Abstract

Humans can detect infrared light at wavelengths over 1000 nm, perceived as visible light of the corresponding half wavelength. This is due to a two-photon (2P) absorption process, which requires sufficiently large amounts of luminous energy. For safety reasons, this energy must be delivered by pulsed light sources well focused in the retina. Although this effect has been known for several decades, the spatial properties of 2P vision in comparison to normal vision have not yet elucidated. We have developed a new experimental system to measure, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, visual acuity mediated by 2P absorption and compare it against that with visible light. The spatial resolution of 2P infrared vision is the same as in normal visible light. However, the use of 2P infrared vision may have some future potential applications, for example, in permitting vision in those cases with opaque optical media to visible wavelengths while keeping some transparency in the infrared.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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G. Palczewska, F. Vinberg, P. Stremplewski, M. P. Bircher, D. Salom, K. Komar, J. Zhang, M. Cascella, M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Kefalov, and K. Palczewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E5445 (2014).
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J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, and P. Artal, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066004 (2010).
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P. Artal and J. Tabernero, Nat. Photonics 2, 586 (2008).
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P. V. Kazakevich, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, Laser Phys. 16, 1078 (2006).
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2005 (1)

2004 (1)

Y. Imanishi, M. L. Batten, D. W. Piston, W. Baehr, and K. Palczewski, J. Cell Biol. 164, 373 (2004).
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V. G. Dmitriev, V. N. Emel’yanov, M. A. Kashintsev, V. V. Kulikov, A. A. Solov’ev, M. F. Stel’makh, and O. B. Cherednichenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 5 (1979).
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B. M. Savin, R. I. Kovach, and E. E. Kolchin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 221, 225 (1975).

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L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebotaev, and Y. Troitskii, Sov. Phys. JEPT 21, 513 (1965).

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Artal, P.

Baehr, W.

Y. Imanishi, M. L. Batten, D. W. Piston, W. Baehr, and K. Palczewski, J. Cell Biol. 164, 373 (2004).
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Batten, M. L.

Y. Imanishi, M. L. Batten, D. W. Piston, W. Baehr, and K. Palczewski, J. Cell Biol. 164, 373 (2004).
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Berrio, E.

Bescós, J.

Bircher, M. P.

G. Palczewska, F. Vinberg, P. Stremplewski, M. P. Bircher, D. Salom, K. Komar, J. Zhang, M. Cascella, M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Kefalov, and K. Palczewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E5445 (2014).
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J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, and P. Artal, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066004 (2010).
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Cascella, M.

G. Palczewska, F. Vinberg, P. Stremplewski, M. P. Bircher, D. Salom, K. Komar, J. Zhang, M. Cascella, M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Kefalov, and K. Palczewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E5445 (2014).
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Chebotaev, V. P.

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebotaev, and Y. Troitskii, Sov. Phys. JEPT 21, 513 (1965).

Cherednichenko, O. B.

V. G. Dmitriev, V. N. Emel’yanov, M. A. Kashintsev, V. V. Kulikov, A. A. Solov’ev, M. F. Stel’makh, and O. B. Cherednichenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 5 (1979).
[Crossref]

Christie, R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dmitriev, V. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, V. N. Emel’yanov, M. A. Kashintsev, V. V. Kulikov, A. A. Solov’ev, M. F. Stel’makh, and O. B. Cherednichenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 5 (1979).
[Crossref]

Drexler, W.

Emel’yanov, V. N.

V. G. Dmitriev, V. N. Emel’yanov, M. A. Kashintsev, V. V. Kulikov, A. A. Solov’ev, M. F. Stel’makh, and O. B. Cherednichenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 5 (1979).
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H. H. Emsley, Visual Optics (Butterworths, 1952).

Fernández, E. J.

Fine, S.

Franks, J. K.

Gambín, A.

Georgiou, E.

T. Theodossiou, E. Georgiou, V. Hovhannisyan, and D. Yova, Lasers Med. Sci. 16, 34 (2001).
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González, C.

E. A. Villegas, C. González, B. Bourdoncle, T. Bonnin, and P. Artal, Opt. Vis. Sci. 79, 60 (2002).
[Crossref]

Griffin, D. R.

Gualda, E. J.

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, and P. Artal, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066004 (2010).
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Guirao, A.

Hansen, W. P.

Hermann, B.

Hovhannisyan, V.

T. Theodossiou, E. Georgiou, V. Hovhannisyan, and D. Yova, Lasers Med. Sci. 16, 34 (2001).
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Hubbard, R.

Hyman, B. T.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075 (2003).
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Imanishi, Y.

