Abstract

Wurtzite aluminum nitride (AlN) is known to exhibit six Raman-active optic phonons, making it appealing for Raman lasing. Here, we demonstrate continuous-wave Raman lasers with a low threshold and a high slope efficiency in high quality factor AlN-on-sapphire microrings. Stokes radiations around 1.7–1.8 μm and cascaded operation into 1.9–2.0 μm are identified with a telecom pump. Two types of Stokes lights with distinct Raman shifts and polarizations are recorded via selective excitation of corresponding optic phonons, in accordance with the Raman selection rules in AlN. The observed lasing behavior is satisfactorily accounted for by a theoretical analysis. Our results indicate that AlN-on-sapphire should be promising for integrated nonlinear optics.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

M. Jouravlev, D. R. Mason, and K. S. Kim, Phys. Rev. A 85, 013825 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Nano Lett. 12, 3562 (2012).
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2011 (1)

J. C. Yan, J. X. Wang, P. P. Cong, L. L. Sun, N. X. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Zhao, and J. M. Li, Phys. Status Solidi C 8, 461 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143903 (2010).
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J. Müller, M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, Opt. Express 18, 19532 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

H. S. Rong, S. B. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 2, 170 (2008).
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2007 (2)

H. S. Rong, S. B. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 1, 232 (2007).
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I. S. Grudinin and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 32, 166 (2007).
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2006 (3)

2005 (2)

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B. Min, L. Yang, and K. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181109 (2005).
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2004 (2)

2003 (1)

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2002 (2)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 27, 1669 (2002).
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2001 (1)

M. Kuball, Surf. Interface Anal. 31, 987 (2001).
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1993 (1)

L. E. McNeil, M. Grimsditch, and R. H. French, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76, 1132 (1993).
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1963 (1)

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Y. K. Chembo, I. S. Grudinin, and N. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 92, 043818 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. S. Grudinin and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 32, 166 (2007).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

Hak, D.

Han, Y. J.

Hao, Z. B.

Hausmann, B. J. M.

Heimann, P.

M. Bickermann, B. M. Epelbaum, P. Heimann, Z. G. Herro, and A. Winnacker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hellwarth, R. W.

R. W. Hellwarth, Phys. Rev. 130, 1850 (1963).
[Crossref]

Herro, Z. G.

M. Bickermann, B. M. Epelbaum, P. Heimann, Z. G. Herro, and A. Winnacker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131904 (2005).
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Jones, R.

Jouravlev, M.

M. Jouravlev, D. R. Mason, and K. S. Kim, Phys. Rev. A 85, 013825 (2012).
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M. Kazan, C. Zgheib, E. Moussaed, and P. Masri, Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 1169 (2006).
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Kim, K. S.

M. Jouravlev, D. R. Mason, and K. S. Kim, Phys. Rev. A 85, 013825 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Krause, M.

Kuball, M.

M. Kuball, Surf. Interface Anal. 31, 987 (2001).
[Crossref]

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H. S. Rong, S. B. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 1, 232 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. S. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, S. B. Xu, A. Liu, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and O. Raday, Opt. Express 14, 6705 (2006).
[Crossref]

Latawiec, P.

P. Latawiec, V. Venkataraman, M. J. Burek, B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, Optica 2, 924 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Okawachi, M. Yu, V. Venkataraman, P. Latawiec, A. Grith, M. Lipson, M. Loncar, and A. L. Gaeta, “Competition between Raman and Kerr effects in microresonator comb generation,” arXiv: 1705.01900 (2017).

Lee, M.

H. S. Rong, S. B. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 2, 170 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, H. T.

Li, J. M.

J. C. Yan, J. X. Wang, P. P. Cong, L. L. Sun, N. X. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Zhao, and J. M. Li, Phys. Status Solidi C 8, 461 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liang, W.

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Y. Okawachi, M. Yu, V. Venkataraman, P. Latawiec, A. Grith, M. Lipson, M. Loncar, and A. L. Gaeta, “Competition between Raman and Kerr effects in microresonator comb generation,” arXiv: 1705.01900 (2017).

