaxially grown on silicon,” ACS Photon. 4, 204–210 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shutts, S.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10, 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Smowton, P. M.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10, 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Snyder, A.

A. Y. Liu, C. Zhang, A. Snyder, D. Lubyshev, J. M. Fastenau, A. W. K. Liu, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “MBE growth of P-doped 1.3 μm InAs quantum dot lasers on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32, 02C108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sobiesierski, A.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10, 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Song, B.

Spencer, D. T.

Stagarescu, C.

Tamboli, A. C.

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Room-temperature continuous-wave lasing in GaN/InGaN microdisks,” Nat. Photonics 1, 61–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tang, M.

S. Chen, M. Liao, M. Tang, J. Wu, M. Martin, T. Baron, A. Seeds, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave 1.3 μm InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers monolithically grown on on-axis Si (001) substrates,” Opt. Express 25, 4632–4639 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10, 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tian, B.

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. V. Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9, 837–842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Troshkov, S. I.

N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, M. V. Maximov, A. M. Nadtochiy, S. A. Blokhin, M. A. Bobrov, M. M. Kulagina, S. I. Troshkov, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, E. I. Moiseev, Y. V. Kudashova, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhukov, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of injection quantum dot microdisk lasers,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 643, 012002 (2015).

Ustinov, V. M.

N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, M. V. Maximov, A. M. Nadtochiy, S. A. Blokhin, M. A. Bobrov, M. M. Kulagina, S. I. Troshkov, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, E. I. Moiseev, Y. V. Kudashova, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhukov, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of injection quantum dot microdisk lasers,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 643, 012002 (2015).

Van Thourhout, D.

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. V. Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9, 837–842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wan, Y.

B. Shi, S. Zhu, Q. Li, Y. Wan, E. L. Hu, and K. May Lau, “Continuous-wave optically pumped 1.55 μm InAs/InAlGaAs quantum dot microdisk lasers epitaxially grown on silicon,” ACS Photon. 4, 204–210 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Norman, M. J. Kennedy, J. Selvidge, Q. Li, Y. Wan, A. Y. Liu, P. G. Callahan, M. P. Echlin, T. M. Pollock, K. M. Lau, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped continuous wave quantum dot lasers epitaxially grown on patterned, on-axis (001) Si,” Opt. Express 25, 3927–3934 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Optically pumped 1.3 μm room-temperature InAs quantum-dot micro-disk lasers directly grown on (001) silicon,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1664–1667 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, W. W. Chow, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Sub-wavelength InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers epitaxially grown on exact Si (001) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 221101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Temperature characteristics of epitaxially grown InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers on silicon for on-chip light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. V. Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9, 837–842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

S. Chen, M. Liao, M. Tang, J. Wu, M. Martin, T. Baron, A. Seeds, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave 1.3 μm InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers monolithically grown on on-axis Si (001) substrates,” Opt. Express 25, 4632–4639 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10, 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zadiranov, Y. M.

N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, M. V. Maximov, A. M. Nadtochiy, S. A. Blokhin, M. A. Bobrov, M. M. Kulagina, S. I. Troshkov, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, E. I. Moiseev, Y. V. Kudashova, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhukov, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of injection quantum dot microdisk lasers,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 643, 012002 (2015).

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, S. Zhang, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “8 × 8 × 40 Gbps fully integrated silicon photonic network on chip,” Optica 3, 785–786 (2016).

A. Y. Liu, C. Zhang, A. Snyder, D. Lubyshev, J. M. Fastenau, A. W. K. Liu, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “MBE growth of P-doped 1.3 μm InAs quantum dot lasers on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32, 02C108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

Zhu, S.

B. Shi, S. Zhu, Q. Li, Y. Wan, E. L. Hu, and K. May Lau, “Continuous-wave optically pumped 1.55 μm InAs/InAlGaAs quantum dot microdisk lasers epitaxially grown on silicon,” ACS Photon. 4, 204–210 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhukov, A. E.

N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, M. V. Maximov, A. M. Nadtochiy, S. A. Blokhin, M. A. Bobrov, M. M. Kulagina, S. I. Troshkov, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, E. I. Moiseev, Y. V. Kudashova, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhukov, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of injection quantum dot microdisk lasers,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 643, 012002 (2015).

ACS Photon. (1)

B. Shi, S. Zhu, Q. Li, Y. Wan, E. L. Hu, and K. May Lau, “Continuous-wave optically pumped 1.55 μm InAs/InAlGaAs quantum dot microdisk lasers epitaxially grown on silicon,” ACS Photon. 4, 204–210 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Temperature characteristics of epitaxially grown InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers on silicon for on-chip light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011104 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Munsch, J. Claudon, N. S. Malik, K. Gilbert, P. Grosse, J. M. Gerard, F. Albert, F. Langer, T. Schlereth, M. M. Pieczarka, S. Hofling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Reitzenstein, “Room temperature, continuous wave lasing in microcylinder and microring quantum dot laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “Growing antiphase-domain-free GaAs thin films out of highly ordered planar nanowire arrays on exact (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 072105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, Q. Li, A. Y. Liu, W. W. Chow, A. C. Gossard, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, and K. M. Lau, “Sub-wavelength InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers epitaxially grown on exact Si (001) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 221101 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. J. R. Heck and J. E. Bowers, “Energy efficient and energy proportional optical interconnects for multi-core processors: driving the need for on-chip sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 332–343 (2014).
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J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the GaAs-on-Si template. (b) and (c) Cross-sectional TEM images of the V-grooved structure, showing stacking faults trapped by the silicon pockets. (d) AFM image of approximately 1.5 μm coalesced GaAs thin film of the GaAs-on-Si template. The vertical bar is 15 nm. (e) The GaAs (004) rocking curve showing a FWHM value of 162 arcsec. (f) The schematic of the complete epitaxial laser structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Processing steps in the device fabrication. Top view (b) and cross-sectional view (c) SEM images of a fabricated device. (d) 90° tilted zoomed-in SEM image of the mesa.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Current-voltage characteristics, (b) power-injection current characteristics, and (c) emission spectra at progressively higher injection currents for a micro-ring laser with a radius of 50 μm and a ring width of 4 μm under CW operation at room temperature.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured L–I curve from the micro-ring laser with a radius of 50 μm as a function of temperature under (a) CW operation and (b) pulsed condition.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Temperature dependence of the threshold current and the slope efficiency, from the micro-ring laser with a radius of 50 μm and a ring width of 4 μm under (a) pulse operation and (b) CW condition. The dashed lines represent linear fits to the experimental data.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Measured L–I–V curve of a micro-ring laser with a radius of 5 μm and a ring width of 3 μm. Inset is the zoom-in view of the L–I curve to visualize the onset of the kink. (b) Zoomed-in view of the LI curve in the log–log scale. Inset: infrared image of the laser cavity above threshold. (c) Emission spectra with progressively higher injection currents.