Abstract

Time-resolved spectroscopy in the vacuum/extreme ultraviolet (VUV/XUV) spectral range promises to disclose ultrafast dynamics in all states of matter. Completing a measurement within a single shot eliminates the influence of experimental parameter fluctuations and enhances its statistical significance. We demonstrate a single-shot temporal metrology scheme operating in the vacuum/extreme-ultraviolet spectral range, combining few-femtosecond resolution in a wide temporal window with high detection efficiency. An anticollinear geometry encodes temporal delay information on the beam propagation coordinate. The spatial distribution of ions created in the common focus is captured with a mass/charge-state-selective ion imaging spectrometer, resulting in a single-shot pump–probe measurement. We demonstrate a proof-of-principle single-shot VUV-pump/VUV-probe experiment by investigating ultrafast dissociation dynamics of O2 excited at 162 nm. The experimental determination of the finite instrument response in the same apparatus enables robust deconvolution of the investigated dynamics well beyond the instrument’s intrinsic temporal resolution.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

O. Schepp, A. Baumann, D. Rompotis, T. Gebert, A. Azima, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Tracing few-femtosecond photodissociation dynamics on molecular oxygen with a single-color pump–probe scheme in the VUV,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 2–6 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

D. Rompotis, T. Gebert, M. Wieland, F. Karimi, and M. Drescher, “Efficient generation of below-threshold harmonics for high-fidelity multi-photon physics in the VUV spectral range,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1675–1678 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Heissler, A. Barna, J. M. Mikhailova, G. Ma, K. Khrennikov, S. Karsch, L. Veisz, I. B. Földes, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Multi-μJ harmonic emission energy from laser-driven plasma,” Appl. Phys. B 118, 195–201 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

Y. Hikosaka, M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, T. Endo, Y. Toida, E. Shigemasa, M. Nagasono, K. Tono, T. Togashi, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and A. Hishikawa, “Five-photon sequential double ionization of He in intense extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 053403 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Žitnik, A. Mihelič, K. Bučar, M. Kavčič, J.-E. Rubensson, M. Svanquist, J. Söderström, R. Feifel, C. Såthe, Y. Ovcharenko, V. Lyamayev, T. Mazza, M. Meyer, M. Simon, L. Journel, J. Lüning, O. Plekan, M. Coreno, M. Devetta, M. Di Fraia, P. Finetti, R. Richter, C. Grazioli, K. C. Prince, and C. Callegari, “High resolution multiphoton spectroscopy by a tunable free-electron-laser light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 193201 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Okino, Y. Furukawa, T. Shimizu, Y. Nabekawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Nonlinear Fourier transformation spectroscopy of small molecules with intense attosecond pulse train,” J. Phys. B 47, 124007 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. A. Carpeggiani, P. Tzallas, A. Palacios, D. Gray, F. Martn, and D. Charalambidis, “Disclosing intrinsic molecular dynamics on the 1-fs scale through extreme-ultraviolet pump–probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 24–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Kolliopoulos, P. Tzallas, B. Bergues, P. A. Carpeggiani, P. Heissler, H. Schröder, L. Veisz, D. Charalambidis, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Single-shot autocorrelator for extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 926–938 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Gebert, D. Rompotis, M. Wieland, F. Karimi, A. Azima, and M. Drescher, “Michelson-type all-reflective interferometric autocorrelation in the VUV regime,” New J. Phys. 16, 073047 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

K. Schnorr, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, A. Rudenko, L. Foucar, G. Schmid, A. Broska, T. Pfeifer, K. Meyer, D. Anielski, R. Boll, D. Rolles, M. Kübel, M. F. Kling, Y. H. Jiang, S. Mondal, T. Tachibana, K. Ueda, T. Marchenko, M. Simon, G. Brenner, R. Treusch, S. Scheit, V. Averbukh, J. Ullrich, C. D. Schröter, and R. Moshammer, “Time-resolved measurement of interatomic coulombic decay in Ne2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 093402 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Attosecond nonlinear optics using gigawatt-scale isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2691 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

