Abstract

The feathers of the black-billed magpie exhibit distinct iridescence, which is much weaker than that of other bird feathers well known to display structural colors. Close examination of the cross-sectional microstructures of the magpie feather barbules revealed that the vertically layered structure of melanin tubes along the barbule surface (cortex) is responsible for the weak iridescence, while their lateral arrangement is of little importance. Artificial barbules that complied with the microstructures observed in the magpie barbules were realized by rolling a flexible polymer grating film. The comparison between experimental data obtained from the artificial barbules and theoretical results simulated for model structures strongly supported our hypothesis on the origin of the weak iridescence. By controlling the single and most significant structural parameter, the optical thickness of an individual cortex layer, we successfully demonstrated that the color hues of the resultant artificial barbules can vary across the entire visible range.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2016 (1)

2015 (2)

D. G. Stavenga, H. L. Leertouwer, D. C. Osorio, and B. D. Wilts, Light: Sci. Appl. 4, e243 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Lee, S.-F. Liao, and P. Vukusic, J. R. Soc. Interface 12, 20141354 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. Kolle, A. Lethbridge, M. Kreysing, J. J. Baumberg, J. Aizenberg, and P. Vukusic, Adv. Mater. 25, 2239 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, B. Bhushan, and J. Tong, RSC Adv. 3, 14862 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

K. Chung, S. Yu, C. J. Heo, J. W. Shim, S. M. Yang, M. G. Han, H. S. Lee, Y. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and N. Park, Adv. Mater. 24, 2375 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Finnemore, P. Cunha, T. Shean, S. Vignolini, S. Guldin, M. Oyen, and U. Steiner, Nat. Commun. 3, 966 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. M. Eliason and M. D. Shawkey, J. R. Soc. Interface 9, 2279 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J. G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. Mochrie, and C. S. O’Hern, Adv. Mater. 22, 2939 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, S. G. Mochrie, R. O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, and H. Cao, Adv. Mater. 22, 2871 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Lee, H. Lee, J. Kimura, and S. Sugita, J. Vet. Med. Sci. 72, 1047 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

T. M. Trzeciak and P. Vukusic, Phys. Rev. E 80, 061908 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. W. Galusha, L. R. Richey, J. S. Gardner, J. N. Cha, and M. H. Bartl, Phys. Rev. E 77, 050904 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, Rep. Prog. Phys. 71, 076401 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

L. Biró, K. Kertész, Z. Vértesy, G. Márk, Z. Bálint, V. Lousse, and J.-P. Vigneron, Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 941 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. R. Parker and H. E. Townley, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 347 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. P. Vigneron, J.-F. Colomer, M. Rassart, A. L. Ingram, and V. Lousse, Phys. Rev. E 73, 021914 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

Y. Li, Z. Lu, H. Yin, X. Yu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, Phys. Rev. E 72, 010902 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Kinoshita and S. Yoshioka, Chem. Phys. Chem. 6, 1442 (2005).

2004 (1)

D. Brink and N. Van Der Berg, J. Phys. D 37, 813 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12576 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. Vukusic, J. Sambles, and C. Lawrence, Nature 404, 457 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

R. O. Prum, R. H. Torres, S. Williamson, and J. Dyck, Nature 396, 28 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1972 (1)

M. Land, Prog. Biophys. Molec. Biol. 24, 75 (1972).
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Bálint, Z.

L. Biró, K. Kertész, Z. Vértesy, G. Márk, Z. Bálint, V. Lousse, and J.-P. Vigneron, Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 941 (2007).
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Bartl, M. H.

J. W. Galusha, L. R. Richey, J. S. Gardner, J. N. Cha, and M. H. Bartl, Phys. Rev. E 77, 050904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baumberg, J. J.

M. Kolle, A. Lethbridge, M. Kreysing, J. J. Baumberg, J. Aizenberg, and P. Vukusic, Adv. Mater. 25, 2239 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bhushan, B.

