Abstract

The detection of individual photons by superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors is an inherently binary mechanism, revealing either their absence or presence while concealing their spectral information. For multicolor imaging techniques, such as single-photon spectroscopy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, wavelength discrimination is essential and mandates spectral separation prior to detection. Here, we adopt an approach borrowed from quantum photonic integration to realize a compact and scalable waveguide-integrated single-photon spectrometer capable of parallel detection on multiple wavelength channels, with temporal resolution below 50 ps and dark count rates below 10 Hz at 80% of the devices’ critical current. We demonstrate multidetector devices for telecommunication and visible wavelengths, and showcase their performance by imaging silicon vacancy color centers in diamond nanoclusters. The fully integrated hybrid superconducting nanophotonic circuits enable simultaneous spectroscopy and lifetime mapping for correlative imaging and provide the ingredients for quantum wavelength-division multiplexing on a chip.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

C. Reimer, M. Kues, P. Roztocki, B. Wetzel, F. Grazioso, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Johnston, Y. Bromberg, L. Caspani, and D. J. Moss,“Generation of multiphoton entangled quantum states by means of integrated frequency combs,” Science 351, 1176–1180 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Schuck, X. Guo, L. Fan, X. Ma, M. Poot, and H. X. Tang, “Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10352 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

O. Kahl, S. Ferrari, V. Kovalyuk, G. N. Goltsman, A. Korneev, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waveguide integrated superconducting single photon detectors with high internal quantum efficiency at telecom wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10941 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Stuhler, “Quantum optics route to market,” Nat. Phys. 11, 293–295 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Najafi, J. Mower, N. C. Harris, F. Bellei, A. Dane, C. Lee, X. Hu, P. Kharel, F. Marsili, S. Assefa, K. K. Berggren, and D. Englund, “On-chip detection of non-classical light by scalable integration of single photon detectors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5873 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

M. Thompson, “Quantum integration,” Nat. Photonics 8, 160 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Kirmani, D. Venkatraman, D. Shin, A. Colaço, F. N. C. Wong, J. H. Shapiro, and V. K. Goyal, “First-photon imaging,” Science 343, 58–61 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

R. W. Heeres, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and V. Zwiller, “Quantum interference in plasmonic circuits,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 719–722 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Calkins, P. L. Mennea, A. E. Lita, B. J. Metcalf, W. Steven Kolthammer, A. Lamas-Linares, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, R. P. Mirin, J. C. Gates, P. G. R. Smith, I. A. Walmsley, T. Gerrits, and S. Woo Nam, “High quantum-efficiency photon-number-resolving detector for photonic on-chip information processing,” Opt. Express 21, 22657–22670 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Schuck, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “NbTiN superconducting nanowire detectors for visible and telecom wavelengths single photon counting on Si3N4 photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 051101 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. D. Hoppe, B. L. Scott, T. P. Welliver, S. W. Straight, and J. A. Swanson, “N-way FRET microscopy of multiple protein–protein interactions in live cells,” PLoS One 8, e64760 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. O’Brien, B. Patton, M. Sasaki, and J. Vučković, “Focus on integrated quantum optics,” New J. Phys. 15, 035016 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104–108 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Schuck, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Waveguide integrated low noise NbTiN nanowire single photon detectors with milli-Hz dark count rate,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1893 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Collins, C. Xiong, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single photon sources,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2582 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Tanzilli, A. Martin, F. Kaiser, M. P. De Micheli, O. Alibart, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “On the genesis and evolution of integrated quantum optics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 115–143 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Matsuda, H. Le Jeannic, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, W. J. Munro, K. Shimizu, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and H. Takesue, “A monolithically integrated polarization entangled photon pair source on a silicon chip,” Sci. Rep. 2, 817 (2012).

J. J. Schmied, A. Gietl, P. Holzmeister, C. Forthmann, C. Steinhauer, T. Dammeyer, and P. Tinnefeld, “Fluorescence and super-resolution standards based on DNA origami,” Nat. Methods 9, 1133–1134 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Okabe, N. Inada, C. Gota, Y. Harada, T. Funatsu, and S. Uchiyama, “Intracellular temperature mapping with a fluorescent polymeric thermometer and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 705 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmiri Nejad, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181110 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. J. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6, 45–49 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Gerrits, N. Thomas-Peter, J. C. Gates, A. E. Lita, B. J. Metcalf, B. Calkins, N. A. Tomlin, A. E. Fox, A. Lamas Linares, J. B. Spring, N. K. Langford, R. P. Mirin, P. G. R. Smith, I. A. Walmsley, and S. Woo Nam, “On-chip, photon-number-resolving, telecommunication-band detectors for scalable photonic information processing,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 060301 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: single photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 071101 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Moeller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, “Single photon emission from silicon-vacancy colour centres in chemical vapour deposition nano-diamonds on iridium,” New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. Lee, S. Lee, K. Ragunathan, C. Joo, T. Ha, and S. Hohng, “Single-molecule four-color FRET,” Angew. Chemie Int. Ed. 49, 9922–9925 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Kirchhofer, J. Helma, K. Schmidthals, C. Frauer, S. Cui, A. Karcher, M. Pellis, S. Muyldermans, C. S. Casas-Delucchi, M. C. Cardoso, H. Leonhardt, K. P. Hopfner, and U. Rothbauer, “Modulation of protein properties in living cells using nanobodies,” Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 17, 133–138 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. W. Borst and A. J. W. G. Visser, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy in life sciences,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 102002 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

