Abstract

To develop a volumetric display of the kind we see in science fiction movies is a dream of many display researchers, including us. Here, we show a new volumetric display with microbubble voxels. The microbubbles are three-dimensionally generated in liquid by focused femtosecond laser pulses. The use of a high-viscosity liquid, which is a key part of the development of this idea, slows down the movement of the microbubbles, and, as a result, volumetric graphics can be displayed. This volumetric bubble display has a wide-angle view, simple refreshing, and no addressing wires, since the transparent liquid is accessed optically rather than electronically. It achieves full-color graphics composed of light-scattering voxels controlled by illumination light sources. Furthermore, a holographic laser drawing method based on a computer-generated hologram displayed on a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator controls the light intensity of the microbubble voxels with an increase in the number of voxels per unit time and the spatial shaping of the voxels.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2016 (2)

T. Kozacki and M. Chlipala, “Color holographic display with white light LED source and single phase only SLM,” Opt. Express. 24, 2189–2199 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Ochiai, K. Kumagai, T. Hoshi, J. Rekimoto, S. Hasegawa, and Y. Hayasaki, “Fairy lights in femtoseconds: aerial and volumetric graphics rendered by focused femtosecond laser combined with computational holographic fields,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35, 1–14 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

Y. Ochiai, T. Hoshi, and J. Rekimoto, “Pixie dust: Graphics generated by levitated and animated objects in computational acoustic-potential field,” ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 1–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2010 (2)

P. C. Barnum, S. G. Narasimhan, and T. kanade, “A multi-layered display with water drops,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 1–7 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. T. Lima, “Volumetric display based on two-photon absorption in quantum dot dispersions,” J. Display Technol. 6, 221–228 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunc, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. Sr Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nat. Lett. 451, 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26, 1–10 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031101 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. J. Lee and S. Kim, “Simultaneous measurement of size and velocity of microbubbles moving in an opaque tube using an X-ray particle tracking velocimetry technique,” Exp. Fluids 39, 492–497 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Y. Hosokawa, H. Takabayashi, S. Miura, C. Shukunami, Y. Hiraki, and H. Masuhara, “Nondestructive isolation of single cultured animal cells by femtosecond laser-induced shockwave,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 795–798 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

K. Langhans, C. Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, “Solid felix: A static volume 3D-laser display,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 161–174 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

C. B. Schaffer, N. Nishimura, E. N. Glezer, A. M.-T. Kim, and E. Mazur, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in water from femtoseconds to microseconds,” Opt. Express 10, 196–203 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. G. Blundell and A. J. Schwarz, “The classification of volumetric display systems: Characteristics and predictability of the image space,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 8, 66–75 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 271–280 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

Asano, A.

H. Kimura, A. Asano, I. Fujishiro, A. Nakatani, and H. Watanabe, “True 3D display,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGGRAPH 2011 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2011), p. 10.

Bahr, D.

K. Langhans, C. Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, “Solid felix: A static volume 3D-laser display,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 161–174 (2003).
[Crossref]

Barnum, P. C.

P. C. Barnum, S. G. Narasimhan, and T. kanade, “A multi-layered display with water drops,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 1–7 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bengtsson, J.

Birngruber, R.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 271–280 (1999).
[Crossref]

Blanche, P.-A.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunc, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. Sr Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nat. Lett. 451, 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref]

Blundell, B. G.

B. G. Blundell and A. J. Schwarz, “The classification of volumetric display systems: Characteristics and predictability of the image space,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 8, 66–75 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bolas, M.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26, 1–10 (2007).
[Crossref]

Busch, S.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 271–280 (1999).
[Crossref]

Candussi, N.

I. Rakkolainen, S. DiVerdi, A. Olwal, N. Candussi, T. Hüllerer, M. Laitinen, M. Piirto, and K. Palovuori, “The interactive FogScreen,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2010), p. 8.

Chernyshov, O.

Chlipala, M.

T. Kozacki and M. Chlipala, “Color holographic display with white light LED source and single phase only SLM,” Opt. Express. 24, 2189–2199 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chun, W. S.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Debevec, P.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26, 1–10 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, V.

