Abstract

Newly available x-ray nanobeams in synchrotron radiation facilities open new research avenues in the nanosciences. However, a significant challenge is to efficiently concentrate, particularly for high-energy x-rays, a large photon flux into a very small focal spot. Here, we demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a sub-13-nm (FWHM) diffraction-limited x-ray focus size with 6 billion photons per second formed using elliptically figured mirrors operating at 33.6 keV. This is the smallest and brightest focus spot in this high-energy range. We report the results of an x-ray ptychography experiment to characterize the wavefront at the focus position. This offers new opportunities in multidisciplinary fields for x-ray microscopy techniques in which the focal spot size limits the resolution.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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J. C. da Silva and A. Menzel, Opt. Express 23, 33812 (2015).
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B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).
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D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, Nat. Photonics 8, 765 (2014).
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P. Thibault and A. Menzel, Nature 494, 68 (2013).
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2010 (4)

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, Nat. Phys. 6, 122 (2010).
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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, Ultramicroscopy 109, 338 (2009).
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S. Matsuyama, M. Shimura, H. Mimura, M. Fujii, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, X-Ray Spectrom. 38, 89 (2009).
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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, Science 321, 379 (2008).
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H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
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S. W. Hell, Science 316, 1153 (2007).
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2006 (1)

I. Letard, R. Tucoulou, P. Bleuet, G. Martínez-Criado, A. Somogyi, L. Vincze, J. Morse, and J. Susini, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063705 (2006).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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1996 (1)

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[Crossref]

1991 (1)

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[Crossref]

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1948 (1)

Assoufid, L.

Attwood, D.

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, Nat. Photonics 4, 840 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baez, A. V.

Barrett, R.

C. Morawe, R. Barrett, P. Cloetens, B. Lantelme, J.-C. Peffen, and A. Vivo, Proc. SPIE 9588, 958803 (2015).
[Crossref]

Benson, C.

Bleuet, P.

P. Bleuet, P. Gergaud, L. Lemelle, P. Bleuet, R. Tucoulou, P. Cloetens, J. Susini, G. Delette, and A. Simionovici, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 29, 518 (2010).
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P. Bleuet, P. Gergaud, L. Lemelle, P. Bleuet, R. Tucoulou, P. Cloetens, J. Susini, G. Delette, and A. Simionovici, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 29, 518 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Cauzid, P. Philippot, P. Bleuet, A. Simionovici, A. Somogyi, and B. Golosio, Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 799 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Letard, R. Tucoulou, P. Bleuet, G. Martínez-Criado, A. Somogyi, L. Vincze, J. Morse, and J. Susini, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063705 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Golosio, A. Somogyi, A. Simionovici, P. Bleuet, J. Susini, and L. Lemelle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2199 (2004).
[Crossref]

Budai, J. D.

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, Science 334, 1234 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bunk, O.

C. M. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. M. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. R. Fienup, A. T. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, Opt. Express 18, 23420 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, Ultramicroscopy 109, 338 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, Science 321, 379 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cabana, J.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, Nat. Photonics 8, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cauzid, J.

J. Cauzid, P. Philippot, P. Bleuet, A. Simionovici, A. Somogyi, and B. Golosio, Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 799 (2007).
[Crossref]

Celestre, R.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, Nat. Photonics 8, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chao, W.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, Nat. Photonics 8, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chu, Y. S.

Cloetens, P.

C. Morawe, R. Barrett, P. Cloetens, B. Lantelme, J.-C. Peffen, and A. Vivo, Proc. SPIE 9588, 958803 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Bleuet, P. Gergaud, L. Lemelle, P. Bleuet, R. Tucoulou, P. Cloetens, J. Susini, G. Delette, and A. Simionovici, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 29, 518 (2010).
[Crossref]

Conley, R.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, Opt. Express 19, 15069 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

da Silva, J. C.

David, C.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, Science 321, 379 (2008).
[Crossref]

David, K. L.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, Nat. Photonics 8, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Delette, G.