R. H. Hadfield, “Single photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3, 696–705 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 284–288 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. Gurudev Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature 455, 644–647 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, and G. Gol’Tsman, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2, 302–306 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320, 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. J. Shields, “Semiconductor quantum light sources,” Nat. Photonics 1, 215–223 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

C. Wang, C. Kurtsiefer, H. Weinfurter, and B. Burchard, “Single photon emission from SiV centres in diamond produced by ion implantation,” J. Phys. B 39, 37–41 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. N. G. Giepmans, “The fluorescent toolbox for assessing protein location and function,” Science 312, 217–224 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

G. N. Gol’tsman, K. Smirnov, P. Kouminov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, V. Drakinsky, J. Zhang, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fabrication of nanostructured superconducting single photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 192–195 (2003).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

D. J. S. Birch, D. McLoskey, A. Sanderson, K. Suhling, and A. S. Holmes, “Multiplexed time-correlated single photon counting,” J. Fluoresc. 4, 91–102 (1994).
[Crossref]

Alibart, O.

S. Tanzilli, A. Martin, F. Kaiser, M. P. De Micheli, O. Alibart, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “On the genesis and evolution of integrated quantum optics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 115–143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Assefa, S.

F. Najafi, J. Mower, N. C. Harris, F. Bellei, A. Dane, C. Lee, X. Hu, P. Kharel, F. Marsili, S. Assefa, K. K. Berggren, and D. Englund, “On-chip detection of non-classical light by scalable integration of single photon detectors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5873 (2015).
[Crossref]

Becher, C.

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Moeller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, “Single photon emission from silicon-vacancy colour centres in chemical vapour deposition nano-diamonds on iridium,” New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beetz, J.

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmiri Nejad, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bellei, F.

F. Najafi, J. Mower, N. C. Harris, F. Bellei, A. Dane, C. Lee, X. Hu, P. Kharel, F. Marsili, S. Assefa, K. K. Berggren, and D. Englund, “On-chip detection of non-classical light by scalable integration of single photon detectors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5873 (2015).
[Crossref]

Berggren, K. K.

F. Najafi, J. Mower, N. C. Harris, F. Bellei, A. Dane, C. Lee, X. Hu, P. Kharel, F. Marsili, S. Assefa, K. K. Berggren, and D. Englund, “On-chip detection of non-classical light by scalable integration of single photon detectors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5873 (2015).
[Crossref]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref]

Birch, D. J. S.

D. J. S. Birch, D. McLoskey, A. Sanderson, K. Suhling, and A. S. Holmes, “Multiplexed time-correlated single photon counting,” J. Fluoresc. 4, 91–102 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bitauld, D.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, and G. Gol’Tsman, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2, 302–306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bonneau, D.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104–108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Borst, J. W.

J. W. Borst and A. J. W. G. Visser, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy in life sciences,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 102002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bromberg, Y.

C. Reimer, M. Kues, P. Roztocki, B. Wetzel, F. Grazioso, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Johnston, Y. Bromberg, L. Caspani, and D. J. Moss,“Generation of multiphoton entangled quantum states by means of integrated frequency combs,” Science 351, 1176–1180 (2016).
[Crossref]

Burchard, B.

C. Wang, C. Kurtsiefer, H. Weinfurter, and B. Burchard, “Single photon emission from SiV centres in diamond produced by ion implantation,” J. Phys. B 39, 37–41 (2006).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Illustration of the single-photon spectroscopy setup including a confocal scanning system and the integrated SPS chip, which comprises an input grating coupler for light insertion and a reference port for output coupling; an AWG for spectral separation of the broadband input spectrum into eight output waveguides; and SNSPDs at the end of each output waveguide for single-photon detection. Inset: optical micrograph of a diamond nanocluster with embedded SiV color centers. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of the AWG circuit section. (c) False-color SEM micrograph of one of the eight SSPDs. (d) Optical micrograph of one of the fabricated devices with nanophotonic elements and an electrode array in false color.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measured optical transmission in the telecommunication C-band showing eight separate transmission channels. (b) Corresponding single-photon on-chip detection efficiency as a function of wavelength and bias current. (c) On-chip device efficiency as a function of wavelength biased at 90% of the SNSPDs’ critical current.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Emission spectrum of SiV color centers embedded in a diamond nanocluster recorded by an eight-channel SPS (blue bars) optimized for operation at 738 nm. Overlaid in yellow is the emission spectrum obtained with a conventional spectrometer. The inset shows a three-dimensional molecular model of the SiV color center.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Spatial map of the count rate obtained in each of the eight wavelength channels around 738 nm. (b) Single fluorescence decay trace of SiV centers obtained by TCSPC including a single-exponential fit (solid red line). (c) Mapped out fluorescence decay times of the SiV centers found within the cluster area. Inset: confocal intensity scan of the same cluster.

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