DiVerdi, S.

I. Rakkolainen, S. DiVerdi, A. Olwal, N. Candussi, T. Hüllerer, M. Laitinen, M. Piirto, and K. Palovuori, “The interactive FogScreen,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2010), p. 8.

Dorval, R. K.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Doumuki, T.

Downing, E.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Favalora, G. E.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Flores, D.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunc, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. Sr Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nat. Lett. 451, 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fujishiro, I.

H. Kimura, A. Asano, I. Fujishiro, A. Nakatani, and H. Watanabe, “True 3D display,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGGRAPH 2011 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2011), p. 10.

Galambos, L.

Giovinco, M. G.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Glezer, E. N.

Gu, T.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunc, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. Sr Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nat. Lett. 451, 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref]

Guill, C.

K. Langhans, C. Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, “Solid felix: A static volume 3D-laser display,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 161–174 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hall, D. M.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hammer, D. X.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 271–280 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, S.

Y. Ochiai, K. Kumagai, T. Hoshi, J. Rekimoto, S. Hasegawa, and Y. Hayasaki, “Fairy lights in femtoseconds: aerial and volumetric graphics rendered by focused femtosecond laser combined with computational holographic fields,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35, 1–14 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Kumagai, D. Suzuki, S. Hasegawa, and Y. Hayasaki, “Volumetric display with holographic parallel optical access and multilayer fluorescent screen,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3356–3359 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Hasegawa, K. Shiono, and Y. Hayasaki, “Femtosecond laser processing with a holographic line-shaped beam,” Opt. Express 23, 23185–23194 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hayasaki, Y.

Y. Ochiai, K. Kumagai, T. Hoshi, J. Rekimoto, S. Hasegawa, and Y. Hayasaki, “Fairy lights in femtoseconds: aerial and volumetric graphics rendered by focused femtosecond laser combined with computational holographic fields,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35, 1–14 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Hasegawa, K. Shiono, and Y. Hayasaki, “Femtosecond laser processing with a holographic line-shaped beam,” Opt. Express 23, 23185–23194 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Kumagai, D. Suzuki, S. Hasegawa, and Y. Hayasaki, “Volumetric display with holographic parallel optical access and multilayer fluorescent screen,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3356–3359 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hesselink, L.

T. Honda, T. Doumuki, L. Galambos, and L. Hesselink, “One-color one-beam pumping of Er3+- doped ZBLAN glasses for a three-dimensional twostep excitation display,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1108–1110 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hiraki, Y.

Y. Hosokawa, H. Takabayashi, S. Miura, C. Shukunami, Y. Hiraki, and H. Masuhara, “Nondestructive isolation of single cultured animal cells by femtosecond laser-induced shockwave,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 795–798 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hirao, K.

Hirayama, R.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Honda, T.

Hoshi, T.

Y. Ochiai, K. Kumagai, T. Hoshi, J. Rekimoto, S. Hasegawa, and Y. Hayasaki, “Fairy lights in femtoseconds: aerial and volumetric graphics rendered by focused femtosecond laser combined with computational holographic fields,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35, 1–14 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Ochiai, T. Hoshi, and J. Rekimoto, “Pixie dust: Graphics generated by levitated and animated objects in computational acoustic-potential field,” ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 1–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hosokawa, Y.

Y. Hosokawa, H. Takabayashi, S. Miura, C. Shukunami, Y. Hiraki, and H. Masuhara, “Nondestructive isolation of single cultured animal cells by femtosecond laser-induced shockwave,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 795–798 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hüllerer, T.

I. Rakkolainen, S. DiVerdi, A. Olwal, N. Candussi, T. Hüllerer, M. Laitinen, M. Piirto, and K. Palovuori, “The interactive FogScreen,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2010), p. 8.

Ito, T.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jain, H.

Jones, A.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26, 1–10 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kakue, T.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

kanade, T.

P. C. Barnum, S. G. Narasimhan, and T. kanade, “A multi-layered display with water drops,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 1–7 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, A. M.-T.