P. Bleuet, P. Gergaud, L. Lemelle, P. Bleuet, R. Tucoulou, P. Cloetens, J. Susini, G. Delette, and A. Simionovici, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 29, 518 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, M.

B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, Ultramicroscopy 109, 338 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, Science 321, 379 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dynes, J.

J. Lawrence, G. Swerhone, J. Dynes, D. Korber, and A. Hitchcock, J. Microsc. 261, 130 (2016).

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B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Falkenberg, G.

F. Seiboth, M. Kahnt, M. Scholz, M. Seyrich, F. Wittwer, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, A. Schropp, and C. G. Schroer, Proc. SPIE 9963, 99630P (2016).
[Crossref]

Faulkner, H. M. L.

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023903 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fienup, J. R.

Fujii, M.

S. Matsuyama, M. Shimura, H. Mimura, M. Fujii, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, X-Ray Spectrom. 38, 89 (2009).
[Crossref]

Garrevoet, J.

F. Seiboth, M. Kahnt, M. Scholz, M. Seyrich, F. Wittwer, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, A. Schropp, and C. G. Schroer, Proc. SPIE 9963, 99630P (2016).
[Crossref]

Gergaud, P.

P. Bleuet, P. Gergaud, L. Lemelle, P. Bleuet, R. Tucoulou, P. Cloetens, J. Susini, G. Delette, and A. Simionovici, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 29, 518 (2010).
[Crossref]

Golosio, B.

J. Cauzid, P. Philippot, P. Bleuet, A. Simionovici, A. Somogyi, and B. Golosio, Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 799 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Golosio, A. Somogyi, A. Simionovici, P. Bleuet, J. Susini, and L. Lemelle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2199 (2004).
[Crossref]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company, 2005).

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

Handa, S.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, Nat. Phys. 6, 122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hell, S. W.

S. W. Hell, Science 316, 1153 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hitchcock, A.

J. Lawrence, G. Swerhone, J. Dynes, D. Korber, and A. Hitchcock, J. Microsc. 261, 130 (2016).

Holt, M.

Holt, M. V.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ice, G. E.

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, Science 334, 1234 (2011).
[Crossref]

Inagaki, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, Nat. Phys. 6, 122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, T.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, Nat. Phys. 6, 122 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, M. Shimura, H. Mimura, M. Fujii, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, X-Ray Spectrom. 38, 89 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jahedi, N.

Johnston, T. F.

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, and T. F. Johnston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kahnt, M.

F. Seiboth, M. Kahnt, M. Scholz, M. Seyrich, F. Wittwer, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, A. Schropp, and C. G. Schroer, Proc. SPIE 9963, 99630P (2016).
[Crossref]

Kang, H. C.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, Opt. Express 19, 15069 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kaznatcheev, K.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, Nat. Photonics 8, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kewish, C. M.

Khounsary, A. M.

Kimura, T.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, Nat. Phys. 6, 122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kirkpatrick, P.

Kohn, V.

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, Nature 384, 49 (1996).
[Crossref]

Korber, D.

J. Lawrence, G. Swerhone, J. Dynes, D. Korber, and A. Hitchcock, J. Microsc. 261, 130 (2016).

Lantelme, B.

C. Morawe, R. Barrett, P. Cloetens, B. Lantelme, J.-C. Peffen, and A. Vivo, Proc. SPIE 9588, 958803 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lawrence, J.

J. Lawrence, G. Swerhone, J. Dynes, D. Korber, and A. Hitchcock, J. Microsc. 261, 130 (2016).

Lemelle, L.

P. Bleuet, P. Gergaud, L. Lemelle, P. Bleuet, R. Tucoulou, P. Cloetens, J. Susini, G. Delette, and A. Simionovici, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 29, 518 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Golosio, A. Somogyi, A. Simionovici, P. Bleuet, J. Susini, and L. Lemelle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2199 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lengeler, B.

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, Nature 384, 49 (1996).
[Crossref]

Letard, I.

