Abstract

We demonstrate a new technique for spatial mapping of multiple atmospheric gas species. This system is based on high-precision dual-comb spectroscopy to a retroreflector mounted on a flying multicopter. We measure the atmospheric absorption over long open-air paths to the multicopter with comb-tooth resolution over 1.57–1.66 μm, covering absorption bands of CO2, CH4, H2O, and isotopologues. When combined with GPS-based path length measurements, a fit of the absorption spectra retrieves the dry mixing ratios versus position. Under well-mixed atmospheric conditions, retrievals from both horizontal and vertical paths show stable mixing ratios as expected. This approach can support future boundary layer studies as well as plume detection and source location.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

T. Ideguchi, “Dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Photon. News 28(1), 32–39 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

I. Coddington, N. Newbury, and W. Swann, “Dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica 3, 414–426 (2016).
[Crossref]

G.-W. Truong, E. M. Waxman, K. C. Cossel, E. Baumann, A. Klose, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Accurate frequency referencing for fieldable dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24, 30495–30504 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. E. McDuffie, P. M. Edwards, J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, W. P. Dubé, M. Trainer, D. E. Wolfe, W. M. Angevine, J. deGouw, E. J. Williams, A. G. Tevlin, J. G. Murphy, E. V. Fischer, S. McKeen, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, K. Aikin, A. O. Langford, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, S. R. Hall, K. Ullmann, K. O. Lantz, and S. S. Brown, “Influence of oil and gas emissions on summertime ozone in the Colorado Northern front range,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121, 8712–8729 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. J. Prenni, D. E. Day, A. R. Evanoski-Cole, B. C. Sive, A. Hecobian, Y. Zhou, K. A. Gebhart, J. L. Hand, A. P. Sullivan, Y. Li, M. I. Schurman, Y. Desyaterik, W. C. Malm, J. L. Collett, and B. A. Schichtel, “Oil and gas impacts on air quality in federal lands in the Bakken region: an overview of the Bakken Air Quality Study and first results,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 1401–1416 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. J. Schroeder, R. J. Wright, S. Coburn, B. Sodergren, K. C. Cossel, S. Droste, G. W. Truong, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, and G. B. Rieker, “Dual frequency comb laser absorption spectroscopy in a 16 MW gas turbine exhaust,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36, 4565–4573 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. J. Oltmans, A. Karion, R. C. Schnell, G. Pétron, D. Helmig, S. A. Montzka, S. Wolter, D. Neff, B. R. Miller, J. Hueber, S. Conley, B. J. Johnson, and C. Sweeney, “O3, CH4, CO2, CO, NO2 and NMHC aircraft measurements in the Uinta Basin oil and gas region under low and high ozone conditions in winter 2012 and 2013,” Elem. Sci. Anth. 4, 000132 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

R. Aharoni, I. Ron, N. Gilad, A. Manor, Y. Arav, and S. Kendler, “Real-time stand-off spatial detection and identification of gases and vapor using external-cavity quantum cascade laser open-path spectrometer,” Opt. Eng. 54, 067103 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschênes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited article: a compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 081301 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Zavala-Araiza, D. R. Lyon, R. A. Alvarez, K. J. Davis, R. Harriss, S. C. Herndon, A. Karion, E. A. Kort, B. K. Lamb, X. Lan, A. J. Marchese, S. W. Pacala, A. L. Robinson, P. B. Shepson, C. Sweeney, R. Talbot, A. Townsend-Small, T. I. Yacovitch, D. J. Zimmerle, and S. P. Hamburg, “Reconciling divergent estimates of oil and gas methane emissions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 15597–15602 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, J. M. Roberts, R. Ahmadov, R. M. Banta, J. A. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, R. A. Field, J. H. Flynn, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, D. Helmig, A. Koss, A. O. Langford, B. L. Lefer, B. M. Lerner, R. Li, S.-M. Li, S. A. McKeen, S. M. Murphy, D. D. Parrish, C. J. Senff, J. Soltis, J. Stutz, C. Sweeney, C. R. Thompson, M. K. Trainer, C. Tsai, P. R. Veres, R. A. Washenfelder, C. Warneke, R. J. Wild, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora, “High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin,” Nature 514, 351–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. R. Brandt, G. A. Heath, E. A. Kort, F. O’sullivan, G. Pétron, S. M. Jordaan, P. Tans, J. Wilcox, A. M. Gopstein, D. Arent, S. Wofsy, N. J. Brown, R. Bradley, G. D. Stucky, D. Eardley, and R. Harriss, “Methane leaks from North American natural gas systems,”Science 343, 733–735 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Pétron, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, B. R. Miller, S. A. Montzka, G. J. Frost, M. Trainer, P. Tans, A. Andrews, J. Kofler, D. Helmig, D. Guenther, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, B. Hall, P. Novelli, A. Brewer, S. Conley, M. Hardesty, R. Banta, A. White, D. Noone, D. Wolfe, and R. Schnell, “A new look at methane and nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Colorado Denver-Julesburg Basin,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119, 6836–6852 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Lauvaux and K. J. Davis, “Planetary boundary layer errors in mesoscale inversions of column-integrated CO2 measurements,”J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119, 490–508 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. I. Díaz Isaac, T. Lauvaux, K. J. Davis, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, A. R. Jacobson, and A. E. Andrews, “Model-data comparison of MCI field campaign atmospheric CO2 mole fractions,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119, 10536–10551 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, J. Kofler, A. M. Zolot, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths,” Optica 1, 290–298 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. Newman, S. Jeong, M. L. Fischer, X. Xu, C. L. Haman, B. Lefer, S. Alvarez, B. Rappenglueck, E. A. Kort, A. E. Andrews, J. Peischl, K. R. Gurney, C. E. Miller, and Y. L. Yung, “Diurnal tracking of anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the Los Angeles basin megacity during spring 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 4359–4372 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

