Abstract

Intense, single-cycle terahertz (THz) pulses are powerful tools to understand and control material properties through low-energy resonances, such as phonons. Combining this with optical second harmonic generation (SHG) makes it possible to observe the resulting ultrafast structural changes with surface sensitivity. This makes SHG an ideal method to probe phonon dynamics in topological insulators (TI), materials with unique surface transport properties. Here, we resonantly excite a phonon mode in the TI Bi2Se3 with THz pulses and use SHG to separate the resulting symmetry changes at the surface from the bulk. Furthermore, we coherently control the lattice vibrations with a pair of THz pulses. Our work demonstrates a versatile, table-top tool to probe and control phonon dynamics in a range of systems, particularly at surfaces and interfaces.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

J. Zhang, X. Tan, M. Liu, S. W. Teitelbaum, K. W. Post, F. Jin, K. A. Nelson, D. Basov, W. Wu, and R. D. Averitt, “Cooperative photoinduced metastable phase control in strained manganite films,” Nat. Mater. 15, 956–960 (2016).

C. Bostedt, S. Boutet, D. M. Fritz, Z. Huang, H. J. Lee, H. T. Lemke, A. Robert, W. F. Schlotter, J. J. Turner, and G. J. Williams, “Linac coherent light source: the first five years,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 015007 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Giorgianni, E. Chiadroni, A. Rovere, M. Cestelli-Guidi, A. Perucchi, M. Bellaveglia, M. Castellano, D. Di Giovenale, G. Di Pirro, M. Ferrario, R. Pompili, C. Vaccarezza, F. Villa, A. Cianchi, A. Mostacci, M. Petrarca, M. Brahlek, N. Koirala, S. Oh, and S. Lupi, “Strong nonlinear terahertz response induced by Dirac surface states in Bi2Se3 topological insulator,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11421 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

A. Y. Bykov, T. V. Murzina, N. Olivier, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Coherent lattice dynamics in topological insulator Bi2Se3 probed with time-resolved optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 064305 (2015).

F. Chen, J. Goodfellow, S. Liu, I. Grinberg, M. C. Hoffmann, A. R. Damodaran, Y. Zhu, P. Zalden, X. Zhang, I. Takeuchi, A. M. Rappe, L. W. Martin, H. Wen, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast terahertz gating of the polarization and giant nonlinear optical response in BiFeO3 thin films,” Adv. Mater. 27, 6371–6375 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Shalaby and C. P. Hauri, “Demonstration of a low-frequency three-dimensional terahertz bullet with extreme brightness,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5976 (2015).

R. Valdés-Aguilar, J. Qi, M. Brahlek, N. Bansal, A. Azad, J. Bowlan, S. Oh, A. Taylor, R. Prasankumar, and D. Yarotski, “Time-resolved terahertz dynamics in thin films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 011901 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Först, R. Mankowsky, and A. Cavalleri, “Mode-selective control of the crystal lattice,” Acc. Chem. Res. 48, 380–387 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

J. Zhang and R. Averitt, “Dynamics and control in complex transition metal oxides,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 44, 19–43 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kubacka, J. A. Johnson, M. A. Hoffmann, C. Vicario, S. de Jong, P. Beaud, S. Grübel, S.-W. Huang, L. Huber, L. Patthey, Y. D. Chuang, J. J. Turner, G. L. Dakovski, W.-S. Lee, M. P. Minitti, W. Schlotter, R. G. Moore, C. P. Hauri, S. M. Koohpayeh, V. Scagnoli, G. Ingold, S. L. Johnson, and U. A. Staub, “Large-amplitude spin dynamics driven by a THz pulse in resonance with an electromagnon,” Science 343, 1333–1336 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Matsunaga, N. Tsuji, H. Fujita, A. Sugioka, K. Makise, Y. Uzawa, H. Terai, Z. Wang, H. Aoki, and R. Shimano, “Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor,” Science 345, 1145–1149 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Sim, M. Brahlek, N. Koirala, S. Cha, S. Oh, and H. Choi, “Ultrafast terahertz dynamics of hot Dirac-electron surface scattering in the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 165137 (2014).