I. Letard, R. Tucoulou, P. Bleuet, G. Martínez-Criado, A. Somogyi, L. Vincze, J. Morse, and J. Susini, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063705 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lima, E.

Liu, C.

Lu, M.

Macrander, A. T.

Maia, F.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, Nat. Photonics 8, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marchesini, S.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, Nat. Photonics 8, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Martínez-Criado, G.

I. Letard, R. Tucoulou, P. Bleuet, G. Martínez-Criado, A. Somogyi, L. Vincze, J. Morse, and J. Susini, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063705 (2006).
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H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, Opt. Express 19, 15069 (2011).
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H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, Nat. Phys. 6, 122 (2010).
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E. McLeod and A. Ozcan, Rep. Prog. Phys. 79, 076001 (2016).
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D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, Nat. Photonics 8, 765 (2014).
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H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, Nat. Phys. 6, 122 (2010).
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S. Matsuyama, M. Shimura, H. Mimura, M. Fujii, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, X-Ray Spectrom. 38, 89 (2009).
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C. Morawe, R. Barrett, P. Cloetens, B. Lantelme, J.-C. Peffen, and A. Vivo, Proc. SPIE 9588, 958803 (2015).
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I. Letard, R. Tucoulou, P. Bleuet, G. Martínez-Criado, A. Somogyi, L. Vincze, J. Morse, and J. Susini, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063705 (2006).
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H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, Nat. Phys. 6, 122 (2010).
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S. Matsuyama, M. Shimura, H. Mimura, M. Fujii, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, X-Ray Spectrom. 38, 89 (2009).
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E. McLeod and A. Ozcan, Rep. Prog. Phys. 79, 076001 (2016).
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D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, Nat. Photonics 8, 765 (2014).
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G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, Science 334, 1234 (2011).
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C. Morawe, R. Barrett, P. Cloetens, B. Lantelme, J.-C. Peffen, and A. Vivo, Proc. SPIE 9588, 958803 (2015).
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B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).
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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, Ultramicroscopy 109, 338 (2009).
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H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023903 (2004).
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A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, Nat. Photonics 4, 840 (2010).
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H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, Nat. Phys. 6, 122 (2010).
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S. Matsuyama, M. Shimura, H. Mimura, M. Fujii, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, X-Ray Spectrom. 38, 89 (2009).
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A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, and T. F. Johnston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098 (1991).
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F. Seiboth, M. Kahnt, M. Scholz, M. Seyrich, F. Wittwer, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, A. Schropp, and C. G. Schroer, Proc. SPIE 9963, 99630P (2016).
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F. Seiboth, M. Kahnt, M. Scholz, M. Seyrich, F. Wittwer, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, A. Schropp, and C. G. Schroer, Proc. SPIE 9963, 99630P (2016).
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F. Seiboth, M. Kahnt, M. Scholz, M. Seyrich, F. Wittwer, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, A. Schropp, and C. G. Schroer, Proc. SPIE 9963, 99630P (2016).
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F. Seiboth, M. Kahnt, M. Scholz, M. Seyrich, F. Wittwer, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, A. Schropp, and C. G. Schroer, Proc. SPIE 9963, 99630P (2016).
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F. Seiboth, M. Kahnt, M. Scholz, M. Seyrich, F. Wittwer, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, A. Schropp, and C. G. Schroer, Proc. SPIE 9963, 99630P (2016).
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D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, Nat. Photonics 8, 765 (2014).
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Shimura, M.