P. Ciais, P. Rayner, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, M. Logan, P. Peylin, and M. Ramonet, “Atmospheric inversions for estimating CO2 fluxes: methods and perspectives,” Clim. Change 103, 69–92 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

K. L. Mays, P. B. Shepson, B. H. Stirm, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, and K. R. Gurney, “Aircraft-based measurements of the carbon footprint of Indianapolis,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 7816–7823 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. K. Martins, C. Sweeney, B. H. Stirm, and P. B. Shepson, “Regional surface flux of CO2 inferred from changes in the advected CO2 column density,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 149, 1674–1685 (2009).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

T. B. Ryerson, M. Trainer, J. S. Holloway, D. D. Parrish, L. G. Huey, D. T. Sueper, G. J. Frost, S. G. Donnelly, S. Schauffler, E. L. Atlas, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, G. Hübler, J. F. Meagher, and F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Observations of ozone formation in power plant plumes and implications for ozone control strategies,” Science 292, 719–723 (2001).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

T. L. Marshall, C. T. Chaffin, R. M. Hammaker, and W. G. Fateley, “An introduction to open-path FT-IR atmospheric monitoring,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 28, 224A–232A (1994).
[Crossref]

Aharoni, R.

R. Aharoni, I. Ron, N. Gilad, A. Manor, Y. Arav, and S. Kendler, “Real-time stand-off spatial detection and identification of gases and vapor using external-cavity quantum cascade laser open-path spectrometer,” Opt. Eng. 54, 067103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ahmadov, R.

P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, J. M. Roberts, R. Ahmadov, R. M. Banta, J. A. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, R. A. Field, J. H. Flynn, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, D. Helmig, A. Koss, A. O. Langford, B. L. Lefer, B. M. Lerner, R. Li, S.-M. Li, S. A. McKeen, S. M. Murphy, D. D. Parrish, C. J. Senff, J. Soltis, J. Stutz, C. Sweeney, C. R. Thompson, M. K. Trainer, C. Tsai, P. R. Veres, R. A. Washenfelder, C. Warneke, R. J. Wild, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora, “High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin,” Nature 514, 351–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

Aikin, K.

E. E. McDuffie, P. M. Edwards, J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, W. P. Dubé, M. Trainer, D. E. Wolfe, W. M. Angevine, J. deGouw, E. J. Williams, A. G. Tevlin, J. G. Murphy, E. V. Fischer, S. McKeen, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, K. Aikin, A. O. Langford, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, S. R. Hall, K. Ullmann, K. O. Lantz, and S. S. Brown, “Influence of oil and gas emissions on summertime ozone in the Colorado Northern front range,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121, 8712–8729 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, R. A.

D. Zavala-Araiza, D. R. Lyon, R. A. Alvarez, K. J. Davis, R. Harriss, S. C. Herndon, A. Karion, E. A. Kort, B. K. Lamb, X. Lan, A. J. Marchese, S. W. Pacala, A. L. Robinson, P. B. Shepson, C. Sweeney, R. Talbot, A. Townsend-Small, T. I. Yacovitch, D. J. Zimmerle, and S. P. Hamburg, “Reconciling divergent estimates of oil and gas methane emissions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 15597–15602 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, R. J.

E. E. McDuffie, P. M. Edwards, J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, W. P. Dubé, M. Trainer, D. E. Wolfe, W. M. Angevine, J. deGouw, E. J. Williams, A. G. Tevlin, J. G. Murphy, E. V. Fischer, S. McKeen, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, K. Aikin, A. O. Langford, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, S. R. Hall, K. Ullmann, K. O. Lantz, and S. S. Brown, “Influence of oil and gas emissions on summertime ozone in the Colorado Northern front range,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121, 8712–8729 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, S.

S. Newman, S. Jeong, M. L. Fischer, X. Xu, C. L. Haman, B. Lefer, S. Alvarez, B. Rappenglueck, E. A. Kort, A. E. Andrews, J. Peischl, K. R. Gurney, C. E. Miller, and Y. L. Yung, “Diurnal tracking of anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the Los Angeles basin megacity during spring 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 4359–4372 (2013).
[Crossref]

Andrews, A.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ryerson, T. B.