D. H. Torchinsky, H. Chu, T. Qi, G. Cao, and D. Hsieh, “A low temperature nonlinear optical rotational anisotropy spectrometer for the determination of crystallographic and electronic symmetries,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 083102 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. A. Sobota, S.-L. Yang, A. F. Kemper, J. J. Lee, F. T. Schmitt, W. Li, R. G. Moore, J. G. Analytis, I. R. Fisher, P. S. Kirchmann, T. P. Devereaux, and Z.-X. Shen, “Direct optical coupling to an unoccupied Dirac surface state in the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 136802 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7, 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

I. Katayama, H. Aoki, J. Takeda, H. Shimosato, M. Ashida, R. Kinjo, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Ferroelectric soft mode in a SrTiO3 thin film impulsively driven to the anharmonic regime using intense picosecond terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 097401 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, S. Klingebiel, G. Almási, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Generation of sub-mJ terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Opt. Lett. 37, 557–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Valdés Aguilar, A. V. Stier, W. Liu, L. S. Bilbro, D. K. George, N. Bansal, L. Wu, J. Cerne, A. G. Markelz, S. Oh, and N. P. Armitage, “Terahertz response and colossal Kerr rotation from the surface states of the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 087403 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

X. Liu, D. Smith, J. Fan, Y.-H. Zhang, H. Cao, Y. Chen, J. Leiner, B. J. Kirby, M. Dobrowolska, and J. Furdyna, “Structural properties of Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 topological insulators grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (001) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 171903 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Hsieh, J. McIver, D. Torchinsky, D. Gardner, Y. Lee, and N. Gedik, “Nonlinear optical probe of tunable surface electrons on a topological insulator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 057401 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Hsieh, F. Mahmood, J. McIver, D. Gardner, Y. Lee, and N. Gedik, “Selective probing of photoinduced charge and spin dynamics in the bulk and surface of a topological insulator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 077401 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Fausti, R. Tobey, N. Dean, S. Kaiser, A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Light-induced superconductivity in a stripe-ordered cuprate,” Science 331, 189–191 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5, 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. E. Moore, “The birth of topological insulators,” Nature 464, 194–198 (2010).

2009 (2)

H. Zhang, C.-X. Liu, X.-L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S.-C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Qi, Y.-H. Shin, K.-L. Yeh, K. A. Nelson, and A. M. Rappe, “Collective coherent control: synchronization of polarization in ferroelectric PbTiO3 by shaped THz fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 247603 (2009).

2008 (1)

L. Fu and C. L. Kane, “Superconducting proximity effect and Majorana fermions at the surface of a topological insulator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 096407 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

K. Reimann, “Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1597–1632 (2007).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1989 (1)

Y. Shen, “Surface properties probed by second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation,” Nature 337, 519–525 (1989).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

H. Tom, T. Heinz, and Y. Shen, “Second-harmonic reflection from silicon surfaces and its relation to structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1983 (1983).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

W. Richter and C. Becker, “A Raman and far-infrared investigation of phonons in the rhombohedral V2–VI3 compounds Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, Sb2Te3 and Bi2(Te1-xSex)3 (0<x<1), (Bi1-ySby)2 Te(0<y<1),” Phys. Status Solidi B 84, 619–628 (1977).
[Crossref]

Almási, G.

Analytis, J. G.

J. A. Sobota, S.-L. Yang, A. F. Kemper, J. J. Lee, F. T. Schmitt, W. Li, R. G. Moore, J. G. Analytis, I. R. Fisher, P. S. Kirchmann, T. P. Devereaux, and Z.-X. Shen, “Direct optical coupling to an unoccupied Dirac surface state in the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 136802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aoki, H.

R. Matsunaga, N. Tsuji, H. Fujita, A. Sugioka, K. Makise, Y. Uzawa, H. Terai, Z. Wang, H. Aoki, and R. Shimano, “Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor,” Science 345, 1145–1149 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Katayama, H. Aoki, J. Takeda, H. Shimosato, M. Ashida, R. Kinjo, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Ferroelectric soft mode in a SrTiO3 thin film impulsively driven to the anharmonic regime using intense picosecond terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 097401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Armitage, N. P.