S. Matsuyama, M. Shimura, H. Mimura, M. Fujii, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, X-Ray Spectrom. 38, 89 (2009).
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P. Bleuet, P. Gergaud, L. Lemelle, P. Bleuet, R. Tucoulou, P. Cloetens, J. Susini, G. Delette, and A. Simionovici, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 29, 518 (2010).
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A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, Nature 384, 49 (1996).
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A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, Nature 384, 49 (1996).
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J. Cauzid, P. Philippot, P. Bleuet, A. Simionovici, A. Somogyi, and B. Golosio, Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 799 (2007).
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I. Letard, R. Tucoulou, P. Bleuet, G. Martínez-Criado, A. Somogyi, L. Vincze, J. Morse, and J. Susini, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063705 (2006).
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B. Golosio, A. Somogyi, A. Simionovici, P. Bleuet, J. Susini, and L. Lemelle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2199 (2004).
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H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, Opt. Express 19, 15069 (2011).
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H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
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B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).
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P. Bleuet, P. Gergaud, L. Lemelle, P. Bleuet, R. Tucoulou, P. Cloetens, J. Susini, G. Delette, and A. Simionovici, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 29, 518 (2010).
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I. Letard, R. Tucoulou, P. Bleuet, G. Martínez-Criado, A. Somogyi, L. Vincze, J. Morse, and J. Susini, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063705 (2006).
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B. Golosio, A. Somogyi, A. Simionovici, P. Bleuet, J. Susini, and L. Lemelle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2199 (2004).
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J. Lawrence, G. Swerhone, J. Dynes, D. Korber, and A. Hitchcock, J. Microsc. 261, 130 (2016).

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H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, Nat. Phys. 6, 122 (2010).
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S. Matsuyama, M. Shimura, H. Mimura, M. Fujii, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, X-Ray Spectrom. 38, 89 (2009).
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Thibault, P.

B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, Nature 494, 68 (2013).
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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, Ultramicroscopy 109, 338 (2009).
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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, Science 321, 379 (2008).
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Tucoulou, R.

P. Bleuet, P. Gergaud, L. Lemelle, P. Bleuet, R. Tucoulou, P. Cloetens, J. Susini, G. Delette, and A. Simionovici, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 29, 518 (2010).
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I. Letard, R. Tucoulou, P. Bleuet, G. Martínez-Criado, A. Somogyi, L. Vincze, J. Morse, and J. Susini, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063705 (2006).
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D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, Nat. Photonics 8, 765 (2014).
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Vincze, L.

I. Letard, R. Tucoulou, P. Bleuet, G. Martínez-Criado, A. Somogyi, L. Vincze, J. Morse, and J. Susini, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063705 (2006).
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C. Morawe, R. Barrett, P. Cloetens, B. Lantelme, J.-C. Peffen, and A. Vivo, Proc. SPIE 9588, 958803 (2015).
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Vogt, S.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
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D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, Nat. Photonics 8, 765 (2014).
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Winarski, R. P.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
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Wittwer, F.

F. Seiboth, M. Kahnt, M. Scholz, M. Seyrich, F. Wittwer, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, A. Schropp, and C. G. Schroer, Proc. SPIE 9963, 99630P (2016).
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Yabashi, M.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, Nat. Phys. 6, 122 (2010).
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S. Matsuyama, M. Shimura, H. Mimura, M. Fujii, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, X-Ray Spectrom. 38, 89 (2009).
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H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, Nat. Phys. 6, 122 (2010).
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Yamamura, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, Nat. Phys. 6, 122 (2010).
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Yamauchi, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, Nat. Phys. 6, 122 (2010).
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S. Matsuyama, M. Shimura, H. Mimura, M. Fujii, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, X-Ray Spectrom. 38, 89 (2009).
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Yan, H.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, Opt. Express 19, 15069 (2011).
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H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, L. L.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, Nat. Photonics 8, 765 (2014).
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Yokoyama, H.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, Nat. Phys. 6, 122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.-S.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, Nat. Photonics 8, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yumoto, H.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, Nat. Phys. 6, 122 (2010).
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S. Matsuyama, M. Shimura, H. Mimura, M. Fujii, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, X-Ray Spectrom. 38, 89 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

B. Golosio, A. Somogyi, A. Simionovici, P. Bleuet, J. Susini, and L. Lemelle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2199 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, and T. F. Johnston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Microsc. (1)