E. E. McDuffie, P. M. Edwards, J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, W. P. Dubé, M. Trainer, D. E. Wolfe, W. M. Angevine, J. deGouw, E. J. Williams, A. G. Tevlin, J. G. Murphy, E. V. Fischer, S. McKeen, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, K. Aikin, A. O. Langford, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, S. R. Hall, K. Ullmann, K. O. Lantz, and S. S. Brown, “Influence of oil and gas emissions on summertime ozone in the Colorado Northern front range,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121, 8712–8729 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. B. Ryerson, M. Trainer, J. S. Holloway, D. D. Parrish, L. G. Huey, D. T. Sueper, G. J. Frost, S. G. Donnelly, S. Schauffler, E. L. Atlas, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, G. Hübler, J. F. Meagher, and F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Observations of ozone formation in power plant plumes and implications for ozone control strategies,” Science 292, 719–723 (2001).
[Crossref]

Schauffler, S.

T. B. Ryerson, M. Trainer, J. S. Holloway, D. D. Parrish, L. G. Huey, D. T. Sueper, G. J. Frost, S. G. Donnelly, S. Schauffler, E. L. Atlas, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, G. Hübler, J. F. Meagher, and F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Observations of ozone formation in power plant plumes and implications for ozone control strategies,” Science 292, 719–723 (2001).
[Crossref]

Schichtel, B. A.

A. J. Prenni, D. E. Day, A. R. Evanoski-Cole, B. C. Sive, A. Hecobian, Y. Zhou, K. A. Gebhart, J. L. Hand, A. P. Sullivan, Y. Li, M. I. Schurman, Y. Desyaterik, W. C. Malm, J. L. Collett, and B. A. Schichtel, “Oil and gas impacts on air quality in federal lands in the Bakken region: an overview of the Bakken Air Quality Study and first results,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 1401–1416 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schnell, R.

G. Pétron, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, B. R. Miller, S. A. Montzka, G. J. Frost, M. Trainer, P. Tans, A. Andrews, J. Kofler, D. Helmig, D. Guenther, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, B. Hall, P. Novelli, A. Brewer, S. Conley, M. Hardesty, R. Banta, A. White, D. Noone, D. Wolfe, and R. Schnell, “A new look at methane and nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Colorado Denver-Julesburg Basin,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119, 6836–6852 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schnell, R. C.

S. J. Oltmans, A. Karion, R. C. Schnell, G. Pétron, D. Helmig, S. A. Montzka, S. Wolter, D. Neff, B. R. Miller, J. Hueber, S. Conley, B. J. Johnson, and C. Sweeney, “O3, CH4, CO2, CO, NO2 and NMHC aircraft measurements in the Uinta Basin oil and gas region under low and high ozone conditions in winter 2012 and 2013,” Elem. Sci. Anth. 4, 000132 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, P. J.

P. J. Schroeder, R. J. Wright, S. Coburn, B. Sodergren, K. C. Cossel, S. Droste, G. W. Truong, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, and G. B. Rieker, “Dual frequency comb laser absorption spectroscopy in a 16 MW gas turbine exhaust,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36, 4565–4573 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schurman, M. I.

A. J. Prenni, D. E. Day, A. R. Evanoski-Cole, B. C. Sive, A. Hecobian, Y. Zhou, K. A. Gebhart, J. L. Hand, A. P. Sullivan, Y. Li, M. I. Schurman, Y. Desyaterik, W. C. Malm, J. L. Collett, and B. A. Schichtel, “Oil and gas impacts on air quality in federal lands in the Bakken region: an overview of the Bakken Air Quality Study and first results,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 1401–1416 (2016).
[Crossref]

Senff, C. J.

E. E. McDuffie, P. M. Edwards, J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, W. P. Dubé, M. Trainer, D. E. Wolfe, W. M. Angevine, J. deGouw, E. J. Williams, A. G. Tevlin, J. G. Murphy, E. V. Fischer, S. McKeen, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, K. Aikin, A. O. Langford, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, S. R. Hall, K. Ullmann, K. O. Lantz, and S. S. Brown, “Influence of oil and gas emissions on summertime ozone in the Colorado Northern front range,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121, 8712–8729 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, J. M. Roberts, R. Ahmadov, R. M. Banta, J. A. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, R. A. Field, J. H. Flynn, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, D. Helmig, A. Koss, A. O. Langford, B. L. Lefer, B. M. Lerner, R. Li, S.-M. Li, S. A. McKeen, S. M. Murphy, D. D. Parrish, C. J. Senff, J. Soltis, J. Stutz, C. Sweeney, C. R. Thompson, M. K. Trainer, C. Tsai, P. R. Veres, R. A. Washenfelder, C. Warneke, R. J. Wild, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora, “High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin,” Nature 514, 351–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shepson, P. B.

