Abstract

Optoelectronic applications such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes would benefit from glass substrates with both high transparency and high haze to improve power conversion and extraction efficiencies, respectively. In this Letter, we demonstrate glass with grass-like nanostructures that displays ultrahigh transparency and ultrahigh haze (both over 95% at wavelength 550 nm). The nanograss is fabricated by a scalable maskless reactive ion etching process in fused silica where the height is controlled via the etch time. We demonstrate that shorter nanograss (<2.5  μm height) improves the antireflection properties of the glass and that longer grass tends to increase haze monotonically. Ultrahigh haze, over 99%, may also be achieved with longer nanograss (>6  μm height), though the transmission decreases slightly to less than 92%. Finally, we demonstrate that various fluids with a similar index of refraction as the glass may be used to switch the haze of these substrates.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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H.-T. Chou, Y.-C. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, H.-Y. Chang, and N.-H. Tai, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 166, 45 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Han, S. Zhang, P. P. Boix, L. H. Wong, L. Sun, and S.-Y. Lien, Prog. Mater. Sci. 87, 246 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

Y. Yao, J. Tao, J. Zou, B. Zhang, T. Li, J. Dai, M. Zhu, S. Wang, K. K. Fu, D. Henderson, E. Hitz, J. Peng, and L. Hu, Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 2278 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

E. Kim, H. Cho, K. Kim, T.-W. Koh, J. Chung, J. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, Adv. Mater. 27, 1624 (2015).
[Crossref]

T.-W. Koh, J. A. Spechler, K. M. Lee, C. B. Arnold, and B. P. Rand, ACS Photon. 2, 1366 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-H. Yeh, L. Lin, P.-K. Yang, and Z. L. Wang, ACS Nano 9, 4757 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, D. Jung, S. Jeong, K. Kim, W. Choi, and Y. Seo, Curr. Appl. Phys. 15, 292 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ye, X. Jiang, J. Huang, F. Geng, L. Sun, X. Zu, W. Wu, and W. Zheng, Sci. Rep. 5, 13023 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. van Lare, F. Lenzmann, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 15, 4846 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

N. Sahraei, K. Forberich, S. Venkataraj, A. G. Aberle, and M. Peters, Opt. Express 22, A53 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Zitzler-Kunkel, M. R. Lenze, N. M. Kronenberg, A.-M. Krause, M. Stolte, K. Meerholz, and F. Würthner, J. Chem. Mater. 26, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Fang, H. Zhu, Y. Yuan, D. Ha, S. Zhu, C. Preston, Q. Chen, Y. Li, X. Han, S. Lee, G. Chen, T. Li, J. Munday, J. Huang, and L. Hu, Nano Lett. 14, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

A. Piccolo, Energy and Buildings 42, 1409 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. R. Nagel and M. A. Scarpulla, Opt. Express 18, A139 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Drelich and E. Chibowski, Langmuir 26, 18621 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

S. Park and J. W. Hong, Thin Solid Films 517, 3183 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Gong, J. Li, S. Chen, and W. Wen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 251907 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, G. D. Filpo, and G. Chidichimo, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 329 (2009).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Springer, A. Poruba, and M. Vanecek, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 5329 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

P. Gould, Mater. Today 6, 44 (2003).

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6436 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Poruba, A. Fejfar, Z. Remeš, J. Špringer, M. Vaněček, J. Kočka, J. Meier, P. Torres, and A. Shah, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 148 (2000).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

C. K. Carniglia, Opt. Eng. 18, 182104 (1979).
[Crossref]

Aberle, A. G.

Arnold, C. B.

T.-W. Koh, J. A. Spechler, K. M. Lee, C. B. Arnold, and B. P. Rand, ACS Photon. 2, 1366 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boix, P. P.

G. Han, S. Zhang, P. P. Boix, L. H. Wong, L. Sun, and S.-Y. Lien, Prog. Mater. Sci. 87, 246 (2017).
[Crossref]

Carniglia, C. K.

C. K. Carniglia, Opt. Eng. 18, 182104 (1979).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.-Y.

H.-T. Chou, Y.-C. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, H.-Y. Chang, and N.-H. Tai, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 166, 45 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

Z. Fang, H. Zhu, Y. Yuan, D. Ha, S. Zhu, C. Preston, Q. Chen, Y. Li, X. Han, S. Lee, G. Chen, T. Li, J. Munday, J. Huang, and L. Hu, Nano Lett. 14, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

Z. Fang, H. Zhu, Y. Yuan, D. Ha, S. Zhu, C. Preston, Q. Chen, Y. Li, X. Han, S. Lee, G. Chen, T. Li, J. Munday, J. Huang, and L. Hu, Nano Lett. 14, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

X. Gong, J. Li, S. Chen, and W. Wen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 251907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-C.