J. Lawrence, G. Swerhone, J. Dynes, D. Korber, and A. Hitchcock, J. Microsc. 261, 130 (2016).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, Nat. Photonics 8, 765 (2014).
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A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, Nat. Photonics 4, 840 (2010).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, Nat. Phys. 6, 122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, Nature 384, 49 (1996).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, Nature 494, 68 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023903 (2004).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

F. Seiboth, M. Kahnt, M. Scholz, M. Seyrich, F. Wittwer, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, A. Schropp, and C. G. Schroer, Proc. SPIE 9963, 99630P (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Morawe, R. Barrett, P. Cloetens, B. Lantelme, J.-C. Peffen, and A. Vivo, Proc. SPIE 9588, 958803 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

E. McLeod and A. Ozcan, Rep. Prog. Phys. 79, 076001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

I. Letard, R. Tucoulou, P. Bleuet, G. Martínez-Criado, A. Somogyi, L. Vincze, J. Morse, and J. Susini, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063705 (2006).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, Science 334, 1234 (2011).
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S. W. Hell, Science 316, 1153 (2007).
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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, Science 321, 379 (2008).
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Spectrochim. Acta B (1)

J. Cauzid, P. Philippot, P. Bleuet, A. Simionovici, A. Somogyi, and B. Golosio, Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 799 (2007).
[Crossref]

TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. (1)

P. Bleuet, P. Gergaud, L. Lemelle, P. Bleuet, R. Tucoulou, P. Cloetens, J. Susini, G. Delette, and A. Simionovici, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 29, 518 (2010).
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Ultramicroscopy (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, Ultramicroscopy 109, 338 (2009).
[Crossref]

X-Ray Spectrom. (1)

S. Matsuyama, M. Shimura, H. Mimura, M. Fujii, H. Yumoto, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, X-Ray Spectrom. 38, 89 (2009).
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Other (2)

JTEC Corporation, https://www.j-tec.co.jp/english/ .

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company, 2005).

Supplementary Material (1)

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» Supplement 1: PDF (1911 KB)      Methods used in the manuscript and supplementary information to support manuscript’s findings (Reviewed)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

KB mirror focusing optics and edge scans across a 10-nm-thick lithographic structure of 20  μm×20  μm dimension, made from Nickel deposited on a thin silicon nitride membrane. (a) Sketch of the KB mirror optics. (b) Light micrograph of the lithographic structure. (c) Horizontal scan across a vertical edge of a Ni square. The spot size resulting from the fitting is 24.9 nm. (d) Vertical scan across a horizontal edge of a Ni square. The spot size resulting from the fitting is 19.5 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reconstructed object and x-ray beam at the sample position obtained from ptychographic measurements with a 200-nm-thick gold lithographic structure using high-energy x-rays (33.6 keV). (a) Phase-contrast image. (b) Amplitude image. Panels (c)–(e) show three orthogonal modes decomposed from the probe. The dominant mode is (c) with (d) and (e) in decreasing order. Panels (f)–(h) show the respective Fourier transforms of the probes in panels (c)–(e). (i) Intensity contribution of the principal mode. (j) Intensity contributions of the other modes. (k) Incoherent sum of the intensities of all modes. The white scale bars represent 500 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

X-ray wavefront characterization and focus size. (a) Vertical cross-section of the propagation of the wavefront. (b) Horizontal cross-section of the propagation of the wavefront. In (a) and (b), the sample is at position 0 and the focus is indicated by the dashed yellow line. (c) Beam at the focus position. The inset displays a zoomed-in view of the central part. (d) Horizontal and vertical profiles of the intensity of the beam at the focus position plotted together with a simulated profile of an ideal optical system. The FWHM values calculated by 22log(2)σ were 12.0 nm for the horizontal focus and 12.6 nm for the vertical focus.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Deconvolution of an XRF image of the L-line fluorescence of a 200-nm-thick gold lithographic structure using high-energy x-rays (33.6 keV). (a) Original image. (b) Deconvolved image. The insets to the bottom right highlight a region for comparison.