Kim, S.

S. J. Lee and S. Kim, “Simultaneous measurement of size and velocity of microbubbles moving in an opaque tube using an X-ray particle tracking velocimetry technique,” Exp. Fluids 39, 492–497 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kimura, H.

H. Kimura, T. Uchiyama, and H. Yoshikawa, “Laser produced 3D display in the air,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2006), p. 20.

H. Kimura, A. Asano, I. Fujishiro, A. Nakatani, and H. Watanabe, “True 3D display,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGGRAPH 2011 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2011), p. 10.

Kozacki, T.

T. Kozacki and M. Chlipala, “Color holographic display with white light LED source and single phase only SLM,” Opt. Express. 24, 2189–2199 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kumagai, K.

Y. Ochiai, K. Kumagai, T. Hoshi, J. Rekimoto, S. Hasegawa, and Y. Hayasaki, “Fairy lights in femtoseconds: aerial and volumetric graphics rendered by focused femtosecond laser combined with computational holographic fields,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35, 1–14 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Kumagai, D. Suzuki, S. Hasegawa, and Y. Hayasaki, “Volumetric display with holographic parallel optical access and multilayer fluorescent screen,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3356–3359 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laitinen, M.

I. Rakkolainen, S. DiVerdi, A. Olwal, N. Candussi, T. Hüllerer, M. Laitinen, M. Piirto, and K. Palovuori, “The interactive FogScreen,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2010), p. 8.

Langhans, K.

K. Langhans, C. Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, “Solid felix: A static volume 3D-laser display,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 161–174 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

Lee, H.

Lee, S. J.

S. J. Lee and S. Kim, “Simultaneous measurement of size and velocity of microbubbles moving in an opaque tube using an X-ray particle tracking velocimetry technique,” Exp. Fluids 39, 492–497 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunc, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. Sr Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nat. Lett. 451, 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lima, I. T.

Lin, W.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunc, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. Sr Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nat. Lett. 451, 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref]

MacFarlane, D. L.

Macfarlane, R.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Masuhara, H.

Y. Hosokawa, H. Takabayashi, S. Miura, C. Shukunami, Y. Hiraki, and H. Masuhara, “Nondestructive isolation of single cultured animal cells by femtosecond laser-induced shockwave,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 795–798 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mazur, E.

McDowall, I.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26, 1–10 (2007).
[Crossref]

Miura, K.

Miura, S.

Y. Hosokawa, H. Takabayashi, S. Miura, C. Shukunami, Y. Hiraki, and H. Masuhara, “Nondestructive isolation of single cultured animal cells by femtosecond laser-induced shockwave,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 795–798 (2004).
[Crossref]

Moon, K.

Nahen, K.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 271–280 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nakatani, A.

H. Kimura, A. Asano, I. Fujishiro, A. Nakatani, and H. Watanabe, “True 3D display,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGGRAPH 2011 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2011), p. 10.

Nakayama, H.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Napoli, J.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Narasimhan, S. G.

P. C. Barnum, S. G. Narasimhan, and T. kanade, “A multi-layered display with water drops,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 1–7 (2010).
[Crossref]

Naruse, M.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nishida, N.

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, N.

Noack, J.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 271–280 (1999).
[Crossref]

Noojin, G. D.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 271–280 (1999).
[Crossref]

Norwood, R. A.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunc, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. Sr Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nat. Lett. 451, 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ochiai, Y.

Y. Ochiai, K. Kumagai, T. Hoshi, J. Rekimoto, S. Hasegawa, and Y. Hayasaki, “Fairy lights in femtoseconds: aerial and volumetric graphics rendered by focused femtosecond laser combined with computational holographic fields,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35, 1–14 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Ochiai, T. Hoshi, and J. Rekimoto, “Pixie dust: Graphics generated by levitated and animated objects in computational acoustic-potential field,” ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 1–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ohtsu, M.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oltmann, K.

K. Langhans, C. Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, “Solid felix: A static volume 3D-laser display,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 161–174 (2003).
[Crossref]

Olwal, A.