J. Sun, B. Bhushan, and J. Tong, RSC Adv. 3, 14862 (2013).
[Crossref]

Biró, L.

L. Biró, K. Kertész, Z. Vértesy, G. Márk, Z. Bálint, V. Lousse, and J.-P. Vigneron, Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 941 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brink, D.

D. Brink and N. Van Der Berg, J. Phys. D 37, 813 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, S. G. Mochrie, R. O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, and H. Cao, Adv. Mater. 22, 2871 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cha, J. N.

J. W. Galusha, L. R. Richey, J. S. Gardner, J. N. Cha, and M. H. Bartl, Phys. Rev. E 77, 050904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chung, K.

K. Chung, S. Yu, C. J. Heo, J. W. Shim, S. M. Yang, M. G. Han, H. S. Lee, Y. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and N. Park, Adv. Mater. 24, 2375 (2012).
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J. P. Vigneron, J.-F. Colomer, M. Rassart, A. L. Ingram, and V. Lousse, Phys. Rev. E 73, 021914 (2006).
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Cook, C. Q.

Cunha, P.

A. Finnemore, P. Cunha, T. Shean, S. Vignolini, S. Guldin, M. Oyen, and U. Steiner, Nat. Commun. 3, 966 (2012).
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Dufresne, E. R.

H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, S. G. Mochrie, R. O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, and H. Cao, Adv. Mater. 22, 2871 (2010).
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Eliason, C. M.

C. M. Eliason and M. D. Shawkey, J. R. Soc. Interface 9, 2279 (2012).
[Crossref]

Finnemore, A.

A. Finnemore, P. Cunha, T. Shean, S. Vignolini, S. Guldin, M. Oyen, and U. Steiner, Nat. Commun. 3, 966 (2012).
[Crossref]

Forster, J. D.

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J. G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. Mochrie, and C. S. O’Hern, Adv. Mater. 22, 2939 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fu, R.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12576 (2003).
[Crossref]

Galusha, J. W.

J. W. Galusha, L. R. Richey, J. S. Gardner, J. N. Cha, and M. H. Bartl, Phys. Rev. E 77, 050904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gardner, J. S.

J. W. Galusha, L. R. Richey, J. S. Gardner, J. N. Cha, and M. H. Bartl, Phys. Rev. E 77, 050904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Guldin, S.

A. Finnemore, P. Cunha, T. Shean, S. Vignolini, S. Guldin, M. Oyen, and U. Steiner, Nat. Commun. 3, 966 (2012).
[Crossref]

Han, M. G.

K. Chung, S. Yu, C. J. Heo, J. W. Shim, S. M. Yang, M. G. Han, H. S. Lee, Y. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and N. Park, Adv. Mater. 24, 2375 (2012).
[Crossref]

Heo, C. J.

K. Chung, S. Yu, C. J. Heo, J. W. Shim, S. M. Yang, M. G. Han, H. S. Lee, Y. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and N. Park, Adv. Mater. 24, 2375 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12576 (2003).
[Crossref]

Huang, F.

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ingram, A. L.

J. P. Vigneron, J.-F. Colomer, M. Rassart, A. L. Ingram, and V. Lousse, Phys. Rev. E 73, 021914 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

K. Chung, S. Yu, C. J. Heo, J. W. Shim, S. M. Yang, M. G. Han, H. S. Lee, Y. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and N. Park, Adv. Mater. 24, 2375 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kertész, K.

L. Biró, K. Kertész, Z. Vértesy, G. Márk, Z. Bálint, V. Lousse, and J.-P. Vigneron, Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 941 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kimura, J.

E. Lee, H. Lee, J. Kimura, and S. Sugita, J. Vet. Med. Sci. 72, 1047 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kinoshita, S.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, Rep. Prog. Phys. 71, 076401 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Kinoshita and S. Yoshioka, Chem. Phys. Chem. 6, 1442 (2005).

Kolle, M.

