Abstract

Atomic monolayers represent a novel class of materials for studying localized and free excitons in two dimensions and for engineering optoelectronic devices based on their significant optical response. Here, we investigate the role of the substrate in the photoluminescence response of MoSe2 and WSe2 monolayers exfoliated either on SiO2 or epitaxially grown InGaP substrates. In the case of MoSe2, we observe a significant qualitative modification of the emission spectrum, which is widely dominated by the trion resonance on InGaP substrates. However, the effects of inhomogeneous broadening of the emission features are strongly reduced. Even more striking, in sheets of WSe2, we could routinely observe emission lines from localized excitons with linewidths down to the resolution limit of 70 μeV. This is in stark contrast to reference samples featuring WSe2 monolayers on SiO2 surfaces, where the emission spectra from localized defects are widely dominated by spectral diffusion and blinking behavior. Our experiment outlines the enormous potential of III–V monolayer hybrid architectures to obtain high quality emission signals from atomic monolayers, which are simple to integrate into nanophotonic and integrated optoelectronic devices.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  24. Z. M. Ao, W. T. Zheng, and Q. Jiang, “The effects of electronic field on the atomic structure of the graphene/α-SiO2 interface,” Nanotechnology 19, 275710 (2008).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  26. Y.-M. He, S. Höfling, and C. Schneider, “Phonon induced line broadening and population of the dark exciton in a deeply trapped localized emitter in monolayer WSe2,” Opt. Express 24, 8066–8073 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

C. Robert, D. Lagarde, F. Cadiz, G. Wang, B. Lassagne, T. Amand, A. Balocchi, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, B. Urbaszek, and X. Marie, “Exciton radiative lifetime in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 205423 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Cadiz, C. Robert, G. Wang, W. Kong, X. Fan, M. Blei, D. Lagarde, M. Gay, M. Manca, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. Amand, X. Marie, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, and B. Urbaszek, “Ultralow power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D molybdenum dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3, 045008 (2016).

Y.-M. He, S. Höfling, and C. Schneider, “Phonon induced line broadening and population of the dark exciton in a deeply trapped localized emitter in monolayer WSe2,” Opt. Express 24, 8066–8073 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

Y. V. Morozov and M. Kuno, “Optical constants and dynamic conductivities of single layer MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 083103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-M. He, G. Clark, J. R. Schaibley, Y. He, M.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Wei, X. Ding, Q. Zhang, W. Yao, X. Xu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 497–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Koperski, K. Nogajewski, A. Arora, V. Cherkez, P. Mallet, J.-Y. Veuillen, J. Marcus, P. Kossacki, and M. Potemski, “Single photon emitters in exfoliated WSe2 structures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 503–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Chakraborty, L. Kinnischtzke, K. M. Goodfellow, R. Beams, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Voltage-controlled quantum light from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 507–511 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Srivastava, M. Sidler, A. V. Allain, D. S. Lembke, A. Kis, and A. Imamoğlu, “Optically active quantum dots in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 491–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Tonndorf, R. Schmidt, R. Schneider, J. Kern, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, A. Castellanos-Gomez, H. S. J. van der Zant, S. M. de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Single-photon emission from localized excitons in an atomically thin semiconductor,” Optica 2, 347–352 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Buscema, R. Molenaar, V. Singh, L. Janssen, J. S. J. van der Zant, and G. Steele, “Deterministic transfer of two-dimensional materials by all-dry viscoelastic stamping,” 2D Mater. 1, 11002 (2014).

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 125427 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, W. Yao, D. Xiao, and T. F. Heinz, “Spin and pseudospins in layered transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Phys. 10, 343–350 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Tian, Z. Wei, Y. Li, H. Zhao, X. Fang, J. Tang, D. Fang, L. Sun, G. Liu, B. Yao, and X. Ma, “Surface state and optical property of sulfur passivated InP,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 17, 33–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

D. Sercombe, S. Schwarz, O. Del Pozo-Zamudio, F. Liu, B. J. Robinson, E. Chekhovich, and I. Tartakovskii, “Optical investigation of the natural electron doping in thin MoS2 films deposited on dielectric substrates,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3489 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

D. Xiao, G. B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled spin and valley physics in monolayers of MoS2 and other Group-VI dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 196802 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. F. Mak, K. He, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Control of valley polarization in monolayer MoS2 by optical helicity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 494–498 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, G. Wang, W. Han, H. Ye, C. Zhu, J. Shi, Q. Niu, P. Tan, E. Wang, B. Liu, and J. Feng, “Valley-selective circular dichroism of monolayer molybdenum disulphide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 887 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zeng, J. Dai, W. Yao, D. Xiao, and X. Cui, “Valley polarization in MoS2 monolayers by optical pumping,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 490–493 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Ramasubramaniam, “Large excitonic effects in monolayers of molybdenum and tungsten dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 115409 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. He, K. Wu, R. Sa, Q. Li, and Y. Wei, “Magnetic properties of nonmetal atoms absorbed MoS2 monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 082504 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Z. M. Ao, W. T. Zheng, and Q. Jiang, “The effects of electronic field on the atomic structure of the graphene/α-SiO2 interface,” Nanotechnology 19, 275710 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Y. K. Koh and D. G. Cahill, “Frequency dependence of the thermal conductivity of semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 075207 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

G. V. Astakhov, D. R. Yakovlev, V. P. Kochereshko, W. Ossau, W. Faschinger, J. Puls, and A. Waag, “Binding energy of charged excitons in ZnSe-based quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165335 (2002).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

C. E. J. Mitchell, I. G. Hill, A. B. McLean, and Z. H. Lu, “Sulfur passivated InP(100): surface gaps and electron counting,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 104–105, 434–440 (1996).
[Crossref]

Aivazian, G.

A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

Allain, A. V.

A. Srivastava, M. Sidler, A. V. Allain, D. S. Lembke, A. Kis, and A. Imamoğlu, “Optically active quantum dots in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 491–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

Amand, T.

F. Cadiz, C. Robert, G. Wang, W. Kong, X. Fan, M. Blei, D. Lagarde, M. Gay, M. Manca, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. Amand, X. Marie, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, and B. Urbaszek, “Ultralow power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D molybdenum dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3, 045008 (2016).

C. Robert, D. Lagarde, F. Cadiz, G. Wang, B. Lassagne, T. Amand, A. Balocchi, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, B. Urbaszek, and X. Marie, “Exciton radiative lifetime in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 205423 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ao, Z. M.