D. Zavala-Araiza, D. R. Lyon, R. A. Alvarez, K. J. Davis, R. Harriss, S. C. Herndon, A. Karion, E. A. Kort, B. K. Lamb, X. Lan, A. J. Marchese, S. W. Pacala, A. L. Robinson, P. B. Shepson, C. Sweeney, R. Talbot, A. Townsend-Small, T. I. Yacovitch, D. J. Zimmerle, and S. P. Hamburg, “Reconciling divergent estimates of oil and gas methane emissions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 15597–15602 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. K. Martins, C. Sweeney, B. H. Stirm, and P. B. Shepson, “Regional surface flux of CO2 inferred from changes in the advected CO2 column density,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 149, 1674–1685 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. L. Mays, P. B. Shepson, B. H. Stirm, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, and K. R. Gurney, “Aircraft-based measurements of the carbon footprint of Indianapolis,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 7816–7823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Simeckova, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sinclair, L. C.

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschênes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited article: a compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 081301 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, J. Kofler, A. M. Zolot, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths,” Optica 1, 290–298 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sive, B. C.

A. J. Prenni, D. E. Day, A. R. Evanoski-Cole, B. C. Sive, A. Hecobian, Y. Zhou, K. A. Gebhart, J. L. Hand, A. P. Sullivan, Y. Li, M. I. Schurman, Y. Desyaterik, W. C. Malm, J. L. Collett, and B. A. Schichtel, “Oil and gas impacts on air quality in federal lands in the Bakken region: an overview of the Bakken Air Quality Study and first results,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 1401–1416 (2016).
[Crossref]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sodergren, B.

P. J. Schroeder, R. J. Wright, S. Coburn, B. Sodergren, K. C. Cossel, S. Droste, G. W. Truong, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, and G. B. Rieker, “Dual frequency comb laser absorption spectroscopy in a 16 MW gas turbine exhaust,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36, 4565–4573 (2016).
[Crossref]

Soltis, J.

P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, J. M. Roberts, R. Ahmadov, R. M. Banta, J. A. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, R. A. Field, J. H. Flynn, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, D. Helmig, A. Koss, A. O. Langford, B. L. Lefer, B. M. Lerner, R. Li, S.-M. Li, S. A. McKeen, S. M. Murphy, D. D. Parrish, C. J. Senff, J. Soltis, J. Stutz, C. Sweeney, C. R. Thompson, M. K. Trainer, C. Tsai, P. R. Veres, R. A. Washenfelder, C. Warneke, R. J. Wild, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora, “High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin,” Nature 514, 351–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sonderhouse, L.

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschênes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited article: a compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 081301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stirm, B. H.

D. K. Martins, C. Sweeney, B. H. Stirm, and P. B. Shepson, “Regional surface flux of CO2 inferred from changes in the advected CO2 column density,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 149, 1674–1685 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. L. Mays, P. B. Shepson, B. H. Stirm, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, and K. R. Gurney, “Aircraft-based measurements of the carbon footprint of Indianapolis,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 7816–7823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stucky, G. D.

A. R. Brandt, G. A. Heath, E. A. Kort, F. O’sullivan, G. Pétron, S. M. Jordaan, P. Tans, J. Wilcox, A. M. Gopstein, D. Arent, S. Wofsy, N. J. Brown, R. Bradley, G. D. Stucky, D. Eardley, and R. Harriss, “Methane leaks from North American natural gas systems,”Science 343, 733–735 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stutz, J.

P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, J. M. Roberts, R. Ahmadov, R. M. Banta, J. A. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, R. A. Field, J. H. Flynn, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, D. Helmig, A. Koss, A. O. Langford, B. L. Lefer, B. M. Lerner, R. Li, S.-M. Li, S. A. McKeen, S. M. Murphy, D. D. Parrish, C. J. Senff, J. Soltis, J. Stutz, C. Sweeney, C. R. Thompson, M. K. Trainer, C. Tsai, P. R. Veres, R. A. Washenfelder, C. Warneke, R. J. Wild, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora, “High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin,” Nature 514, 351–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sueper, D. T.

T. B. Ryerson, M. Trainer, J. S. Holloway, D. D. Parrish, L. G. Huey, D. T. Sueper, G. J. Frost, S. G. Donnelly, S. Schauffler, E. L. Atlas, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, G. Hübler, J. F. Meagher, and F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Observations of ozone formation in power plant plumes and implications for ozone control strategies,” Science 292, 719–723 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, A. P.

A. J. Prenni, D. E. Day, A. R. Evanoski-Cole, B. C. Sive, A. Hecobian, Y. Zhou, K. A. Gebhart, J. L. Hand, A. P. Sullivan, Y. Li, M. I. Schurman, Y. Desyaterik, W. C. Malm, J. L. Collett, and B. A. Schichtel, “Oil and gas impacts on air quality in federal lands in the Bakken region: an overview of the Bakken Air Quality Study and first results,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 1401–1416 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Swann, W.

Swann, W. C.