I. Rakkolainen, S. DiVerdi, A. Olwal, N. Candussi, T. Hüllerer, M. Laitinen, M. Piirto, and K. Palovuori, “The interactive FogScreen,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2010), p. 8.

Palovuori, K.

I. Rakkolainen, S. DiVerdi, A. Olwal, N. Candussi, T. Hüllerer, M. Laitinen, M. Piirto, and K. Palovuori, “The interactive FogScreen,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2010), p. 8.

Parlitz, U.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 271–280 (1999).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunc, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. Sr Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nat. Lett. 451, 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref]

Piirto, M.

I. Rakkolainen, S. DiVerdi, A. Olwal, N. Candussi, T. Hüllerer, M. Laitinen, M. Piirto, and K. Palovuori, “The interactive FogScreen,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2010), p. 8.

Rakkolainen, I.

I. Rakkolainen, S. DiVerdi, A. Olwal, N. Candussi, T. Hüllerer, M. Laitinen, M. Piirto, and K. Palovuori, “The interactive FogScreen,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2010), p. 8.

Ralston, J.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Rekimoto, J.

Y. Ochiai, K. Kumagai, T. Hoshi, J. Rekimoto, S. Hasegawa, and Y. Hayasaki, “Fairy lights in femtoseconds: aerial and volumetric graphics rendered by focused femtosecond laser combined with computational holographic fields,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35, 1–14 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Ochiai, T. Hoshi, and J. Rekimoto, “Pixie dust: Graphics generated by levitated and animated objects in computational acoustic-potential field,” ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 1–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

Richmond, M. J.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rieper, E.

K. Langhans, C. Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, “Solid felix: A static volume 3D-laser display,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 161–174 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rockwell, B. A.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 271–280 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rokutanda, S.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunc, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. Sr Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nat. Lett. 451, 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sakakura, M.

Schaffer, C. B.

Schwarz, A. J.

B. G. Blundell and A. J. Schwarz, “The classification of volumetric display systems: Characteristics and predictability of the image space,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 8, 66–75 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shimobaba, T.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Shiono, K.

Shiraki, A.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shukunami, C.

Y. Hosokawa, H. Takabayashi, S. Miura, C. Shukunami, Y. Hiraki, and H. Masuhara, “Nondestructive isolation of single cultured animal cells by femtosecond laser-induced shockwave,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 795–798 (2004).
[Crossref]

Son, J.

Sr Hilaire, P.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunc, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. Sr Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nat. Lett. 451, 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stone, A.

Sugimoto, T.

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sutherland, I. E.

I. E. Sutherland, “A head-mounted three dimensional display,” in Proc. Fall Joint Computer Conf. (1968), pp. 757–764

Suzuki, D.

Takabayashi, H.

Y. Hosokawa, H. Takabayashi, S. Miura, C. Shukunami, Y. Hiraki, and H. Masuhara, “Nondestructive isolation of single cultured animal cells by femtosecond laser-induced shockwave,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 795–798 (2004).
[Crossref]

Takita, A.

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tate, N.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tay, S.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunc, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. Sr Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nat. Lett. 451, 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref]

Theisen, D.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 271–280 (1999).
[Crossref]

Thomas, J.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunc, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. Sr Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nat. Lett. 451, 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tunc, A. V.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunc, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. Sr Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nat. Lett. 451, 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref]

Uchiyama, T.

H. Kimura, T. Uchiyama, and H. Yoshikawa, “Laser produced 3D display in the air,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2006), p. 20.

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 271–280 (1999).
[Crossref]

Voorakaranam, R.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunc, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. Sr Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nat. Lett. 451, 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunc, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. Sr Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nat. Lett. 451, 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, H.

H. Kimura, A. Asano, I. Fujishiro, A. Nakatani, and H. Watanabe, “True 3D display,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGGRAPH 2011 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2011), p. 10.

Yamada, H.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26, 1–10 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, M.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunc, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. Sr Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nat. Lett. 451, 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yoshikawa, H.

H. Kimura, T. Uchiyama, and H. Yoshikawa, “Laser produced 3D display in the air,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2006), p. 20.