Z. M. Ao, W. T. Zheng, and Q. Jiang, “The effects of electronic field on the atomic structure of the graphene/α-SiO2 interface,” Nanotechnology 19, 275710 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arora, A.

M. Koperski, K. Nogajewski, A. Arora, V. Cherkez, P. Mallet, J.-Y. Veuillen, J. Marcus, P. Kossacki, and M. Potemski, “Single photon emitters in exfoliated WSe2 structures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 503–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Astakhov, G. V.

G. V. Astakhov, D. R. Yakovlev, V. P. Kochereshko, W. Ossau, W. Faschinger, J. Puls, and A. Waag, “Binding energy of charged excitons in ZnSe-based quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165335 (2002).
[Crossref]

Atature, M.

C. Palacios-Berraquero, D. M. Kara, A. R.-P. Montblanch, M. Barbone, P. Latawiec, D. Yoon, A. K. Ott, M. Loncar, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Atature, “Large-scale quantum-emitter arrays in atomically thin semiconductors,” arXiv:1609.04427 (2016).

Balocchi, A.

C. Robert, D. Lagarde, F. Cadiz, G. Wang, B. Lassagne, T. Amand, A. Balocchi, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, B. Urbaszek, and X. Marie, “Exciton radiative lifetime in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 205423 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barbone, M.

C. Palacios-Berraquero, D. M. Kara, A. R.-P. Montblanch, M. Barbone, P. Latawiec, D. Yoon, A. K. Ott, M. Loncar, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Atature, “Large-scale quantum-emitter arrays in atomically thin semiconductors,” arXiv:1609.04427 (2016).

Beams, R.

C. Chakraborty, L. Kinnischtzke, K. M. Goodfellow, R. Beams, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Voltage-controlled quantum light from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 507–511 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bigenwald, P.

N. Lundt, E. Cherotchenko, O. Iff, X. Fan, Y. Shen, P. Bigenwald, A. Kavokin, S. Höfling, and C. Schneider, “The interplay between excitons and trions in a monolayer of MoSe2,” arXiv:1702.04231 (2017).

Blei, M.

F. Cadiz, C. Robert, G. Wang, W. Kong, X. Fan, M. Blei, D. Lagarde, M. Gay, M. Manca, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. Amand, X. Marie, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, and B. Urbaszek, “Ultralow power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D molybdenum dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3, 045008 (2016).

Branny, A.

A. Branny, S. Kumar, R. Proux, and B. D. Gerardot, “Deterministic strain-induced arrays of quantum emitters in a two-dimensional semiconductor,” arXiv:1610.01406 (2016).

Bratschitsch, R.

Buscema, M.

P. Tonndorf, R. Schmidt, R. Schneider, J. Kern, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, A. Castellanos-Gomez, H. S. J. van der Zant, S. M. de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Single-photon emission from localized excitons in an atomically thin semiconductor,” Optica 2, 347–352 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Buscema, R. Molenaar, V. Singh, L. Janssen, J. S. J. van der Zant, and G. Steele, “Deterministic transfer of two-dimensional materials by all-dry viscoelastic stamping,” 2D Mater. 1, 11002 (2014).

Cadiz, F.

F. Cadiz, C. Robert, G. Wang, W. Kong, X. Fan, M. Blei, D. Lagarde, M. Gay, M. Manca, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. Amand, X. Marie, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, and B. Urbaszek, “Ultralow power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D molybdenum dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3, 045008 (2016).

C. Robert, D. Lagarde, F. Cadiz, G. Wang, B. Lassagne, T. Amand, A. Balocchi, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, B. Urbaszek, and X. Marie, “Exciton radiative lifetime in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 205423 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cahill, D. G.

Y. K. Koh and D. G. Cahill, “Frequency dependence of the thermal conductivity of semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 075207 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cao, T.

T. Cao, G. Wang, W. Han, H. Ye, C. Zhu, J. Shi, Q. Niu, P. Tan, E. Wang, B. Liu, and J. Feng, “Valley-selective circular dichroism of monolayer molybdenum disulphide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 887 (2012).
[Crossref]

Castellanos-Gomez, A.

P. Tonndorf, R. Schmidt, R. Schneider, J. Kern, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, A. Castellanos-Gomez, H. S. J. van der Zant, S. M. de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Single-photon emission from localized excitons in an atomically thin semiconductor,” Optica 2, 347–352 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Buscema, R. Molenaar, V. Singh, L. Janssen, J. S. J. van der Zant, and G. Steele, “Deterministic transfer of two-dimensional materials by all-dry viscoelastic stamping,” 2D Mater. 1, 11002 (2014).

Ceballos, F.

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 125427 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chakraborty, C.

C. Chakraborty, L. Kinnischtzke, K. M. Goodfellow, R. Beams, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Voltage-controlled quantum light from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 507–511 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chekhovich, E.

D. Sercombe, S. Schwarz, O. Del Pozo-Zamudio, F. Liu, B. J. Robinson, E. Chekhovich, and I. Tartakovskii, “Optical investigation of the natural electron doping in thin MoS2 films deposited on dielectric substrates,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3489 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.-C.

Y.-M. He, G. Clark, J. R. Schaibley, Y. He, M.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Wei, X. Ding, Q. Zhang, W. Yao, X. Xu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 497–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cherkez, V.

M. Koperski, K. Nogajewski, A. Arora, V. Cherkez, P. Mallet, J.-Y. Veuillen, J. Marcus, P. Kossacki, and M. Potemski, “Single photon emitters in exfoliated WSe2 structures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 503–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cherotchenko, E.

N. Lundt, E. Cherotchenko, O. Iff, X. Fan, Y. Shen, P. Bigenwald, A. Kavokin, S. Höfling, and C. Schneider, “The interplay between excitons and trions in a monolayer of MoSe2,” arXiv:1702.04231 (2017).

Clark, G.

Y.-M. He, G. Clark, J. R. Schaibley, Y. He, M.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Wei, X. Ding, Q. Zhang, W. Yao, X. Xu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 497–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cui, Q.

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 125427 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cui, X.

H. Zeng, J. Dai, W. Yao, D. Xiao, and X. Cui, “Valley polarization in MoS2 monolayers by optical pumping,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 490–493 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dai, J.

H. Zeng, J. Dai, W. Yao, D. Xiao, and X. Cui, “Valley polarization in MoS2 monolayers by optical pumping,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 490–493 (2012).
[Crossref]

de Vasconcellos, S. M.

