Abstract

In a few-cycle laser pulse, the peak field strength depends on the carrier envelope phase. Concurrently, coherent control requires the measurement and manipulation of the spectral phase of a light pulse to influence a dynamical process that has multiple interfering pathways. Here, we exploit the interference of second harmonic generation and self-phase modulation in an 80 μm thick quartz plate due to a two-cycle pulse centered at 1.8 μm with peak intensity 3×1013  W/cm2 to generate half-cycle electric field transients. In a monolithic step, we transform a measurement of the carrier envelope phase to the control over the pulse evolution with subcycle temporal accuracy. The high-intensity subcycle transient is scalable in pulse energy and will be useful for strong field physics and attosecond science: the ultrashort infrared pulse can generate isolated attosecond pulses from low bandgap semiconductor materials, and will be able to optically control currents on a subfemtosecond timescale.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (6)

A. Sommer, E. M. Bothschafter, S. A. Sato, C. Jakubeit, T. Latka, O. Razskazovskaya, H. Fattahi, M. Jobst, W. Schweinberger, V. Shirvanyan, V. S. Yakovlev, R. Kienberger, K. Yabana, N. Karpowicz, M. Schultze, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nonlinear polarization and light–matter energy transfer in solids,” Nature 534, 86–90 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Chang, P. B. Corkum, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond optics and technology: progress to date and future prospects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33, 1081–1097 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Shumakova, P. Malevich, S. Ališauskas, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, D. Faccio, D. Kartashov, A. Baltuška, and A. Pugžlys, “Multi-millijoule few-cycle mid-infrared pulses through nonlinear self-compression in bulk,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12877 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530, 66–70 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. J. Hammond, G. G. Brown, K. T. Kim, D. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond pulses measured from the attosecond lighthouse,” Nat. Photonics 10, 171–175 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Garg, M. Zhan, T. T. Luu, H. Lakhotia, T. Klostermann, A. Guggenmos, and E. Goulielmakis, “Multi-petahertz electronic metrology,” Nature 538, 359–363 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

T. Balciunas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. Paulus, A. Baltuska, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6117 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, G. Vampa, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond lighthouse driven by sub-two-cycle, 1.8 mm laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 48, 061001 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Cunningham, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Carrier-envelopephase control of a 10 Hz, 25 TW laser for high-flux extreme ultraviolet quasi-continuum generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 201108 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Petahertz optical oscilloscope,” Nat. Photonics 7, 958–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

S. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. Birge, L. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kaertner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. TralleroHerrero, É. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8 mm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121109 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics 4, 33–36 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Ettoumi, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Generalized Miller formulae,” Opt. Express 18, 6613–6620 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schátzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Singleshot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. K. F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

C. Li, E. Moon, H. Wang, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, J. Tackett, and Z. Chang, “Determining the phase-energy coupling coefficient in carrier-envelope phase measurements,” Opt. Lett. 32, 796–798 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen years of work on thin-disk lasers: results and scaling laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 598–609 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. Tritschler, O. D. Muecke, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kaertner, “Evidence for third-harmonic generation in disguise of second-harmonic generation in extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 217404 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. Husakou and J. Hermann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

A. Haché, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. Hughes, J. Sipe, and H. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “A novel-high energy pulse compression system: generation of multigigawatt sub-5-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 189–196 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

E. Dupont, P. Corkum, H. C. Lu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “Phase-controlled current in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596–3599 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D. Roberts, “Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear optical crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

P. Brumer and M. Shapiro, “Control of unimolecular reactions using coherent light,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 126, 541–546 (1986).
[Crossref]

Alahmed, Z. A.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ališauskas, S.

V. Shumakova, P. Malevich, S. Ališauskas, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, D. Faccio, D. Kartashov, A. Baltuška, and A. Pugžlys, “Multi-millijoule few-cycle mid-infrared pulses through nonlinear self-compression in bulk,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12877 (2016).
[Crossref]

Apolonski, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. K. F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Atanasov, R.

A. Haché, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. Hughes, J. Sipe, and H. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).
[Crossref]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. K. F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Azzeer, A. M.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Balciunas, T.

T. Balciunas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. Paulus, A. Baltuska, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6117 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baltuska, A.

T. Balciunas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. Paulus, A. Baltuska, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6117 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

Baltuška, A.

V. Shumakova, P. Malevich, S. Ališauskas, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, D. Faccio, D. Kartashov, A. Baltuška, and A. Pugžlys, “Multi-millijoule few-cycle mid-infrared pulses through nonlinear self-compression in bulk,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12877 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

Béjot, P.

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. TralleroHerrero, É. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8 mm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Benabid, F.

T. Balciunas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. Paulus, A. Baltuska, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6117 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, S.

S. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. Birge, L. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kaertner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Birge, J.

S. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. Birge, L. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kaertner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bisson, É.

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. TralleroHerrero, É. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8 mm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bothschafter, E. M.

A. Sommer, E. M. Bothschafter, S. A. Sato, C. Jakubeit, T. Latka, O. Razskazovskaya, H. Fattahi, M. Jobst, W. Schweinberger, V. Shirvanyan, V. S. Yakovlev, R. Kienberger, K. Yabana, N. Karpowicz, M. Schultze, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nonlinear polarization and light–matter energy transfer in solids,” Nature 534, 86–90 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brown, G. G.

T. J. Hammond, G. G. Brown, K. T. Kim, D. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond pulses measured from the attosecond lighthouse,” Nat. Photonics 10, 171–175 (2016).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Visible portion of the spectrum after quartz. (a) At low intensity, Ipeak=1×1013  W/cm2, the spectral modulation shows an interference that is dependent on the CEP. (b) At moderate intensity, Ipeak=3×1013  W/cm2, there is also an amplitude modulation due to the strong interference of the second harmonic and self-phase modulation. (c) Without the second harmonic, where the incident polarization is parallel to the optic axis, there is no second harmonic generated and no spectral modulation Ipeak=3×1013  W/cm2.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. PHz optical oscilloscope traces for two values of the CEP differing by π. We measure a pulse of (a) one half-cycle in duration, or (b) more than one cycle in duration. (c) The square of the measured field shows the pulse duration. For the half-cycle case, the FWHM is 1.3 fs (arrows).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Simulation of the pulse intensity. (a) The intensity (the field square) modulates as a function of CEP due to the second harmonic. (b) Two selected values of the CEP, 0 and π (blue and red, respectively), show the change in pulse shape (envelope dash lines, field solid lines). For CEP=0, the envelope has a FWHM pulse duration of 2.3 fs, while the square of the field duration (black arrows) is 1.2 fs.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. At high intensity, Ipeak=4×1013  W/cm2, the spectral modulation becomes nonlinear as a function of CEP; (a) experiment and (b) theory. Insets: zoom-in of spectrum from 700 to 730 nm (black dashed box); black line is a guide for the CEP measurement at large spectral amplitude. When the visible spectral amplitude is maximum, the modulation becomes less dependent on the CEP. (c) The calculated field (scale V/Å) as a function of CEP has a nonlinear phase delay; the nonlinear temporal shift leads to a nonlinear CEP dependence.

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