G.-W. Truong, E. M. Waxman, K. C. Cossel, E. Baumann, A. Klose, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Accurate frequency referencing for fieldable dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24, 30495–30504 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschênes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited article: a compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 081301 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, J. Kofler, A. M. Zolot, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths,” Optica 1, 290–298 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. M. Waxman, K. C. Cossel, G.-W. Truong, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, S. C. Coburn, R. J. Wright, G. B. Rieker, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Comparison of open-path dual frequency comb spectroscopy for high-precision atmospheric gas measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., doi:10.5194/amt-2017-62 (to be published).

G.-W. Truong, E. Waxman, K. C. Cossel, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Dual-comb Spectroscopy for City-scale Open Path Greenhouse Gas Monitoring,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2016).

Sweeney, C.

S. J. Oltmans, A. Karion, R. C. Schnell, G. Pétron, D. Helmig, S. A. Montzka, S. Wolter, D. Neff, B. R. Miller, J. Hueber, S. Conley, B. J. Johnson, and C. Sweeney, “O3, CH4, CO2, CO, NO2 and NMHC aircraft measurements in the Uinta Basin oil and gas region under low and high ozone conditions in winter 2012 and 2013,” Elem. Sci. Anth. 4, 000132 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Zavala-Araiza, D. R. Lyon, R. A. Alvarez, K. J. Davis, R. Harriss, S. C. Herndon, A. Karion, E. A. Kort, B. K. Lamb, X. Lan, A. J. Marchese, S. W. Pacala, A. L. Robinson, P. B. Shepson, C. Sweeney, R. Talbot, A. Townsend-Small, T. I. Yacovitch, D. J. Zimmerle, and S. P. Hamburg, “Reconciling divergent estimates of oil and gas methane emissions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 15597–15602 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Pétron, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, B. R. Miller, S. A. Montzka, G. J. Frost, M. Trainer, P. Tans, A. Andrews, J. Kofler, D. Helmig, D. Guenther, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, B. Hall, P. Novelli, A. Brewer, S. Conley, M. Hardesty, R. Banta, A. White, D. Noone, D. Wolfe, and R. Schnell, “A new look at methane and nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Colorado Denver-Julesburg Basin,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119, 6836–6852 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, J. M. Roberts, R. Ahmadov, R. M. Banta, J. A. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, R. A. Field, J. H. Flynn, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, D. Helmig, A. Koss, A. O. Langford, B. L. Lefer, B. M. Lerner, R. Li, S.-M. Li, S. A. McKeen, S. M. Murphy, D. D. Parrish, C. J. Senff, J. Soltis, J. Stutz, C. Sweeney, C. R. Thompson, M. K. Trainer, C. Tsai, P. R. Veres, R. A. Washenfelder, C. Warneke, R. J. Wild, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora, “High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin,” Nature 514, 351–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, J. Kofler, A. M. Zolot, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths,” Optica 1, 290–298 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. K. Martins, C. Sweeney, B. H. Stirm, and P. B. Shepson, “Regional surface flux of CO2 inferred from changes in the advected CO2 column density,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 149, 1674–1685 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. L. Mays, P. B. Shepson, B. H. Stirm, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, and K. R. Gurney, “Aircraft-based measurements of the carbon footprint of Indianapolis,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 7816–7823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Talbot, R.

D. Zavala-Araiza, D. R. Lyon, R. A. Alvarez, K. J. Davis, R. Harriss, S. C. Herndon, A. Karion, E. A. Kort, B. K. Lamb, X. Lan, A. J. Marchese, S. W. Pacala, A. L. Robinson, P. B. Shepson, C. Sweeney, R. Talbot, A. Townsend-Small, T. I. Yacovitch, D. J. Zimmerle, and S. P. Hamburg, “Reconciling divergent estimates of oil and gas methane emissions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 15597–15602 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tans, P.

G. Pétron, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, B. R. Miller, S. A. Montzka, G. J. Frost, M. Trainer, P. Tans, A. Andrews, J. Kofler, D. Helmig, D. Guenther, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, B. Hall, P. Novelli, A. Brewer, S. Conley, M. Hardesty, R. Banta, A. White, D. Noone, D. Wolfe, and R. Schnell, “A new look at methane and nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Colorado Denver-Julesburg Basin,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119, 6836–6852 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. R. Brandt, G. A. Heath, E. A. Kort, F. O’sullivan, G. Pétron, S. M. Jordaan, P. Tans, J. Wilcox, A. M. Gopstein, D. Arent, S. Wofsy, N. J. Brown, R. Bradley, G. D. Stucky, D. Eardley, and R. Harriss, “Methane leaks from North American natural gas systems,”Science 343, 733–735 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tans, P. P.