M. Kolle, A. Lethbridge, M. Kreysing, J. J. Baumberg, J. Aizenberg, and P. Vukusic, Adv. Mater. 25, 2239 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kreysing, M.

M. Kolle, A. Lethbridge, M. Kreysing, J. J. Baumberg, J. Aizenberg, and P. Vukusic, Adv. Mater. 25, 2239 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lalanne, P.

Land, M.

M. Land, Prog. Biophys. Molec. Biol. 24, 75 (1972).
[Crossref]

Lawrence, C.

P. Vukusic, J. Sambles, and C. Lawrence, Nature 404, 457 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-C.

C.-C. Lee, S.-F. Liao, and P. Vukusic, J. R. Soc. Interface 12, 20141354 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, E.

E. Lee, H. Lee, J. Kimura, and S. Sugita, J. Vet. Med. Sci. 72, 1047 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

E. Lee, H. Lee, J. Kimura, and S. Sugita, J. Vet. Med. Sci. 72, 1047 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. S.

K. Chung, S. Yu, C. J. Heo, J. W. Shim, S. M. Yang, M. G. Han, H. S. Lee, Y. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and N. Park, Adv. Mater. 24, 2375 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. Y.

K. Chung, S. Yu, C. J. Heo, J. W. Shim, S. M. Yang, M. G. Han, H. S. Lee, Y. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and N. Park, Adv. Mater. 24, 2375 (2012).
[Crossref]

Leertouwer, H. L.

D. G. Stavenga, H. L. Leertouwer, D. C. Osorio, and B. D. Wilts, Light: Sci. Appl. 4, e243 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lethbridge, A.

M. Kolle, A. Lethbridge, M. Kreysing, J. J. Baumberg, J. Aizenberg, and P. Vukusic, Adv. Mater. 25, 2239 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, Z. Lu, H. Yin, X. Yu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, Phys. Rev. E 72, 010902 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12576 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liao, S.-F.

C.-C. Lee, S.-F. Liao, and P. Vukusic, J. R. Soc. Interface 12, 20141354 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liew, S. F.

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J. G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. Mochrie, and C. S. O’Hern, Adv. Mater. 22, 2939 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, S. G. Mochrie, R. O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, and H. Cao, Adv. Mater. 22, 2871 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Y. Li, Z. Lu, H. Yin, X. Yu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, Phys. Rev. E 72, 010902 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12576 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lousse, V.

L. Biró, K. Kertész, Z. Vértesy, G. Márk, Z. Bálint, V. Lousse, and J.-P. Vigneron, Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 941 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. P. Vigneron, J.-F. Colomer, M. Rassart, A. L. Ingram, and V. Lousse, Phys. Rev. E 73, 021914 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z.

Y. Li, Z. Lu, H. Yin, X. Yu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, Phys. Rev. E 72, 010902 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mahajan, S.

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511 (2010).
[Crossref]

Márk, G.

L. Biró, K. Kertész, Z. Vértesy, G. Márk, Z. Bálint, V. Lousse, and J.-P. Vigneron, Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 941 (2007).
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, J.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, Rep. Prog. Phys. 71, 076401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mochrie, S. G.

H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, S. G. Mochrie, R. O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, and H. Cao, Adv. Mater. 22, 2871 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J. G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. Mochrie, and C. S. O’Hern, Adv. Mater. 22, 2939 (2010).
[Crossref]

Noh, H.

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J. G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. Mochrie, and C. S. O’Hern, Adv. Mater. 22, 2939 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, S. G. Mochrie, R. O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, and H. Cao, Adv. Mater. 22, 2871 (2010).
[Crossref]

O’Hern, C. S.

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J. G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. Mochrie, and C. S. O’Hern, Adv. Mater. 22, 2939 (2010).
[Crossref]

Osorio, D. C.

D. G. Stavenga, H. L. Leertouwer, D. C. Osorio, and B. D. Wilts, Light: Sci. Appl. 4, e243 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oyen, M.