H.-T. Chou, Y.-C. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, H.-Y. Chang, and N.-H. Tai, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 166, 45 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chibowski, E.

J. Drelich and E. Chibowski, Langmuir 26, 18621 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chidichimo, G.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, G. D. Filpo, and G. Chidichimo, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 329 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

E. Kim, H. Cho, K. Kim, T.-W. Koh, J. Chung, J. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, Adv. Mater. 27, 1624 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, W.

Y. Kim, D. Jung, S. Jeong, K. Kim, W. Choi, and Y. Seo, Curr. Appl. Phys. 15, 292 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chou, H.-T.

H.-T. Chou, Y.-C. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, H.-Y. Chang, and N.-H. Tai, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 166, 45 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chung, J.

E. Kim, H. Cho, K. Kim, T.-W. Koh, J. Chung, J. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, Adv. Mater. 27, 1624 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cupelli, D.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, G. D. Filpo, and G. Chidichimo, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 329 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dai, J.

Y. Yao, J. Tao, J. Zou, B. Zhang, T. Li, J. Dai, M. Zhu, S. Wang, K. K. Fu, D. Henderson, E. Hitz, J. Peng, and L. Hu, Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 2278 (2016).
[Crossref]

Drelich, J.

J. Drelich and E. Chibowski, Langmuir 26, 18621 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fang, Z.

Z. Fang, H. Zhu, Y. Yuan, D. Ha, S. Zhu, C. Preston, Q. Chen, Y. Li, X. Han, S. Lee, G. Chen, T. Li, J. Munday, J. Huang, and L. Hu, Nano Lett. 14, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fejfar, A.

A. Poruba, A. Fejfar, Z. Remeš, J. Špringer, M. Vaněček, J. Kočka, J. Meier, P. Torres, and A. Shah, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 148 (2000).
[Crossref]

Filpo, G. D.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, G. D. Filpo, and G. Chidichimo, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 329 (2009).
[Crossref]

Forberich, K.

Fu, K. K.

Y. Yao, J. Tao, J. Zou, B. Zhang, T. Li, J. Dai, M. Zhu, S. Wang, K. K. Fu, D. Henderson, E. Hitz, J. Peng, and L. Hu, Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 2278 (2016).
[Crossref]

Geng, F.

X. Ye, X. Jiang, J. Huang, F. Geng, L. Sun, X. Zu, W. Wu, and W. Zheng, Sci. Rep. 5, 13023 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gombert, A.

R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Rau, and A. Gombert, Photon Management in Solar Cells (Wiley, 2016).

Gong, X.

X. Gong, J. Li, S. Chen, and W. Wen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 251907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gould, P.

P. Gould, Mater. Today 6, 44 (2003).

Ha, D.

Z. Fang, H. Zhu, Y. Yuan, D. Ha, S. Zhu, C. Preston, Q. Chen, Y. Li, X. Han, S. Lee, G. Chen, T. Li, J. Munday, J. Huang, and L. Hu, Nano Lett. 14, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Han, G.

G. Han, S. Zhang, P. P. Boix, L. H. Wong, L. Sun, and S.-Y. Lien, Prog. Mater. Sci. 87, 246 (2017).
[Crossref]

Han, X.

Z. Fang, H. Zhu, Y. Yuan, D. Ha, S. Zhu, C. Preston, Q. Chen, Y. Li, X. Han, S. Lee, G. Chen, T. Li, J. Munday, J. Huang, and L. Hu, Nano Lett. 14, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Henderson, D.

Y. Yao, J. Tao, J. Zou, B. Zhang, T. Li, J. Dai, M. Zhu, S. Wang, K. K. Fu, D. Henderson, E. Hitz, J. Peng, and L. Hu, Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 2278 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hitz, E.

Y. Yao, J. Tao, J. Zou, B. Zhang, T. Li, J. Dai, M. Zhu, S. Wang, K. K. Fu, D. Henderson, E. Hitz, J. Peng, and L. Hu, Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 2278 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hong, J. W.

S. Park and J. W. Hong, Thin Solid Films 517, 3183 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hu, L.

Y. Yao, J. Tao, J. Zou, B. Zhang, T. Li, J. Dai, M. Zhu, S. Wang, K. K. Fu, D. Henderson, E. Hitz, J. Peng, and L. Hu, Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 2278 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Fang, H. Zhu, Y. Yuan, D. Ha, S. Zhu, C. Preston, Q. Chen, Y. Li, X. Han, S. Lee, G. Chen, T. Li, J. Munday, J. Huang, and L. Hu, Nano Lett. 14, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

X. Ye, X. Jiang, J. Huang, F. Geng, L. Sun, X. Zu, W. Wu, and W. Zheng, Sci. Rep. 5, 13023 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Fang, H. Zhu, Y. Yuan, D. Ha, S. Zhu, C. Preston, Q. Chen, Y. Li, X. Han, S. Lee, G. Chen, T. Li, J. Munday, J. Huang, and L. Hu, Nano Lett. 14, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S.