R. Valdés Aguilar, A. V. Stier, W. Liu, L. S. Bilbro, D. K. George, N. Bansal, L. Wu, J. Cerne, A. G. Markelz, S. Oh, and N. P. Armitage, “Terahertz response and colossal Kerr rotation from the surface states of the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 087403 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ashida, M.

I. Katayama, H. Aoki, J. Takeda, H. Shimosato, M. Ashida, R. Kinjo, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Ferroelectric soft mode in a SrTiO3 thin film impulsively driven to the anharmonic regime using intense picosecond terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 097401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R.

J. Zhang and R. Averitt, “Dynamics and control in complex transition metal oxides,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 44, 19–43 (2014).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

J. Zhang, X. Tan, M. Liu, S. W. Teitelbaum, K. W. Post, F. Jin, K. A. Nelson, D. Basov, W. Wu, and R. D. Averitt, “Cooperative photoinduced metastable phase control in strained manganite films,” Nat. Mater. 15, 956–960 (2016).

Azad, A.

R. Valdés-Aguilar, J. Qi, M. Brahlek, N. Bansal, A. Azad, J. Bowlan, S. Oh, A. Taylor, R. Prasankumar, and D. Yarotski, “Time-resolved terahertz dynamics in thin films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 011901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bansal, N.

R. Valdés-Aguilar, J. Qi, M. Brahlek, N. Bansal, A. Azad, J. Bowlan, S. Oh, A. Taylor, R. Prasankumar, and D. Yarotski, “Time-resolved terahertz dynamics in thin films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 011901 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Valdés Aguilar, A. V. Stier, W. Liu, L. S. Bilbro, D. K. George, N. Bansal, L. Wu, J. Cerne, A. G. Markelz, S. Oh, and N. P. Armitage, “Terahertz response and colossal Kerr rotation from the surface states of the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 087403 (2012).
[Crossref]

Basov, D.

J. Zhang, X. Tan, M. Liu, S. W. Teitelbaum, K. W. Post, F. Jin, K. A. Nelson, D. Basov, W. Wu, and R. D. Averitt, “Cooperative photoinduced metastable phase control in strained manganite films,” Nat. Mater. 15, 956–960 (2016).

Beaud, P.

T. Kubacka, J. A. Johnson, M. A. Hoffmann, C. Vicario, S. de Jong, P. Beaud, S. Grübel, S.-W. Huang, L. Huber, L. Patthey, Y. D. Chuang, J. J. Turner, G. L. Dakovski, W.-S. Lee, M. P. Minitti, W. Schlotter, R. G. Moore, C. P. Hauri, S. M. Koohpayeh, V. Scagnoli, G. Ingold, S. L. Johnson, and U. A. Staub, “Large-amplitude spin dynamics driven by a THz pulse in resonance with an electromagnon,” Science 343, 1333–1336 (2014).
[Crossref]

Becker, C.

W. Richter and C. Becker, “A Raman and far-infrared investigation of phonons in the rhombohedral V2–VI3 compounds Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, Sb2Te3 and Bi2(Te1-xSex)3 (0<x<1), (Bi1-ySby)2 Te(0<y<1),” Phys. Status Solidi B 84, 619–628 (1977).
[Crossref]

Bellaveglia, M.

F. Giorgianni, E. Chiadroni, A. Rovere, M. Cestelli-Guidi, A. Perucchi, M. Bellaveglia, M. Castellano, D. Di Giovenale, G. Di Pirro, M. Ferrario, R. Pompili, C. Vaccarezza, F. Villa, A. Cianchi, A. Mostacci, M. Petrarca, M. Brahlek, N. Koirala, S. Oh, and S. Lupi, “Strong nonlinear terahertz response induced by Dirac surface states in Bi2Se3 topological insulator,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11421 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bilbro, L. S.

R. Valdés Aguilar, A. V. Stier, W. Liu, L. S. Bilbro, D. K. George, N. Bansal, L. Wu, J. Cerne, A. G. Markelz, S. Oh, and N. P. Armitage, “Terahertz response and colossal Kerr rotation from the surface states of the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 087403 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bostedt, C.

C. Bostedt, S. Boutet, D. M. Fritz, Z. Huang, H. J. Lee, H. T. Lemke, A. Robert, W. F. Schlotter, J. J. Turner, and G. J. Williams, “Linac coherent light source: the first five years,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 015007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boutet, S.