Del Pozo-Zamudio, O.

D. Sercombe, S. Schwarz, O. Del Pozo-Zamudio, F. Liu, B. J. Robinson, E. Chekhovich, and I. Tartakovskii, “Optical investigation of the natural electron doping in thin MoS2 films deposited on dielectric substrates,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3489 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ding, X.

Y.-M. He, G. Clark, J. R. Schaibley, Y. He, M.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Wei, X. Ding, Q. Zhang, W. Yao, X. Xu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 497–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, X.

F. Cadiz, C. Robert, G. Wang, W. Kong, X. Fan, M. Blei, D. Lagarde, M. Gay, M. Manca, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. Amand, X. Marie, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, and B. Urbaszek, “Ultralow power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D molybdenum dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3, 045008 (2016).

N. Lundt, E. Cherotchenko, O. Iff, X. Fan, Y. Shen, P. Bigenwald, A. Kavokin, S. Höfling, and C. Schneider, “The interplay between excitons and trions in a monolayer of MoSe2,” arXiv:1702.04231 (2017).

Fang, D.

S. Tian, Z. Wei, Y. Li, H. Zhao, X. Fang, J. Tang, D. Fang, L. Sun, G. Liu, B. Yao, and X. Ma, “Surface state and optical property of sulfur passivated InP,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 17, 33–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fang, X.

S. Tian, Z. Wei, Y. Li, H. Zhao, X. Fang, J. Tang, D. Fang, L. Sun, G. Liu, B. Yao, and X. Ma, “Surface state and optical property of sulfur passivated InP,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 17, 33–37 (2014).
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G. V. Astakhov, D. R. Yakovlev, V. P. Kochereshko, W. Ossau, W. Faschinger, J. Puls, and A. Waag, “Binding energy of charged excitons in ZnSe-based quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165335 (2002).
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T. Cao, G. Wang, W. Han, H. Ye, C. Zhu, J. Shi, Q. Niu, P. Tan, E. Wang, B. Liu, and J. Feng, “Valley-selective circular dichroism of monolayer molybdenum disulphide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 887 (2012).
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D. Xiao, G. B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled spin and valley physics in monolayers of MoS2 and other Group-VI dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 196802 (2012).
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C. Palacios-Berraquero, D. M. Kara, A. R.-P. Montblanch, M. Barbone, P. Latawiec, D. Yoon, A. K. Ott, M. Loncar, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Atature, “Large-scale quantum-emitter arrays in atomically thin semiconductors,” arXiv:1609.04427 (2016).

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F. Cadiz, C. Robert, G. Wang, W. Kong, X. Fan, M. Blei, D. Lagarde, M. Gay, M. Manca, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. Amand, X. Marie, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, and B. Urbaszek, “Ultralow power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D molybdenum dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3, 045008 (2016).

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A. Branny, S. Kumar, R. Proux, and B. D. Gerardot, “Deterministic strain-induced arrays of quantum emitters in a two-dimensional semiconductor,” arXiv:1610.01406 (2016).

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A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
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C. Chakraborty, L. Kinnischtzke, K. M. Goodfellow, R. Beams, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Voltage-controlled quantum light from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 507–511 (2015).
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T. Cao, G. Wang, W. Han, H. Ye, C. Zhu, J. Shi, Q. Niu, P. Tan, E. Wang, B. Liu, and J. Feng, “Valley-selective circular dichroism of monolayer molybdenum disulphide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 887 (2012).
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N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 125427 (2014).
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J. He, K. Wu, R. Sa, Q. Li, and Y. Wei, “Magnetic properties of nonmetal atoms absorbed MoS2 monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 082504 (2010).
[Crossref]

He, K.

K. F. Mak, K. He, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Control of valley polarization in monolayer MoS2 by optical helicity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 494–498 (2012).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Y.-M. He, G. Clark, J. R. Schaibley, Y. He, M.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Wei, X. Ding, Q. Zhang, W. Yao, X. Xu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 497–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, Y.-M.

Y.-M. He, S. Höfling, and C. Schneider, “Phonon induced line broadening and population of the dark exciton in a deeply trapped localized emitter in monolayer WSe2,” Opt. Express 24, 8066–8073 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-M. He, G. Clark, J. R. Schaibley, Y. He, M.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Wei, X. Ding, Q. Zhang, W. Yao, X. Xu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 497–502 (2015).
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X. Xu, W. Yao, D. Xiao, and T. F. Heinz, “Spin and pseudospins in layered transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Phys. 10, 343–350 (2014).
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K. F. Mak, K. He, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Control of valley polarization in monolayer MoS2 by optical helicity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 494–498 (2012).
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Hill, I. G.

C. E. J. Mitchell, I. G. Hill, A. B. McLean, and Z. H. Lu, “Sulfur passivated InP(100): surface gaps and electron counting,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 104–105, 434–440 (1996).
[Crossref]

Höfling, S.

Y.-M. He, S. Höfling, and C. Schneider, “Phonon induced line broadening and population of the dark exciton in a deeply trapped localized emitter in monolayer WSe2,” Opt. Express 24, 8066–8073 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Lundt, E. Cherotchenko, O. Iff, X. Fan, Y. Shen, P. Bigenwald, A. Kavokin, S. Höfling, and C. Schneider, “The interplay between excitons and trions in a monolayer of MoSe2,” arXiv:1702.04231 (2017).

Iff, O.

N. Lundt, E. Cherotchenko, O. Iff, X. Fan, Y. Shen, P. Bigenwald, A. Kavokin, S. Höfling, and C. Schneider, “The interplay between excitons and trions in a monolayer of MoSe2,” arXiv:1702.04231 (2017).

Imamoglu, A.

A. Srivastava, M. Sidler, A. V. Allain, D. S. Lembke, A. Kis, and A. Imamoğlu, “Optically active quantum dots in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 491–496 (2015).
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A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Buscema, R. Molenaar, V. Singh, L. Janssen, J. S. J. van der Zant, and G. Steele, “Deterministic transfer of two-dimensional materials by all-dry viscoelastic stamping,” 2D Mater. 1, 11002 (2014).

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A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

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C. Palacios-Berraquero, D. M. Kara, A. R.-P. Montblanch, M. Barbone, P. Latawiec, D. Yoon, A. K. Ott, M. Loncar, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Atature, “Large-scale quantum-emitter arrays in atomically thin semiconductors,” arXiv:1609.04427 (2016).