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

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P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, J. M. Roberts, R. Ahmadov, R. M. Banta, J. A. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, R. A. Field, J. H. Flynn, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, D. Helmig, A. Koss, A. O. Langford, B. L. Lefer, B. M. Lerner, R. Li, S.-M. Li, S. A. McKeen, S. M. Murphy, D. D. Parrish, C. J. Senff, J. Soltis, J. Stutz, C. Sweeney, C. R. Thompson, M. K. Trainer, C. Tsai, P. R. Veres, R. A. Washenfelder, C. Warneke, R. J. Wild, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora, “High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin,” Nature 514, 351–354 (2014).
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P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, J. M. Roberts, R. Ahmadov, R. M. Banta, J. A. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, R. A. Field, J. H. Flynn, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, D. Helmig, A. Koss, A. O. Langford, B. L. Lefer, B. M. Lerner, R. Li, S.-M. Li, S. A. McKeen, S. M. Murphy, D. D. Parrish, C. J. Senff, J. Soltis, J. Stutz, C. Sweeney, C. R. Thompson, M. K. Trainer, C. Tsai, P. R. Veres, R. A. Washenfelder, C. Warneke, R. J. Wild, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora, “High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin,” Nature 514, 351–354 (2014).
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E. M. Waxman, K. C. Cossel, G.-W. Truong, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, S. C. Coburn, R. J. Wright, G. B. Rieker, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Comparison of open-path dual frequency comb spectroscopy for high-precision atmospheric gas measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., doi:10.5194/amt-2017-62 (to be published).

Tsai, C.

P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, J. M. Roberts, R. Ahmadov, R. M. Banta, J. A. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, R. A. Field, J. H. Flynn, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, D. Helmig, A. Koss, A. O. Langford, B. L. Lefer, B. M. Lerner, R. Li, S.-M. Li, S. A. McKeen, S. M. Murphy, D. D. Parrish, C. J. Senff, J. Soltis, J. Stutz, C. Sweeney, C. R. Thompson, M. K. Trainer, C. Tsai, P. R. Veres, R. A. Washenfelder, C. Warneke, R. J. Wild, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora, “High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin,” Nature 514, 351–354 (2014).
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E. E. McDuffie, P. M. Edwards, J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, W. P. Dubé, M. Trainer, D. E. Wolfe, W. M. Angevine, J. deGouw, E. J. Williams, A. G. Tevlin, J. G. Murphy, E. V. Fischer, S. McKeen, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, K. Aikin, A. O. Langford, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, S. R. Hall, K. Ullmann, K. O. Lantz, and S. S. Brown, “Influence of oil and gas emissions on summertime ozone in the Colorado Northern front range,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121, 8712–8729 (2016).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, J. M. Roberts, R. Ahmadov, R. M. Banta, J. A. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, R. A. Field, J. H. Flynn, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, D. Helmig, A. Koss, A. O. Langford, B. L. Lefer, B. M. Lerner, R. Li, S.-M. Li, S. A. McKeen, S. M. Murphy, D. D. Parrish, C. J. Senff, J. Soltis, J. Stutz, C. Sweeney, C. R. Thompson, M. K. Trainer, C. Tsai, P. R. Veres, R. A. Washenfelder, C. Warneke, R. J. Wild, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora, “High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin,” Nature 514, 351–354 (2014).
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Warneke, C.

P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, J. M. Roberts, R. Ahmadov, R. M. Banta, J. A. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, R. A. Field, J. H. Flynn, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, D. Helmig, A. Koss, A. O. Langford, B. L. Lefer, B. M. Lerner, R. Li, S.-M. Li, S. A. McKeen, S. M. Murphy, D. D. Parrish, C. J. Senff, J. Soltis, J. Stutz, C. Sweeney, C. R. Thompson, M. K. Trainer, C. Tsai, P. R. Veres, R. A. Washenfelder, C. Warneke, R. J. Wild, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora, “High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin,” Nature 514, 351–354 (2014).
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P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, J. M. Roberts, R. Ahmadov, R. M. Banta, J. A. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, R. A. Field, J. H. Flynn, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, D. Helmig, A. Koss, A. O. Langford, B. L. Lefer, B. M. Lerner, R. Li, S.-M. Li, S. A. McKeen, S. M. Murphy, D. D. Parrish, C. J. Senff, J. Soltis, J. Stutz, C. Sweeney, C. R. Thompson, M. K. Trainer, C. Tsai, P. R. Veres, R. A. Washenfelder, C. Warneke, R. J. Wild, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora, “High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin,” Nature 514, 351–354 (2014).
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Waxman, E. M.

G.-W. Truong, E. M. Waxman, K. C. Cossel, E. Baumann, A. Klose, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Accurate frequency referencing for fieldable dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24, 30495–30504 (2016).
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E. M. Waxman, K. C. Cossel, G.-W. Truong, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, S. C. Coburn, R. J. Wright, G. B. Rieker, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Comparison of open-path dual frequency comb spectroscopy for high-precision atmospheric gas measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., doi:10.5194/amt-2017-62 (to be published).

White, A.