I. Grguraš, A. R. Maier, C. Behrens, T. Mazza, T. J. Kelly, P. Radcliffe, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Ultrafast x-ray pulse characterization at free-electron lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6, 852–857 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. K. Allison, H. Tao, W. J. Glover, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, T. J. Martínez, and A. Belkacem, “Ultrafast internal conversion in ethylene. II. Mechanisms and pathways for quenching and hydrogen elimination,” J. Chem. Phys. 136, 124317 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Rudek, S.-K. Son, L. Foucar, S. W. Epp, B. Erk, R. Hartmann, M. Adolph, R. Andritschke, A. Aquila, N. Berrah, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, N. Coppola, F. Filsinger, H. Gorke, T. Gorkhover, H. Graafsma, L. Gumprecht, A. Hartmann, G. Hauser, S. Herrmann, H. Hirsemann, P. Holl, A. Hömke, L. Journel, C. Kaiser, N. Kimmel, F. Krasniqi, K.-U. Kühnel, M. Matysek, M. Messerschmidt, D. Miesner, T. Möller, R. Moshammer, K. Nagaya, B. Nilsson, G. Potdevin, D. Pietschner, C. Reich, D. Rupp, G. Schaller, I. Schlichting, C. Schmidt, F. Schopper, S. Schorb, C.-D. Schröter, J. Schulz, M. Simon, H. Soltau, L. Strüder, K. Ueda, G. Weidenspointner, R. Santra, J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, and D. Rolles, “Ultra-efficient ionization of heavy atoms by intense x-ray free-electron laser pulses,” Nat. Photonics 6, 858–865 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (8)

H. Tao, T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, A. Belkacem, and T. J. Martinez, “Ultrafast internal conversion in ethylene. I. The excited state lifetime,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 244306 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Extreme-ultraviolet pump–probe studies of one-femtosecond-scale electron dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 7, 781–784 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Boutu, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, H. Merdji, and B. Carré, “Scaling of the generation of high-order harmonics in large gas media with focal length,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053819 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 655–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Trushin, W. E. Schmid, and W. Fuß, “Time-resolved photodissociation of oxygen at 162  nm,” J. Phys. B 44, 165602 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, B. Bergues, H. Schröder, F. Krausz, and K. L. Kompa, “Spatially resolved measurement of ionization yields in the focus of an intense laser pulse,” New J. Phys. 13, 033001 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Schütte, U. Frühling, M. Wieland, A. Azima, and M. Drescher, “Electron wave packet sampling with laser-generated extreme ultraviolet and terahertz fields,” Opt. Express 19, 18833 (2011).
[Crossref]

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2010 (6)

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2009 (4)

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2006 (2)

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2005 (3)

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2004 (3)

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2003 (2)

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2001 (1)

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2000 (2)

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1999 (2)

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E. P. Benis, D. Charalambidis, T. N. Kitsopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and P. Tzallas, “Two-photon double ionization of rare gases by a superposition of harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 051402 (2006).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental setup. SiW, Si wedge mirror; FM1 and FM2, identical spherical mirrors with f=150  mm; RM1 and RM2, plane mirrors; IOpt, ion imaging time-of-flight spectrometer; P-GV: pulsed gas valve; PSD, time-gated position-sensitive detector. (b) Delay-to-space encoding principle.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Kr+ ion distribution in the focal region: 200 shots averaged—single optical branch. (b) Time-gated ion TOF spectra: Kr+ (blue), O2+ (red), and O+ (green). (c) Kr+ and Xe+ ion signal dependence on the fifth-harmonic intensity. The fitted slopes verify the nonresonant two-photon absorption in both cases.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Intensity autocorrelation at 161.8 nm. (a) Averaged measurement (800 shots), (b) single-shot measurement, and (c) vertical-integrated lineout of (b). *Cross-calibrated delay time scale.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Single-shot VUV-pump/VUV-probe experiment at 162 nm: ultrafast dissociation of O2+. (a) Averaged single-shot O2+ signal, (b) vertical-integrated lineout of (a) combined with a Kr+ IAC measurement, and (c) simulated ion signal corresponding to Fig. 4(b).

Equations (1)

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τ(x)=2·n·xc,

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