Kavokin, A.

N. Lundt, E. Cherotchenko, O. Iff, X. Fan, Y. Shen, P. Bigenwald, A. Kavokin, S. Höfling, and C. Schneider, “The interplay between excitons and trions in a monolayer of MoSe2,” arXiv:1702.04231 (2017).

Kern, J.

Kinnischtzke, L.

C. Chakraborty, L. Kinnischtzke, K. M. Goodfellow, R. Beams, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Voltage-controlled quantum light from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 507–511 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kis, A.

A. Srivastava, M. Sidler, A. V. Allain, D. S. Lembke, A. Kis, and A. Imamoğlu, “Optically active quantum dots in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 491–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kochereshko, V. P.

G. V. Astakhov, D. R. Yakovlev, V. P. Kochereshko, W. Ossau, W. Faschinger, J. Puls, and A. Waag, “Binding energy of charged excitons in ZnSe-based quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165335 (2002).
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Y. K. Koh and D. G. Cahill, “Frequency dependence of the thermal conductivity of semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 075207 (2007).
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Koperski, M.

M. Koperski, K. Nogajewski, A. Arora, V. Cherkez, P. Mallet, J.-Y. Veuillen, J. Marcus, P. Kossacki, and M. Potemski, “Single photon emitters in exfoliated WSe2 structures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 503–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kossacki, P.

M. Koperski, K. Nogajewski, A. Arora, V. Cherkez, P. Mallet, J.-Y. Veuillen, J. Marcus, P. Kossacki, and M. Potemski, “Single photon emitters in exfoliated WSe2 structures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 503–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kumar, N.

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 125427 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kumar, S.

A. Branny, S. Kumar, R. Proux, and B. D. Gerardot, “Deterministic strain-induced arrays of quantum emitters in a two-dimensional semiconductor,” arXiv:1610.01406 (2016).

Kuno, M.

Y. V. Morozov and M. Kuno, “Optical constants and dynamic conductivities of single layer MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 083103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lagarde, D.

F. Cadiz, C. Robert, G. Wang, W. Kong, X. Fan, M. Blei, D. Lagarde, M. Gay, M. Manca, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. Amand, X. Marie, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, and B. Urbaszek, “Ultralow power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D molybdenum dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3, 045008 (2016).

C. Robert, D. Lagarde, F. Cadiz, G. Wang, B. Lassagne, T. Amand, A. Balocchi, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, B. Urbaszek, and X. Marie, “Exciton radiative lifetime in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 205423 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lassagne, B.

C. Robert, D. Lagarde, F. Cadiz, G. Wang, B. Lassagne, T. Amand, A. Balocchi, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, B. Urbaszek, and X. Marie, “Exciton radiative lifetime in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 205423 (2016).
[Crossref]

Latawiec, P.

C. Palacios-Berraquero, D. M. Kara, A. R.-P. Montblanch, M. Barbone, P. Latawiec, D. Yoon, A. K. Ott, M. Loncar, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Atature, “Large-scale quantum-emitter arrays in atomically thin semiconductors,” arXiv:1609.04427 (2016).

Lembke, D. S.

A. Srivastava, M. Sidler, A. V. Allain, D. S. Lembke, A. Kis, and A. Imamoğlu, “Optically active quantum dots in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 491–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

J. He, K. Wu, R. Sa, Q. Li, and Y. Wei, “Magnetic properties of nonmetal atoms absorbed MoS2 monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 082504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

S. Tian, Z. Wei, Y. Li, H. Zhao, X. Fang, J. Tang, D. Fang, L. Sun, G. Liu, B. Yao, and X. Ma, “Surface state and optical property of sulfur passivated InP,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 17, 33–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

T. Cao, G. Wang, W. Han, H. Ye, C. Zhu, J. Shi, Q. Niu, P. Tan, E. Wang, B. Liu, and J. Feng, “Valley-selective circular dichroism of monolayer molybdenum disulphide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 887 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.

D. Sercombe, S. Schwarz, O. Del Pozo-Zamudio, F. Liu, B. J. Robinson, E. Chekhovich, and I. Tartakovskii, “Optical investigation of the natural electron doping in thin MoS2 films deposited on dielectric substrates,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3489 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.

S. Tian, Z. Wei, Y. Li, H. Zhao, X. Fang, J. Tang, D. Fang, L. Sun, G. Liu, B. Yao, and X. Ma, “Surface state and optical property of sulfur passivated InP,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 17, 33–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, G. B.

D. Xiao, G. B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled spin and valley physics in monolayers of MoS2 and other Group-VI dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 196802 (2012).
[Crossref]

Loncar, M.

C. Palacios-Berraquero, D. M. Kara, A. R.-P. Montblanch, M. Barbone, P. Latawiec, D. Yoon, A. K. Ott, M. Loncar, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Atature, “Large-scale quantum-emitter arrays in atomically thin semiconductors,” arXiv:1609.04427 (2016).

Lu, C.-Y.

Y.-M. He, G. Clark, J. R. Schaibley, Y. He, M.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Wei, X. Ding, Q. Zhang, W. Yao, X. Xu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 497–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z. H.

C. E. J. Mitchell, I. G. Hill, A. B. McLean, and Z. H. Lu, “Sulfur passivated InP(100): surface gaps and electron counting,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 104–105, 434–440 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lundt, N.

N. Lundt, E. Cherotchenko, O. Iff, X. Fan, Y. Shen, P. Bigenwald, A. Kavokin, S. Höfling, and C. Schneider, “The interplay between excitons and trions in a monolayer of MoSe2,” arXiv:1702.04231 (2017).

Ma, X.

S. Tian, Z. Wei, Y. Li, H. Zhao, X. Fang, J. Tang, D. Fang, L. Sun, G. Liu, B. Yao, and X. Ma, “Surface state and optical property of sulfur passivated InP,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 17, 33–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mak, K. F.

K. F. Mak, K. He, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Control of valley polarization in monolayer MoS2 by optical helicity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 494–498 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mallet, P.

M. Koperski, K. Nogajewski, A. Arora, V. Cherkez, P. Mallet, J.-Y. Veuillen, J. Marcus, P. Kossacki, and M. Potemski, “Single photon emitters in exfoliated WSe2 structures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 503–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Manca, M.

F. Cadiz, C. Robert, G. Wang, W. Kong, X. Fan, M. Blei, D. Lagarde, M. Gay, M. Manca, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. Amand, X. Marie, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, and B. Urbaszek, “Ultralow power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D molybdenum dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3, 045008 (2016).