A. Finnemore, P. Cunha, T. Shean, S. Vignolini, S. Guldin, M. Oyen, and U. Steiner, Nat. Commun. 3, 966 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, J. G.

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J. G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. Mochrie, and C. S. O’Hern, Adv. Mater. 22, 2939 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, N.

K. Chung, S. Yu, C. J. Heo, J. W. Shim, S. M. Yang, M. G. Han, H. S. Lee, Y. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and N. Park, Adv. Mater. 24, 2375 (2012).
[Crossref]

Parker, A. R.

A. R. Parker and H. E. Townley, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 347 (2007).
[Crossref]

Prum, R. O.

H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, S. G. Mochrie, R. O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, and H. Cao, Adv. Mater. 22, 2871 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J. G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. Mochrie, and C. S. O’Hern, Adv. Mater. 22, 2939 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. O. Prum, R. H. Torres, S. Williamson, and J. Dyck, Nature 396, 28 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rassart, M.

J. P. Vigneron, J.-F. Colomer, M. Rassart, A. L. Ingram, and V. Lousse, Phys. Rev. E 73, 021914 (2006).
[Crossref]

Richey, L. R.

J. W. Galusha, L. R. Richey, J. S. Gardner, J. N. Cha, and M. H. Bartl, Phys. Rev. E 77, 050904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Salgard-Cunha, P. M.

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sambles, J.

P. Vukusic, J. Sambles, and C. Lawrence, Nature 404, 457 (2000).
[Crossref]

Saranathan, V.

H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, S. G. Mochrie, R. O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, and H. Cao, Adv. Mater. 22, 2871 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J. G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. Mochrie, and C. S. O’Hern, Adv. Mater. 22, 2939 (2010).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Phys. Chem. (1)

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E. Lee, H. Lee, J. Kimura, and S. Sugita, J. Vet. Med. Sci. 72, 1047 (2010).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511 (2010).
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A. R. Parker and H. E. Townley, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 347 (2007).
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Nature (2)

R. O. Prum, R. H. Torres, S. Williamson, and J. Dyck, Nature 396, 28 (1998).
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P. Vukusic, J. Sambles, and C. Lawrence, Nature 404, 457 (2000).
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J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12576 (2003).
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S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, Rep. Prog. Phys. 71, 076401 (2008).
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J. Sun, B. Bhushan, and J. Tong, RSC Adv. 3, 14862 (2013).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structural colors in the black-billed magpie feather. (a) Photograph of a black-billed magpie feather showing a gradual color variation. (b) Magnified images of three different areas of the feather that exhibit colors of yellow-green (left), violet (center), and navy blue (right). (c) Reflectance spectra measured for the three sections. (d–e) Cross-sectional TEM images of barbules obtained from the three areas (presented in different magnifications).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fabrication of artificial barbules. (a) Schematics of fabrication steps. PVA and PMMA stand for polyvinyl alcohol and poly-methyl-methacrylate, respectively. (b) SEM image of a one-dimensional photoresist grating generated by the LIL process. (c) Cross-sectional SEM image of an artificial barbule. (d) Photograph of three artificial barbules that exhibit red, green, and blue colors.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reflectance spectra of artificial barbules. (a) Reflectance spectra measured (red) for a fabricated artificial barbule and simulated for realistic (blue) and simplified (black) model structures. Inset shows an optical micrograph of a fabricated artificial barbule. (b) Schematic of the two simulation model structures: the realistic one composed of multiple stacks of surface grating film (left) and the simplified one with effective medium layers for surface gratings. (c) Simulated reflectance spectra for the realistic model structure with different numbers of stacked layers. (d) Simulated reflectance spectra for various extinction coefficients of the composing film material.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Variation in structural color. (a) Calculated reflectance spectra as a function of polymer layer thickness. (b) Photographs of artificial barbules prepared at different polymer spin-coating speeds: 4000, 3500, 3000, and 2500 rpm. (c) Measured reflectance spectra for the artificial barbules shown in (b).

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