Liu, A.

Liu, A. S.

Liu, N. X.

J. C. Yan, J. X. Wang, P. P. Cong, L. L. Sun, N. X. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Zhao, and J. M. Li, Phys. Status Solidi C 8, 461 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. W.

Liu, Z.

J. C. Yan, J. X. Wang, P. P. Cong, L. L. Sun, N. X. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Zhao, and J. M. Li, Phys. Status Solidi C 8, 461 (2011).
[Crossref]

Loncar, M.

P. Latawiec, V. Venkataraman, M. J. Burek, B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, Optica 2, 924 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Okawachi, M. Yu, V. Venkataraman, P. Latawiec, A. Grith, M. Lipson, M. Loncar, and A. L. Gaeta, “Competition between Raman and Kerr effects in microresonator comb generation,” arXiv: 1705.01900 (2017).

Luo, Y.

Maleki, L.

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143903 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. S. Grudinin and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 32, 166 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mason, D. R.

M. Jouravlev, D. R. Mason, and K. S. Kim, Phys. Rev. A 85, 013825 (2012).
[Crossref]

Masri, P.

M. Kazan, C. Zgheib, E. Moussaed, and P. Masri, Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 1169 (2006).
[Crossref]

Matsko, A. B.

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143903 (2010).
[Crossref]

McNeil, L. E.

L. E. McNeil, M. Grimsditch, and R. H. French, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76, 1132 (1993).
[Crossref]

Min, B.

B. Min, L. Yang, and K. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moussaed, E.

M. Kazan, C. Zgheib, E. Moussaed, and P. Masri, Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 1169 (2006).
[Crossref]

Müller, J.

Okawachi, Y.

Y. Okawachi, M. Yu, V. Venkataraman, P. Latawiec, A. Grith, M. Lipson, M. Loncar, and A. L. Gaeta, “Competition between Raman and Kerr effects in microresonator comb generation,” arXiv: 1705.01900 (2017).

Paniccia, M.

H. S. Rong, S. B. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 2, 170 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. S. Rong, S. B. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 1, 232 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. S. Liu, H. S. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 230 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. S. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, S. B. Xu, A. Liu, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and O. Raday, Opt. Express 14, 6705 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pask, H. M.

H. M. Pask, Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 3 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pernice, W. H. P.

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Nano Lett. 12, 3562 (2012).
[Crossref]

Peter, Y.-A.

Raday, O.

H. S. Rong, S. B. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 2, 170 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. S. Rong, S. B. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 1, 232 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. S. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, S. B. Xu, A. Liu, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and O. Raday, Opt. Express 14, 6705 (2006).
[Crossref]

Renner, H.

Rochette, M.

Rong, H. S.

H. S. Rong, S. B. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 2, 170 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. S. Rong, S. B. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 1, 232 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. S. Liu, H. S. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 230 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. S. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, S. B. Xu, A. Liu, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and O. Raday, Opt. Express 14, 6705 (2006).
[Crossref]

Savchenkov, A. A.

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Seidel, D.

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sih, V.

H. S. Rong, S. B. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 2, 170 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. S. Rong, S. B. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 1, 232 (2007).
[Crossref]

Spillane, S. M.

Stoll, R.

Sun, C. Z.

Sun, L. L.

J. C. Yan, J. X. Wang, P. P. Cong, L. L. Sun, N. X. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Zhao, and J. M. Li, Phys. Status Solidi C 8, 461 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tang, H. X.

H. Jung, R. Stoll, X. Guo, D. Fischer, and H. X. Tang, Optica 1, 396 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Nano Lett. 12, 3562 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K.

B. Min, L. Yang, and K. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

Vanier, F.

Venkataraman, V.

P. Latawiec, V. Venkataraman, M. J. Burek, B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, Optica 2, 924 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Okawachi, M. Yu, V. Venkataraman, P. Latawiec, A. Grith, M. Lipson, M. Loncar, and A. L. Gaeta, “Competition between Raman and Kerr effects in microresonator comb generation,” arXiv: 1705.01900 (2017).