Mandrus, D. G.

A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

Marcus, J.

M. Koperski, K. Nogajewski, A. Arora, V. Cherkez, P. Mallet, J.-Y. Veuillen, J. Marcus, P. Kossacki, and M. Potemski, “Single photon emitters in exfoliated WSe2 structures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 503–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Marie, X.

F. Cadiz, C. Robert, G. Wang, W. Kong, X. Fan, M. Blei, D. Lagarde, M. Gay, M. Manca, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. Amand, X. Marie, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, and B. Urbaszek, “Ultralow power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D molybdenum dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3, 045008 (2016).

C. Robert, D. Lagarde, F. Cadiz, G. Wang, B. Lassagne, T. Amand, A. Balocchi, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, B. Urbaszek, and X. Marie, “Exciton radiative lifetime in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 205423 (2016).
[Crossref]

McLean, A. B.

C. E. J. Mitchell, I. G. Hill, A. B. McLean, and Z. H. Lu, “Sulfur passivated InP(100): surface gaps and electron counting,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 104–105, 434–440 (1996).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, C. E. J.

C. E. J. Mitchell, I. G. Hill, A. B. McLean, and Z. H. Lu, “Sulfur passivated InP(100): surface gaps and electron counting,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 104–105, 434–440 (1996).
[Crossref]

Molenaar, R.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Buscema, R. Molenaar, V. Singh, L. Janssen, J. S. J. van der Zant, and G. Steele, “Deterministic transfer of two-dimensional materials by all-dry viscoelastic stamping,” 2D Mater. 1, 11002 (2014).

Montblanch, A. R.-P.

C. Palacios-Berraquero, D. M. Kara, A. R.-P. Montblanch, M. Barbone, P. Latawiec, D. Yoon, A. K. Ott, M. Loncar, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Atature, “Large-scale quantum-emitter arrays in atomically thin semiconductors,” arXiv:1609.04427 (2016).

Morozov, Y. V.

Y. V. Morozov and M. Kuno, “Optical constants and dynamic conductivities of single layer MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 083103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Niu, Q.

T. Cao, G. Wang, W. Han, H. Ye, C. Zhu, J. Shi, Q. Niu, P. Tan, E. Wang, B. Liu, and J. Feng, “Valley-selective circular dichroism of monolayer molybdenum disulphide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 887 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nogajewski, K.

M. Koperski, K. Nogajewski, A. Arora, V. Cherkez, P. Mallet, J.-Y. Veuillen, J. Marcus, P. Kossacki, and M. Potemski, “Single photon emitters in exfoliated WSe2 structures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 503–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ossau, W.

G. V. Astakhov, D. R. Yakovlev, V. P. Kochereshko, W. Ossau, W. Faschinger, J. Puls, and A. Waag, “Binding energy of charged excitons in ZnSe-based quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165335 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ott, A. K.

C. Palacios-Berraquero, D. M. Kara, A. R.-P. Montblanch, M. Barbone, P. Latawiec, D. Yoon, A. K. Ott, M. Loncar, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Atature, “Large-scale quantum-emitter arrays in atomically thin semiconductors,” arXiv:1609.04427 (2016).

Palacios-Berraquero, C.

C. Palacios-Berraquero, D. M. Kara, A. R.-P. Montblanch, M. Barbone, P. Latawiec, D. Yoon, A. K. Ott, M. Loncar, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Atature, “Large-scale quantum-emitter arrays in atomically thin semiconductors,” arXiv:1609.04427 (2016).

Pan, J.-W.

Y.-M. He, G. Clark, J. R. Schaibley, Y. He, M.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Wei, X. Ding, Q. Zhang, W. Yao, X. Xu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 497–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Potemski, M.

M. Koperski, K. Nogajewski, A. Arora, V. Cherkez, P. Mallet, J.-Y. Veuillen, J. Marcus, P. Kossacki, and M. Potemski, “Single photon emitters in exfoliated WSe2 structures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 503–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Proux, R.

A. Branny, S. Kumar, R. Proux, and B. D. Gerardot, “Deterministic strain-induced arrays of quantum emitters in a two-dimensional semiconductor,” arXiv:1610.01406 (2016).

Puls, J.

G. V. Astakhov, D. R. Yakovlev, V. P. Kochereshko, W. Ossau, W. Faschinger, J. Puls, and A. Waag, “Binding energy of charged excitons in ZnSe-based quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165335 (2002).
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A. Ramasubramaniam, “Large excitonic effects in monolayers of molybdenum and tungsten dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 115409 (2012).
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Renucci, P.

F. Cadiz, C. Robert, G. Wang, W. Kong, X. Fan, M. Blei, D. Lagarde, M. Gay, M. Manca, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. Amand, X. Marie, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, and B. Urbaszek, “Ultralow power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D molybdenum dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3, 045008 (2016).

C. Robert, D. Lagarde, F. Cadiz, G. Wang, B. Lassagne, T. Amand, A. Balocchi, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, B. Urbaszek, and X. Marie, “Exciton radiative lifetime in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 205423 (2016).
[Crossref]

Robert, C.

C. Robert, D. Lagarde, F. Cadiz, G. Wang, B. Lassagne, T. Amand, A. Balocchi, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, B. Urbaszek, and X. Marie, “Exciton radiative lifetime in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 205423 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Cadiz, C. Robert, G. Wang, W. Kong, X. Fan, M. Blei, D. Lagarde, M. Gay, M. Manca, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. Amand, X. Marie, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, and B. Urbaszek, “Ultralow power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D molybdenum dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3, 045008 (2016).

Robinson, B. J.

D. Sercombe, S. Schwarz, O. Del Pozo-Zamudio, F. Liu, B. J. Robinson, E. Chekhovich, and I. Tartakovskii, “Optical investigation of the natural electron doping in thin MoS2 films deposited on dielectric substrates,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3489 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ross, J. S.

A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sa, R.

J. He, K. Wu, R. Sa, Q. Li, and Y. Wei, “Magnetic properties of nonmetal atoms absorbed MoS2 monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 082504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schaibley, J. R.

Y.-M. He, G. Clark, J. R. Schaibley, Y. He, M.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Wei, X. Ding, Q. Zhang, W. Yao, X. Xu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 497–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, R.

Schneider, C.