Y. Kim, D. Jung, S. Jeong, K. Kim, W. Choi, and Y. Seo, Curr. Appl. Phys. 15, 292 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

X. Ye, X. Jiang, J. Huang, F. Geng, L. Sun, X. Zu, W. Wu, and W. Zheng, Sci. Rep. 5, 13023 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jung, D.

Y. Kim, D. Jung, S. Jeong, K. Kim, W. Choi, and Y. Seo, Curr. Appl. Phys. 15, 292 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, E.

E. Kim, H. Cho, K. Kim, T.-W. Koh, J. Chung, J. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, Adv. Mater. 27, 1624 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

E. Kim, H. Cho, K. Kim, T.-W. Koh, J. Chung, J. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, Adv. Mater. 27, 1624 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, D. Jung, S. Jeong, K. Kim, W. Choi, and Y. Seo, Curr. Appl. Phys. 15, 292 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, D. Jung, S. Jeong, K. Kim, W. Choi, and Y. Seo, Curr. Appl. Phys. 15, 292 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kocka, J.

A. Poruba, A. Fejfar, Z. Remeš, J. Špringer, M. Vaněček, J. Kočka, J. Meier, P. Torres, and A. Shah, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 148 (2000).
[Crossref]

Koh, T.-W.

E. Kim, H. Cho, K. Kim, T.-W. Koh, J. Chung, J. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, Adv. Mater. 27, 1624 (2015).
[Crossref]

T.-W. Koh, J. A. Spechler, K. M. Lee, C. B. Arnold, and B. P. Rand, ACS Photon. 2, 1366 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koike, Y.

Krause, A.-M.

A. Zitzler-Kunkel, M. R. Lenze, N. M. Kronenberg, A.-M. Krause, M. Stolte, K. Meerholz, and F. Würthner, J. Chem. Mater. 26, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kronenberg, N. M.

A. Zitzler-Kunkel, M. R. Lenze, N. M. Kronenberg, A.-M. Krause, M. Stolte, K. Meerholz, and F. Würthner, J. Chem. Mater. 26, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-Y.

H.-T. Chou, Y.-C. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, H.-Y. Chang, and N.-H. Tai, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 166, 45 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

E. Kim, H. Cho, K. Kim, T.-W. Koh, J. Chung, J. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, Adv. Mater. 27, 1624 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. M.

T.-W. Koh, J. A. Spechler, K. M. Lee, C. B. Arnold, and B. P. Rand, ACS Photon. 2, 1366 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

Z. Fang, H. Zhu, Y. Yuan, D. Ha, S. Zhu, C. Preston, Q. Chen, Y. Li, X. Han, S. Lee, G. Chen, T. Li, J. Munday, J. Huang, and L. Hu, Nano Lett. 14, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lenze, M. R.

A. Zitzler-Kunkel, M. R. Lenze, N. M. Kronenberg, A.-M. Krause, M. Stolte, K. Meerholz, and F. Würthner, J. Chem. Mater. 26, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lenzmann, F.

C. van Lare, F. Lenzmann, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 15, 4846 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

X. Gong, J. Li, S. Chen, and W. Wen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 251907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

Y. Yao, J. Tao, J. Zou, B. Zhang, T. Li, J. Dai, M. Zhu, S. Wang, K. K. Fu, D. Henderson, E. Hitz, J. Peng, and L. Hu, Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 2278 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Fang, H. Zhu, Y. Yuan, D. Ha, S. Zhu, C. Preston, Q. Chen, Y. Li, X. Han, S. Lee, G. Chen, T. Li, J. Munday, J. Huang, and L. Hu, Nano Lett. 14, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Z. Fang, H. Zhu, Y. Yuan, D. Ha, S. Zhu, C. Preston, Q. Chen, Y. Li, X. Han, S. Lee, G. Chen, T. Li, J. Munday, J. Huang, and L. Hu, Nano Lett. 14, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lida, D. R.

D. R. Lida, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 88th ed. (CRC Press, 2007).

Lien, S.-Y.

G. Han, S. Zhang, P. P. Boix, L. H. Wong, L. Sun, and S.-Y. Lien, Prog. Mater. Sci. 87, 246 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lin, L.

M.-H. Yeh, L. Lin, P.-K. Yang, and Z. L. Wang, ACS Nano 9, 4757 (2015).
[Crossref]

Manfredi, S.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, G. D. Filpo, and G. Chidichimo, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 329 (2009).
[Crossref]

Meerholz, K.