C. Bostedt, S. Boutet, D. M. Fritz, Z. Huang, H. J. Lee, H. T. Lemke, A. Robert, W. F. Schlotter, J. J. Turner, and G. J. Williams, “Linac coherent light source: the first five years,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 015007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bowlan, J.

R. Valdés-Aguilar, J. Qi, M. Brahlek, N. Bansal, A. Azad, J. Bowlan, S. Oh, A. Taylor, R. Prasankumar, and D. Yarotski, “Time-resolved terahertz dynamics in thin films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 011901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003).

Brahlek, M.

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H. Zhang, C.-X. Liu, X.-L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S.-C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

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Nat. Mater. (1)

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Nat. Photonics (2)

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup for THz pump, SHG-probe experiments and phonon properties of Bi 2 Se 3 . (a) The P -polarized THz excitation pulse ( E THz ) is incident on the sample at θ 30 ° . A collinear, co-polarized 1.55 eV probe pulse ( E ω ) arrives at a delay τ after the THz pulse. The P -polarized reflected SHG signal, E 2 ω , at 2 ω = 3.1    eV , is collected with a PMT. We also rotated the crystal about the azimuthal angle ϕ to measure the static SHG symmetry (when blocking the THz pump pulse) or the symmetry of the THz-induced changes. (b) Real (green) and imaginary (blue) parts of the linear susceptibility ( χ ( 1 ) ) of Bi 2 Se 3 in the THz spectral range, clearly showing the E u 1 IR-active phonon at 1.95 THz. (c) Schematic of the crystal structure of a quintuple layer of Bi 2 Se 3 in the ab plane and a side view along the c -axis; the arrows illustrate the lattice displacements associated with the E u 1 phonon (adapted from [15,30]).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

THz-induced ultrafast phonon dynamics in Bi 2 Se 3 . Measured THz-induced changes in the SHG intensity ( Δ I 2 ω ) versus the azimuthal angle ϕ , and (a) pump-probe delay, τ , or (b) the frequency, ω . The image in (b) comes from a 1D Fourier transform of (a). Δ I 2 ω at crystal angles of ϕ = 30 °, 90°, or 50°, versus (c), τ , or (d), ν . These curves are taken from (a) and (b), as shown by the red, black, and green dashed lines across those images. The blue dashed lines at the top of (c) and (d) are reference measurements of the incident THz pulse in the time and frequency domains, respectively. The curves in (c) and (d) are offset along the y -axis for clarity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Identifying separate surface and bulk contributions to the phonon dynamics. (a) Static SHG (orange dashed line) versus crystal angle ϕ , compared to the THz-induced change Δ I 2 ω at the phonon frequency (magenta) and at twice the phonon frequency (blue). The solid lines are taken from Fig. 2(b) at ν p = 1.95    THz and 2 ν p = 3.9    THz . (b) THz E -field dependence of the two frequency components of Δ I 2 ω , at a crystal angle of ϕ = 180 ° , showing that the component at ν p varies linearly with E THz and the component at 2 ν p varies quadratically with E THz .

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Coherently controlling phonon oscillations with two THz excitation pulses. (a) Exciting the phonon with a pair of THz pulses that have a delay τ THz between them equal to half of the phonon oscillation period (250 fs) suppresses the corresponding amplitude (blue, solid line). (b) Choosing τ THz to be equal to the phonon oscillation period (500 fs) increases the phonon oscillation amplitude (blue, solid line). The green dashed lines show the THz-induced changes with only pulse 1 for comparison. The top frames are reference measurements of the two incident THz E -fields. This data was collected at ϕ = 90 ° .

Equations (3)

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P i , withpump 2 ω = ϵ 0 j k l [ χ i j k ( 2 ) + χ i j k l ( 3 ) E l THz ] E j ω E k ω .
Δ I 2 ω 2 χ ( 2 ) χ ( 3 ) E THz + ( χ ( 3 ) E THz ) 2 .
χ i j k l ( 3 ) χ i j k l , phonon ( 3 ) A i j k l χ ( 1 ) ( ω ) χ ( 1 ) ( ω ) χ ( 1 ) ( 2 ω ) χ phonon ( 1 ) ( ω THz ) .

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