Y.-M. He, S. Höfling, and C. Schneider, “Phonon induced line broadening and population of the dark exciton in a deeply trapped localized emitter in monolayer WSe2,” Opt. Express 24, 8066–8073 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Lundt, E. Cherotchenko, O. Iff, X. Fan, Y. Shen, P. Bigenwald, A. Kavokin, S. Höfling, and C. Schneider, “The interplay between excitons and trions in a monolayer of MoSe2,” arXiv:1702.04231 (2017).

Schneider, R.

Schwarz, S.

D. Sercombe, S. Schwarz, O. Del Pozo-Zamudio, F. Liu, B. J. Robinson, E. Chekhovich, and I. Tartakovskii, “Optical investigation of the natural electron doping in thin MoS2 films deposited on dielectric substrates,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3489 (2013).
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Sercombe, D.

D. Sercombe, S. Schwarz, O. Del Pozo-Zamudio, F. Liu, B. J. Robinson, E. Chekhovich, and I. Tartakovskii, “Optical investigation of the natural electron doping in thin MoS2 films deposited on dielectric substrates,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3489 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shan, J.

K. F. Mak, K. He, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Control of valley polarization in monolayer MoS2 by optical helicity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 494–498 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.

N. Lundt, E. Cherotchenko, O. Iff, X. Fan, Y. Shen, P. Bigenwald, A. Kavokin, S. Höfling, and C. Schneider, “The interplay between excitons and trions in a monolayer of MoSe2,” arXiv:1702.04231 (2017).

Shi, J.

T. Cao, G. Wang, W. Han, H. Ye, C. Zhu, J. Shi, Q. Niu, P. Tan, E. Wang, B. Liu, and J. Feng, “Valley-selective circular dichroism of monolayer molybdenum disulphide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 887 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sidler, M.

A. Srivastava, M. Sidler, A. V. Allain, D. S. Lembke, A. Kis, and A. Imamoğlu, “Optically active quantum dots in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 491–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

Singh, V.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Buscema, R. Molenaar, V. Singh, L. Janssen, J. S. J. van der Zant, and G. Steele, “Deterministic transfer of two-dimensional materials by all-dry viscoelastic stamping,” 2D Mater. 1, 11002 (2014).

Srivastava, A.

A. Srivastava, M. Sidler, A. V. Allain, D. S. Lembke, A. Kis, and A. Imamoğlu, “Optically active quantum dots in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 491–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

Steele, G.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Buscema, R. Molenaar, V. Singh, L. Janssen, J. S. J. van der Zant, and G. Steele, “Deterministic transfer of two-dimensional materials by all-dry viscoelastic stamping,” 2D Mater. 1, 11002 (2014).

Steele, G. A.

Sun, L.

S. Tian, Z. Wei, Y. Li, H. Zhao, X. Fang, J. Tang, D. Fang, L. Sun, G. Liu, B. Yao, and X. Ma, “Surface state and optical property of sulfur passivated InP,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 17, 33–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tan, P.

T. Cao, G. Wang, W. Han, H. Ye, C. Zhu, J. Shi, Q. Niu, P. Tan, E. Wang, B. Liu, and J. Feng, “Valley-selective circular dichroism of monolayer molybdenum disulphide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 887 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tang, J.

S. Tian, Z. Wei, Y. Li, H. Zhao, X. Fang, J. Tang, D. Fang, L. Sun, G. Liu, B. Yao, and X. Ma, “Surface state and optical property of sulfur passivated InP,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 17, 33–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Taniguchi, T.

F. Cadiz, C. Robert, G. Wang, W. Kong, X. Fan, M. Blei, D. Lagarde, M. Gay, M. Manca, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. Amand, X. Marie, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, and B. Urbaszek, “Ultralow power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D molybdenum dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3, 045008 (2016).

Tartakovskii, I.

D. Sercombe, S. Schwarz, O. Del Pozo-Zamudio, F. Liu, B. J. Robinson, E. Chekhovich, and I. Tartakovskii, “Optical investigation of the natural electron doping in thin MoS2 films deposited on dielectric substrates,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3489 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tian, S.

S. Tian, Z. Wei, Y. Li, H. Zhao, X. Fang, J. Tang, D. Fang, L. Sun, G. Liu, B. Yao, and X. Ma, “Surface state and optical property of sulfur passivated InP,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 17, 33–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tongay, S.

C. Robert, D. Lagarde, F. Cadiz, G. Wang, B. Lassagne, T. Amand, A. Balocchi, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, B. Urbaszek, and X. Marie, “Exciton radiative lifetime in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 205423 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Cadiz, C. Robert, G. Wang, W. Kong, X. Fan, M. Blei, D. Lagarde, M. Gay, M. Manca, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. Amand, X. Marie, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, and B. Urbaszek, “Ultralow power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D molybdenum dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3, 045008 (2016).

Tonndorf, P.

Urbaszek, B.

C. Robert, D. Lagarde, F. Cadiz, G. Wang, B. Lassagne, T. Amand, A. Balocchi, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, B. Urbaszek, and X. Marie, “Exciton radiative lifetime in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 205423 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Cadiz, C. Robert, G. Wang, W. Kong, X. Fan, M. Blei, D. Lagarde, M. Gay, M. Manca, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. Amand, X. Marie, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, and B. Urbaszek, “Ultralow power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D molybdenum dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3, 045008 (2016).

Vamivakas, A. N.

C. Chakraborty, L. Kinnischtzke, K. M. Goodfellow, R. Beams, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Voltage-controlled quantum light from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 507–511 (2015).
[Crossref]

van der Zant, H. S. J.

van der Zant, J. S. J.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Buscema, R. Molenaar, V. Singh, L. Janssen, J. S. J. van der Zant, and G. Steele, “Deterministic transfer of two-dimensional materials by all-dry viscoelastic stamping,” 2D Mater. 1, 11002 (2014).

Veuillen, J.-Y.

M. Koperski, K. Nogajewski, A. Arora, V. Cherkez, P. Mallet, J.-Y. Veuillen, J. Marcus, P. Kossacki, and M. Potemski, “Single photon emitters in exfoliated WSe2 structures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 503–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Waag, A.

G. V. Astakhov, D. R. Yakovlev, V. P. Kochereshko, W. Ossau, W. Faschinger, J. Puls, and A. Waag, “Binding energy of charged excitons in ZnSe-based quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165335 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, E.