A. Zitzler-Kunkel, M. R. Lenze, N. M. Kronenberg, A.-M. Krause, M. Stolte, K. Meerholz, and F. Würthner, J. Chem. Mater. 26, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Meier, J.

A. Poruba, A. Fejfar, Z. Remeš, J. Špringer, M. Vaněček, J. Kočka, J. Meier, P. Torres, and A. Shah, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 148 (2000).
[Crossref]

Metselaar, J. W.

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6436 (2000).
[Crossref]

Munday, J.

Z. Fang, H. Zhu, Y. Yuan, D. Ha, S. Zhu, C. Preston, Q. Chen, Y. Li, X. Han, S. Lee, G. Chen, T. Li, J. Munday, J. Huang, and L. Hu, Nano Lett. 14, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nagai, M.

Nagel, J. R.

Nicoletta, F. P.

D. Cupelli, F. P. Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, G. D. Filpo, and G. Chidichimo, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 329 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nojiri, K.

K. Nojiri, Dry Etching Technology for Semiconductors (Springer, 2012).

Park, S.

S. Park and J. W. Hong, Thin Solid Films 517, 3183 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

E. Kim, H. Cho, K. Kim, T.-W. Koh, J. Chung, J. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, Adv. Mater. 27, 1624 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peng, J.

Y. Yao, J. Tao, J. Zou, B. Zhang, T. Li, J. Dai, M. Zhu, S. Wang, K. K. Fu, D. Henderson, E. Hitz, J. Peng, and L. Hu, Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 2278 (2016).
[Crossref]

Peters, M.

Piccolo, A.

A. Piccolo, Energy and Buildings 42, 1409 (2010).
[Crossref]

Polman, A.

C. van Lare, F. Lenzmann, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 15, 4846 (2015).
[Crossref]

Poruba, A.

J. Springer, A. Poruba, and M. Vanecek, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 5329 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Poruba, A. Fejfar, Z. Remeš, J. Špringer, M. Vaněček, J. Kočka, J. Meier, P. Torres, and A. Shah, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 148 (2000).
[Crossref]

Preston, C.

Z. Fang, H. Zhu, Y. Yuan, D. Ha, S. Zhu, C. Preston, Q. Chen, Y. Li, X. Han, S. Lee, G. Chen, T. Li, J. Munday, J. Huang, and L. Hu, Nano Lett. 14, 765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rand, B. P.

T.-W. Koh, J. A. Spechler, K. M. Lee, C. B. Arnold, and B. P. Rand, ACS Photon. 2, 1366 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rau, U.

R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Rau, and A. Gombert, Photon Management in Solar Cells (Wiley, 2016).

Remeš, Z.

A. Poruba, A. Fejfar, Z. Remeš, J. Špringer, M. Vaněček, J. Kočka, J. Meier, P. Torres, and A. Shah, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 148 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sahraei, N.

Scarpulla, M. A.

Schropp, R. E. I.

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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Supplemental Document
» Visualization 1       Video of transparency transition as water is infused into the hazy glass and the water evaporates

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Cross-section SEM images of nanostructured grass-like glass with (i) 2.5, (ii) 4.5, (iii) 6, and (iv) 8.5 μm height, and (b) (i) 15° tilted and (ii) overhead view of 6 μm height hazy glass.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Contour plots of (a) total transmission (%) and (b) haze (%) as a function of wavelength and nanograss height.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Plots of total transmission (left y axis) and haze (right y axis) at 550 nm wavelength as a function of nanograss height.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental (solid lines) and scalar scattering theory (dashed lines) haze values for smooth glass and glass with 2.5, 4.5, 6, and 8.5 μm height nanograss.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Optical images of smooth glass and glass with 2.5 and 6 μm height nanograss when placed (a) directly on paper with text and (b) about 1 cm above.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Scattering ability of (a) flat fused silica and (b) 6 μm height nanograss glass. The scattering ability is demonstrated by shining a laser through a sample onto a target. The rings on the target are spaced 5 cm apart. The distance between the sample and target is 30 cm.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Contact angle of water droplet on (i) smooth fused silica and (ii) 6 μm nanograss glass. (b) Transition between transparent and haze mode of 6 μm ultrahazy glass by putting water on the glass and evaporation in 80 s.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Haze (solid lines) and direct transmission (dashed lines) as a function of wavelength for 6 μm hazy glass in dry state and wet state with different liquids.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H(λ)=(1direct transmission(λ)total transmission(λ))×100%,
H(λ)=(1exp[(2πσrms[n1n2(λ)]λ)2])×100%,

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