Wang, J.

Wang, J. X.

Wang, L.

Wei, T. B.

Winnacker, A.

M. Bickermann, B. M. Epelbaum, P. Heimann, Z. G. Herro, and A. Winnacker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xiong, B.

Xiong, C.

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Nano Lett. 12, 3562 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, S. B.

H. S. Rong, S. B. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 2, 170 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. S. Rong, S. B. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 1, 232 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. S. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, S. B. Xu, A. Liu, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and O. Raday, Opt. Express 14, 6705 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yan, J. C.

Yang, L.

B. Min, L. Yang, and K. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181109 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Express 12, 4742 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yu, M.

Y. Okawachi, M. Yu, V. Venkataraman, P. Latawiec, A. Grith, M. Lipson, M. Loncar, and A. L. Gaeta, “Competition between Raman and Kerr effects in microresonator comb generation,” arXiv: 1705.01900 (2017).

Yu, N.

Y. K. Chembo, I. S. Grudinin, and N. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 92, 043818 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zgheib, C.

M. Kazan, C. Zgheib, E. Moussaed, and P. Masri, Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 1169 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, C.

J. C. Yan, J. X. Wang, P. P. Cong, L. L. Sun, N. X. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Zhao, and J. M. Li, Phys. Status Solidi C 8, 461 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Bickermann, B. M. Epelbaum, P. Heimann, Z. G. Herro, and A. Winnacker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131904 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Min, L. Yang, and K. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Diam. Relat. Mater. (1)

M. Kazan, C. Zgheib, E. Moussaed, and P. Masri, Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 1169 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

L. E. McNeil, M. Grimsditch, and R. H. French, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76, 1132 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Nano Lett. 12, 3562 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

H. S. Rong, S. B. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 1, 232 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. S. Rong, S. B. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 2, 170 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Device characterization, dispersion simulation, and spontaneous AlN Raman spectroscopy

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Left: Energy-level diagram for the SRS process. Middle: Schematics of the structure and principle for microring-based AlN Raman lasers. Right: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the cleaved waveguide facet (embedded in 3 μm silica), exposing the a -plane ( 11 2 ¯ 0 ) of sapphire and m -plane ( 10 1 ¯ 0 ) of AlN. (b) and (c) Measured resonance linewidth and extracted Q -factors for TM 00 and TE 00 modes, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. AlN Raman lasers for TM-polarized pump. (a) 1st Stokes lasing around 1725 nm with a 612    cm 1 Raman shift from the pump (on-chip power 126    mW ). (b) The 1st Stokes power exhibits a linear dependence on the on-chip pump power, and the unidirectional external slope efficiency is 3.6 % . Inset: Log-scale plot of Stokes power with a 50    dB jump once the pump is above 8    mW . (c). Discrete tuning of 1st Stokes radiation with the pump source boosted by an EDFA or directly from a TSL-510 tunable laser. (d) Observed 2nd Stokes lasing at 1928.7    nm with an increased on-chip pump power of 794    mW . Here, the output pump light is attenuated by 7 dB before entering the OSA. (e) Recorded 2nd Stokes output power versus on-chip pump power with a lasing threshold of 602    mW and a unidirectional external slope efficiency of 5.4 % .
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. AlN Raman lasers for TE-polarized pump. (a) 1st and 2nd Stokes lasing at 1738 and 1963.4 nm with a Raman shift of 660    cm 1 (on-chip pump power 126    mW ). (b) and (c) 1st and 2nd Stokes output power versus on-chip pump power. Insets: Log-scale plots of Stokes power with an estimated threshold of 34 and 40 mW, respectively. (d) Observed comb lines around pump, Stokes, and anti-Stokes wavelengths at an increased on-chip power of 158    mW .
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Backward output spectra for (a) TM-polarized pump and (b) TE-polarized pump at an on-chip power of 126    mW . Because of the waveguide facet reflection, Fabry–Perot interference fringes in the amplifier spontaneous emission (ASE) noise are noticed.

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