ACM Trans. Graph. (4)

Y. Ochiai, T. Hoshi, and J. Rekimoto, “Pixie dust: Graphics generated by levitated and animated objects in computational acoustic-potential field,” ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 1–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Ochiai, K. Kumagai, T. Hoshi, J. Rekimoto, S. Hasegawa, and Y. Hayasaki, “Fairy lights in femtoseconds: aerial and volumetric graphics rendered by focused femtosecond laser combined with computational holographic fields,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35, 1–14 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26, 1–10 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. C. Barnum, S. G. Narasimhan, and T. kanade, “A multi-layered display with water drops,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 1–7 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

Y. Hosokawa, H. Takabayashi, S. Miura, C. Shukunami, Y. Hiraki, and H. Masuhara, “Nondestructive isolation of single cultured animal cells by femtosecond laser-induced shockwave,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 795–798 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 271–280 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Exp. Fluids (1)

S. J. Lee and S. Kim, “Simultaneous measurement of size and velocity of microbubbles moving in an opaque tube using an X-ray particle tracking velocimetry technique,” Exp. Fluids 39, 492–497 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. (1)

B. G. Blundell and A. J. Schwarz, “The classification of volumetric display systems: Characteristics and predictability of the image space,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 8, 66–75 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Lett. (1)

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunc, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. Sr Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nat. Lett. 451, 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Express. (1)

T. Kozacki and M. Chlipala, “Color holographic display with white light LED source and single phase only SLM,” Opt. Express. 24, 2189–2199 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (2)

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Langhans, C. Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, “Solid felix: A static volume 3D-laser display,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 161–174 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

I. Rakkolainen, S. DiVerdi, A. Olwal, N. Candussi, T. Hüllerer, M. Laitinen, M. Piirto, and K. Palovuori, “The interactive FogScreen,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2010), p. 8.

I. E. Sutherland, “A head-mounted three dimensional display,” in Proc. Fall Joint Computer Conf. (1968), pp. 757–764

H. Kimura, T. Uchiyama, and H. Yoshikawa, “Laser produced 3D display in the air,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2006), p. 20.

H. Kimura, A. Asano, I. Fujishiro, A. Nakatani, and H. Watanabe, “True 3D display,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGGRAPH 2011 Emerging Technologies (ACM, 2011), p. 10.

Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MOV (5666 KB)      2D bubble graphics of “Mermaid”
» Visualization 2: MOV (800 KB)      Volumetric bubble graphics of “Stanford bunny”
» Visualization 3: MOV (2867 KB)      Bubble graphics with illumination light having different colors

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Concept of volumetric bubble display. Various volumetric graphics rendered by bubbles can be viewed from any direction.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Rising velocity versus diameter of microbubble. Experimental data points (black dots) are fitted with a power function of the diameter D (black line). The red line is the theoretical rising velocity of the microbubbles, given by Eq. (1), where μ=0.276  Pa·s and Δρ=1238  kg/m3 at 50°C.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Optical setup for observing the microbubble generation area along the axial direction of the femtosecond laser-induced microbubbles. (b) Generation length versus the energy of irradiated pulses with a single shot. (c) Microbubbles created with irradiation energies of 0.9 (top), 3.2 (middle), and 8.2 (bottom) μJ.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Generation length versus the energy of irradiated pulses with multiple shots. (b) Microbubbles created with an irradiated pulse energy of 3 μJ.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Macro (top) and magnified (bottom) images of a voxel created with the holographic laser drawing method (four accesses). (b) Intensity of a voxel versus the number of parallel beams.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Image sequence of 2D graphics image known as “Mermaid” rendered by femtosecond laser-induced microbubbles with pulse energies of 4.3 μJ (top) and 8.6 μJ (bottom) (see Visualization 1).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Volumetric graphics of “Stanford bunny” rendered by femtosecond laser-induced microbubbles (see Visualization 2).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

2D bubble graphics of “Dolphin” with illumination lights having different colors (see Visualization 3).

Equations (1)

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V=D2g18μΔρ,

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