G. Pétron, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, B. R. Miller, S. A. Montzka, G. J. Frost, M. Trainer, P. Tans, A. Andrews, J. Kofler, D. Helmig, D. Guenther, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, B. Hall, P. Novelli, A. Brewer, S. Conley, M. Hardesty, R. Banta, A. White, D. Noone, D. Wolfe, and R. Schnell, “A new look at methane and nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Colorado Denver-Julesburg Basin,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119, 6836–6852 (2014).
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A. R. Brandt, G. A. Heath, E. A. Kort, F. O’sullivan, G. Pétron, S. M. Jordaan, P. Tans, J. Wilcox, A. M. Gopstein, D. Arent, S. Wofsy, N. J. Brown, R. Bradley, G. D. Stucky, D. Eardley, and R. Harriss, “Methane leaks from North American natural gas systems,”Science 343, 733–735 (2014).
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P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, J. M. Roberts, R. Ahmadov, R. M. Banta, J. A. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, R. A. Field, J. H. Flynn, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, D. Helmig, A. Koss, A. O. Langford, B. L. Lefer, B. M. Lerner, R. Li, S.-M. Li, S. A. McKeen, S. M. Murphy, D. D. Parrish, C. J. Senff, J. Soltis, J. Stutz, C. Sweeney, C. R. Thompson, M. K. Trainer, C. Tsai, P. R. Veres, R. A. Washenfelder, C. Warneke, R. J. Wild, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora, “High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin,” Nature 514, 351–354 (2014).
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Williams, E. J.

E. E. McDuffie, P. M. Edwards, J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, W. P. Dubé, M. Trainer, D. E. Wolfe, W. M. Angevine, J. deGouw, E. J. Williams, A. G. Tevlin, J. G. Murphy, E. V. Fischer, S. McKeen, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, K. Aikin, A. O. Langford, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, S. R. Hall, K. Ullmann, K. O. Lantz, and S. S. Brown, “Influence of oil and gas emissions on summertime ozone in the Colorado Northern front range,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121, 8712–8729 (2016).
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A. R. Brandt, G. A. Heath, E. A. Kort, F. O’sullivan, G. Pétron, S. M. Jordaan, P. Tans, J. Wilcox, A. M. Gopstein, D. Arent, S. Wofsy, N. J. Brown, R. Bradley, G. D. Stucky, D. Eardley, and R. Harriss, “Methane leaks from North American natural gas systems,”Science 343, 733–735 (2014).
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G. Pétron, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, B. R. Miller, S. A. Montzka, G. J. Frost, M. Trainer, P. Tans, A. Andrews, J. Kofler, D. Helmig, D. Guenther, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, B. Hall, P. Novelli, A. Brewer, S. Conley, M. Hardesty, R. Banta, A. White, D. Noone, D. Wolfe, and R. Schnell, “A new look at methane and nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Colorado Denver-Julesburg Basin,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119, 6836–6852 (2014).
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E. E. McDuffie, P. M. Edwards, J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, W. P. Dubé, M. Trainer, D. E. Wolfe, W. M. Angevine, J. deGouw, E. J. Williams, A. G. Tevlin, J. G. Murphy, E. V. Fischer, S. McKeen, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, K. Aikin, A. O. Langford, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, S. R. Hall, K. Ullmann, K. O. Lantz, and S. S. Brown, “Influence of oil and gas emissions on summertime ozone in the Colorado Northern front range,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121, 8712–8729 (2016).
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S. J. Oltmans, A. Karion, R. C. Schnell, G. Pétron, D. Helmig, S. A. Montzka, S. Wolter, D. Neff, B. R. Miller, J. Hueber, S. Conley, B. J. Johnson, and C. Sweeney, “O3, CH4, CO2, CO, NO2 and NMHC aircraft measurements in the Uinta Basin oil and gas region under low and high ozone conditions in winter 2012 and 2013,” Elem. Sci. Anth. 4, 000132 (2016).
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Wright, R. J.

P. J. Schroeder, R. J. Wright, S. Coburn, B. Sodergren, K. C. Cossel, S. Droste, G. W. Truong, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, and G. B. Rieker, “Dual frequency comb laser absorption spectroscopy in a 16 MW gas turbine exhaust,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36, 4565–4573 (2016).
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E. M. Waxman, K. C. Cossel, G.-W. Truong, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, S. C. Coburn, R. J. Wright, G. B. Rieker, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Comparison of open-path dual frequency comb spectroscopy for high-precision atmospheric gas measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., doi:10.5194/amt-2017-62 (to be published).

Xu, X.

S. Newman, S. Jeong, M. L. Fischer, X. Xu, C. L. Haman, B. Lefer, S. Alvarez, B. Rappenglueck, E. A. Kort, A. E. Andrews, J. Peischl, K. R. Gurney, C. E. Miller, and Y. L. Yung, “Diurnal tracking of anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the Los Angeles basin megacity during spring 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 4359–4372 (2013).
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Yacovitch, T. I.