T. Cao, G. Wang, W. Han, H. Ye, C. Zhu, J. Shi, Q. Niu, P. Tan, E. Wang, B. Liu, and J. Feng, “Valley-selective circular dichroism of monolayer molybdenum disulphide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 887 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

F. Cadiz, C. Robert, G. Wang, W. Kong, X. Fan, M. Blei, D. Lagarde, M. Gay, M. Manca, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. Amand, X. Marie, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, and B. Urbaszek, “Ultralow power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D molybdenum dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3, 045008 (2016).

C. Robert, D. Lagarde, F. Cadiz, G. Wang, B. Lassagne, T. Amand, A. Balocchi, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, B. Urbaszek, and X. Marie, “Exciton radiative lifetime in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 205423 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, G. Wang, W. Han, H. Ye, C. Zhu, J. Shi, Q. Niu, P. Tan, E. Wang, B. Liu, and J. Feng, “Valley-selective circular dichroism of monolayer molybdenum disulphide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 887 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 125427 (2014).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, K.

F. Cadiz, C. Robert, G. Wang, W. Kong, X. Fan, M. Blei, D. Lagarde, M. Gay, M. Manca, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. Amand, X. Marie, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, and B. Urbaszek, “Ultralow power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D molybdenum dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3, 045008 (2016).

Wei, Y.

J. He, K. Wu, R. Sa, Q. Li, and Y. Wei, “Magnetic properties of nonmetal atoms absorbed MoS2 monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 082504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wei, Y.-J.

Y.-M. He, G. Clark, J. R. Schaibley, Y. He, M.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Wei, X. Ding, Q. Zhang, W. Yao, X. Xu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 497–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z.

S. Tian, Z. Wei, Y. Li, H. Zhao, X. Fang, J. Tang, D. Fang, L. Sun, G. Liu, B. Yao, and X. Ma, “Surface state and optical property of sulfur passivated InP,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 17, 33–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, K.

J. He, K. Wu, R. Sa, Q. Li, and Y. Wei, “Magnetic properties of nonmetal atoms absorbed MoS2 monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 082504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.

A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xiao, D.

X. Xu, W. Yao, D. Xiao, and T. F. Heinz, “Spin and pseudospins in layered transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Phys. 10, 343–350 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Xiao, G. B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled spin and valley physics in monolayers of MoS2 and other Group-VI dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 196802 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zeng, J. Dai, W. Yao, D. Xiao, and X. Cui, “Valley polarization in MoS2 monolayers by optical pumping,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 490–493 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Y.-M. He, G. Clark, J. R. Schaibley, Y. He, M.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Wei, X. Ding, Q. Zhang, W. Yao, X. Xu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 497–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, W. Yao, D. Xiao, and T. F. Heinz, “Spin and pseudospins in layered transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Phys. 10, 343–350 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Xiao, G. B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled spin and valley physics in monolayers of MoS2 and other Group-VI dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 196802 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yakovlev, D. R.

G. V. Astakhov, D. R. Yakovlev, V. P. Kochereshko, W. Ossau, W. Faschinger, J. Puls, and A. Waag, “Binding energy of charged excitons in ZnSe-based quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165335 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yan, J.

A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yao, B.

S. Tian, Z. Wei, Y. Li, H. Zhao, X. Fang, J. Tang, D. Fang, L. Sun, G. Liu, B. Yao, and X. Ma, “Surface state and optical property of sulfur passivated InP,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 17, 33–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yao, W.

Y.-M. He, G. Clark, J. R. Schaibley, Y. He, M.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Wei, X. Ding, Q. Zhang, W. Yao, X. Xu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 497–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, W. Yao, D. Xiao, and T. F. Heinz, “Spin and pseudospins in layered transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Phys. 10, 343–350 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Xiao, G. B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled spin and valley physics in monolayers of MoS2 and other Group-VI dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 196802 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zeng, J. Dai, W. Yao, D. Xiao, and X. Cui, “Valley polarization in MoS2 monolayers by optical pumping,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 490–493 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ye, H.

T. Cao, G. Wang, W. Han, H. Ye, C. Zhu, J. Shi, Q. Niu, P. Tan, E. Wang, B. Liu, and J. Feng, “Valley-selective circular dichroism of monolayer molybdenum disulphide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 887 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yoon, D.

C. Palacios-Berraquero, D. M. Kara, A. R.-P. Montblanch, M. Barbone, P. Latawiec, D. Yoon, A. K. Ott, M. Loncar, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Atature, “Large-scale quantum-emitter arrays in atomically thin semiconductors,” arXiv:1609.04427 (2016).

Yu, H.

A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

H. Zeng, J. Dai, W. Yao, D. Xiao, and X. Cui, “Valley polarization in MoS2 monolayers by optical pumping,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 490–493 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Y.-M. He, G. Clark, J. R. Schaibley, Y. He, M.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Wei, X. Ding, Q. Zhang, W. Yao, X. Xu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 497–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, B.

A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

S. Tian, Z. Wei, Y. Li, H. Zhao, X. Fang, J. Tang, D. Fang, L. Sun, G. Liu, B. Yao, and X. Ma, “Surface state and optical property of sulfur passivated InP,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 17, 33–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 125427 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, W. T.

Z. M. Ao, W. T. Zheng, and Q. Jiang, “The effects of electronic field on the atomic structure of the graphene/α-SiO2 interface,” Nanotechnology 19, 275710 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, C.

T. Cao, G. Wang, W. Han, H. Ye, C. Zhu, J. Shi, Q. Niu, P. Tan, E. Wang, B. Liu, and J. Feng, “Valley-selective circular dichroism of monolayer molybdenum disulphide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 887 (2012).
[Crossref]

2D Mater. (2)

A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Buscema, R. Molenaar, V. Singh, L. Janssen, J. S. J. van der Zant, and G. Steele, “Deterministic transfer of two-dimensional materials by all-dry viscoelastic stamping,” 2D Mater. 1, 11002 (2014).

F. Cadiz, C. Robert, G. Wang, W. Kong, X. Fan, M. Blei, D. Lagarde, M. Gay, M. Manca, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. Amand, X. Marie, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, and B. Urbaszek, “Ultralow power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D molybdenum dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3, 045008 (2016).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. He, K. Wu, R. Sa, Q. Li, and Y. Wei, “Magnetic properties of nonmetal atoms absorbed MoS2 monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 082504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. V. Morozov and M. Kuno, “Optical constants and dynamic conductivities of single layer MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 083103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

C. E. J. Mitchell, I. G. Hill, A. B. McLean, and Z. H. Lu, “Sulfur passivated InP(100): surface gaps and electron counting,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 104–105, 434–440 (1996).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. (1)

S. Tian, Z. Wei, Y. Li, H. Zhao, X. Fang, J. Tang, D. Fang, L. Sun, G. Liu, B. Yao, and X. Ma, “Surface state and optical property of sulfur passivated InP,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 17, 33–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

Z. M. Ao, W. T. Zheng, and Q. Jiang, “The effects of electronic field on the atomic structure of the graphene/α-SiO2 interface,” Nanotechnology 19, 275710 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

T. Cao, G. Wang, W. Han, H. Ye, C. Zhu, J. Shi, Q. Niu, P. Tan, E. Wang, B. Liu, and J. Feng, “Valley-selective circular dichroism of monolayer molybdenum disulphide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 887 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (7)

H. Zeng, J. Dai, W. Yao, D. Xiao, and X. Cui, “Valley polarization in MoS2 monolayers by optical pumping,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 490–493 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. F. Mak, K. He, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Control of valley polarization in monolayer MoS2 by optical helicity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 494–498 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y.-M. He, G. Clark, J. R. Schaibley, Y. He, M.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Wei, X. Ding, Q. Zhang, W. Yao, X. Xu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 497–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Koperski, K. Nogajewski, A. Arora, V. Cherkez, P. Mallet, J.-Y. Veuillen, J. Marcus, P. Kossacki, and M. Potemski, “Single photon emitters in exfoliated WSe2 structures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 503–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Chakraborty, L. Kinnischtzke, K. M. Goodfellow, R. Beams, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Voltage-controlled quantum light from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 507–511 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Srivastava, M. Sidler, A. V. Allain, D. S. Lembke, A. Kis, and A. Imamoğlu, “Optically active quantum dots in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 491–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

X. Xu, W. Yao, D. Xiao, and T. F. Heinz, “Spin and pseudospins in layered transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Phys. 10, 343–350 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. B (5)

G. V. Astakhov, D. R. Yakovlev, V. P. Kochereshko, W. Ossau, W. Faschinger, J. Puls, and A. Waag, “Binding energy of charged excitons in ZnSe-based quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165335 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Ramasubramaniam, “Large excitonic effects in monolayers of molybdenum and tungsten dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 115409 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Koh and D. G. Cahill, “Frequency dependence of the thermal conductivity of semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 075207 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Robert, D. Lagarde, F. Cadiz, G. Wang, B. Lassagne, T. Amand, A. Balocchi, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, B. Urbaszek, and X. Marie, “Exciton radiative lifetime in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 205423 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 125427 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Xiao, G. B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled spin and valley physics in monolayers of MoS2 and other Group-VI dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 196802 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

D. Sercombe, S. Schwarz, O. Del Pozo-Zamudio, F. Liu, B. J. Robinson, E. Chekhovich, and I. Tartakovskii, “Optical investigation of the natural electron doping in thin MoS2 films deposited on dielectric substrates,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3489 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

N. Lundt, E. Cherotchenko, O. Iff, X. Fan, Y. Shen, P. Bigenwald, A. Kavokin, S. Höfling, and C. Schneider, “The interplay between excitons and trions in a monolayer of MoSe2,” arXiv:1702.04231 (2017).

A. Branny, S. Kumar, R. Proux, and B. D. Gerardot, “Deterministic strain-induced arrays of quantum emitters in a two-dimensional semiconductor,” arXiv:1610.01406 (2016).

C. Palacios-Berraquero, D. M. Kara, A. R.-P. Montblanch, M. Barbone, P. Latawiec, D. Yoon, A. K. Ott, M. Loncar, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Atature, “Large-scale quantum-emitter arrays in atomically thin semiconductors,” arXiv:1609.04427 (2016).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic drawing of the investigated heterostructures: 90 nm SiO2 on a Si substrate and 250 nm In0.49Ga0.51P lattice-matched to a GaAs substrate. The monolayers were transferred onto each substrate using the dry-stamp technique. (b) AFM measurements of the used samples. SiO2 has a root-mean-squared roughness of 0.15 nm, while that of In0.49Ga0.51P is 0.29 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Monolayer photoluminescence at 50 μW, recorded over 10 min. For MoSe2 on SiO2, the exciton intensity diminishes over time while the trion grows in intensity. For the MoSe2–InGaP heterostructure, the trion dominates the spectrum by a large margin.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Input–output characteristics of the trion intensity for MoSe2 on SiO2 and MoSe2 on InGaP samples with an almost linear slope of 1. Dashed red lines are fitting curves. (b) Corresponding FWHM of the trion. On SiO2, it starts at 13 meV, increasing at higher powers up to 16 meV. On InGaP, the linewidth is 6.5 meV, which stays almost constant with regard to laser output.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Typical PL spectrum of the localized exciton in the monolayer WSe2 exfoliated onto a SiO2/Si substrate, measured at a nominal sample temperature of 4.5 K, (b) PL spectrum of the localized exciton in the monolayer WSe2 with the InGaP/GaAs substrate under 4.5 K. The peak energies range from 1.5 to 1.73 eV. The inset is the autocorrelation measurement of the marked peak under a 70 nW cw laser excitation at 532 nm. The blue line in the inset is the fit with the multiexcitonic model convolved with the response function. The red line is the deconvoluted curve, which shows g(2)(0)=0.261±0.117.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Spectral wandering of the localized exciton in layered WSe2 on the SiO2/Si substrate, (b) emission time trace of the localized exciton in layered WSe2 on the InGaP/GaAs substrate. Here, no obvious spectral wandering could be observed. (c, d) Statistics of the localized excitons at 1.529 eV in (a) and at 1.721 eV in (b) as a function of time. The extracted FWHMs of the wandering are (957±58)  μeV and (5.583±0.582)  μeV, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Statistic of the linewidth distribution for the 37 localized excitons in the WSe2 monolayer on the SiO2/Si substrate. The extracted minimum linewidth is 125 μeV. (b) Statistics of the linewidth distribution for the localized excitons in the WSe2 monolayer on the InGaP/GaAs substrate. For the 72 narrowest emission lines (first bin), the average linewidth of (74.8±12.2)  μeV is restricted by the resolution of our spectrometer (70 μeV).

Equations (2)

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gsource(2)(τ)=1((1g(2)(0))*e|ττC|),
gmeasured(2)(τ)=(gsource(2)*fDet)(τ).

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