D. Zavala-Araiza, D. R. Lyon, R. A. Alvarez, K. J. Davis, R. Harriss, S. C. Herndon, A. Karion, E. A. Kort, B. K. Lamb, X. Lan, A. J. Marchese, S. W. Pacala, A. L. Robinson, P. B. Shepson, C. Sweeney, R. Talbot, A. Townsend-Small, T. I. Yacovitch, D. J. Zimmerle, and S. P. Hamburg, “Reconciling divergent estimates of oil and gas methane emissions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 15597–15602 (2015).
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Young, C. J.

P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, J. M. Roberts, R. Ahmadov, R. M. Banta, J. A. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, R. A. Field, J. H. Flynn, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, D. Helmig, A. Koss, A. O. Langford, B. L. Lefer, B. M. Lerner, R. Li, S.-M. Li, S. A. McKeen, S. M. Murphy, D. D. Parrish, C. J. Senff, J. Soltis, J. Stutz, C. Sweeney, C. R. Thompson, M. K. Trainer, C. Tsai, P. R. Veres, R. A. Washenfelder, C. Warneke, R. J. Wild, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora, “High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin,” Nature 514, 351–354 (2014).
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Yuan, B.

P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, J. M. Roberts, R. Ahmadov, R. M. Banta, J. A. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, R. A. Field, J. H. Flynn, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, D. Helmig, A. Koss, A. O. Langford, B. L. Lefer, B. M. Lerner, R. Li, S.-M. Li, S. A. McKeen, S. M. Murphy, D. D. Parrish, C. J. Senff, J. Soltis, J. Stutz, C. Sweeney, C. R. Thompson, M. K. Trainer, C. Tsai, P. R. Veres, R. A. Washenfelder, C. Warneke, R. J. Wild, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora, “High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin,” Nature 514, 351–354 (2014).
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Yung, Y. L.

S. Newman, S. Jeong, M. L. Fischer, X. Xu, C. L. Haman, B. Lefer, S. Alvarez, B. Rappenglueck, E. A. Kort, A. E. Andrews, J. Peischl, K. R. Gurney, C. E. Miller, and Y. L. Yung, “Diurnal tracking of anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the Los Angeles basin megacity during spring 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 4359–4372 (2013).
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Zamora, R.

P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, J. M. Roberts, R. Ahmadov, R. M. Banta, J. A. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, R. A. Field, J. H. Flynn, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, D. Helmig, A. Koss, A. O. Langford, B. L. Lefer, B. M. Lerner, R. Li, S.-M. Li, S. A. McKeen, S. M. Murphy, D. D. Parrish, C. J. Senff, J. Soltis, J. Stutz, C. Sweeney, C. R. Thompson, M. K. Trainer, C. Tsai, P. R. Veres, R. A. Washenfelder, C. Warneke, R. J. Wild, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora, “High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin,” Nature 514, 351–354 (2014).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MOV (18189 KB)      Movie showing the full sUAS-DCS system in operation.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Setup for DCS to a sUAS. (a) The light from both combs is combined in fiber, then launched from a telescope to a retroreflector on a small multicopter. A co-aligned 850-nm LED and silicon focal plane array (Si FPA) camera are used in the tracking servo to control the azimuth-elevation gimbal. PD, photodetector; BS, beam splitter; OAP, off-axis parabolic mirror. (b) Image from Si FPA showing the multicopter above the tree line. The bright spot is the retroreflected 850-nm LED light. A software feedback loop to the telescope gimbal centers this spot on the crosshairs, which simultaneously maximizes the DCS signal on the photodetector. (c) Photo of the small commercial multicopter. The dual-comb light is launched from the telescope located in the 1-km distant rooftop laboratory, as indicated.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Flight path (yellow) recorded by the radiosonde GPS for the first flight pattern. The star indicates the DCS instrument and telescope location. Map data: Google, DigitalGlobe, U.S. Geological Survey, USDA Farm Service Agency. A video of the real-time data collection software for this flight is given in Visualization 1. (b) Mixing ratios for H2O (blue), CH4 (black), and CO2 (red) obtained from the horizontal flight path shown in Fig. 2(b). These data are from spectra acquired every 9.6 s and are corrected for measured path length, temperature, and pressure. The upper four panels show the longitude, latitude, altitude, and path length derived from the radiosonde GPS.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Results of a flight to obtain a vertical concentration profile. (a) Diagram showing simultaneous slant column and fixed path measurements. (b) The path-corrected H2O (medium blue), dry CH4 (XCH4, black), and dry CO2 (XCO4, red) mixing ratios obtained for 32-s-averaged data from the sUAS-DCS. The data in lighter colors were obtained along the fixed path. The corresponding retroreflector height above ground (from the RTK GPS) is also shown (right axis, dark blue). (c) Slant-column mixing ratio versus retroreflector height above ground from averaging approximately ten points over 4–5 min at each height in (b). The error bars are the standard error of the mean. Averaged over height (dashed line), the mixing ratios are 421.5±0.9  ppm, 1.996±0.006  ppm, and 0.236±0.002% for CO2, CH4, and H2O, respectively. The scatter about the mean is attributed to temporal, rather than spatial, variations under these well-mixed conditions.

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