Y. Imanishi, M. L. Batten, D. W. Piston, W. Baehr, and K. Palczewski, J. Cell Biol. 164, 373 (2004).
[Crossref]

Irles, E.

Kashintsev, M. A.

V. G. Dmitriev, V. N. Emel’yanov, M. A. Kashintsev, V. V. Kulikov, A. A. Solov’ev, M. F. Stel’makh, and O. B. Cherednichenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 5 (1979).
[Crossref]

Kazakevich, P. V.

P. V. Kazakevich, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, Laser Phys. 16, 1078 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kefalov, V. J.

G. Palczewska, F. Vinberg, P. Stremplewski, M. P. Bircher, D. Salom, K. Komar, J. Zhang, M. Cascella, M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Kefalov, and K. Palczewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E5445 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kolchin, E. E.

B. M. Savin and E. E. Kolchin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 1, 235 (1977).

B. M. Savin, R. I. Kovach, and E. E. Kolchin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 221, 225 (1975).

Komar, K.

G. Palczewska, F. Vinberg, P. Stremplewski, M. P. Bircher, D. Salom, K. Komar, J. Zhang, M. Cascella, M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Kefalov, and K. Palczewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E5445 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kovach, R. I.

B. M. Savin, R. I. Kovach, and E. E. Kolchin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 221, 225 (1975).

Kulikov, V. V.

V. G. Dmitriev, V. N. Emel’yanov, M. A. Kashintsev, V. V. Kulikov, A. A. Solov’ev, M. F. Stel’makh, and O. B. Cherednichenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 5 (1979).
[Crossref]

Lancis, J.

Lochocki, B.

Manzanera, S.

Nikitin, A. Y.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075 (2003).
[Crossref]

Palczewska, G.

G. Palczewska, F. Vinberg, P. Stremplewski, M. P. Bircher, D. Salom, K. Komar, J. Zhang, M. Cascella, M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Kefalov, and K. Palczewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E5445 (2014).
[Crossref]

Palczewski, K.

G. Palczewska, F. Vinberg, P. Stremplewski, M. P. Bircher, D. Salom, K. Komar, J. Zhang, M. Cascella, M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Kefalov, and K. Palczewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E5445 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Imanishi, M. L. Batten, D. W. Piston, W. Baehr, and K. Palczewski, J. Cell Biol. 164, 373 (2004).
[Crossref]

Piers, P.

Piston, D. W.

Y. Imanishi, M. L. Batten, D. W. Piston, W. Baehr, and K. Palczewski, J. Cell Biol. 164, 373 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pokorny, J.

Prieto, P. M.

Prokopyev, V. Y.

V. Y. Prokopyev, Biofizika 30, 4 (1985).

V. Y. Prokopyev, Biofizika 25, 305 (1980).

V. Y. Prokopyev, Biofizika 25, 2 (1980).

Salom, D.

G. Palczewska, F. Vinberg, P. Stremplewski, M. P. Bircher, D. Salom, K. Komar, J. Zhang, M. Cascella, M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Kefalov, and K. Palczewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E5445 (2014).
[Crossref]

Santamaría, J.

Savin, B. M.

B. M. Savin and E. E. Kolchin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 1, 235 (1977).

B. M. Savin, R. I. Kovach, and E. E. Kolchin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 221, 225 (1975).

Shafeev, G. A.

P. V. Kazakevich, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, Laser Phys. 16, 1078 (2006).
[Crossref]

Simakin, A. V.

P. V. Kazakevich, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, Laser Phys. 16, 1078 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sliney, D. H.

Solov’ev, A. A.

V. G. Dmitriev, V. N. Emel’yanov, M. A. Kashintsev, V. V. Kulikov, A. A. Solov’ev, M. F. Stel’makh, and O. B. Cherednichenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 5 (1979).
[Crossref]

Stel’makh, M. F.

V. G. Dmitriev, V. N. Emel’yanov, M. A. Kashintsev, V. V. Kulikov, A. A. Solov’ev, M. F. Stel’makh, and O. B. Cherednichenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 5 (1979).
[Crossref]

Stremplewski, P.

G. Palczewska, F. Vinberg, P. Stremplewski, M. P. Bircher, D. Salom, K. Komar, J. Zhang, M. Cascella, M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Kefalov, and K. Palczewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E5445 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tabernero, J.

P. Artal and J. Tabernero, Nat. Photonics 2, 586 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tajahuerce, E.

Theodossiou, T.

T. Theodossiou, E. Georgiou, V. Hovhannisyan, and D. Yova, Lasers Med. Sci. 16, 34 (2001).
[Crossref]

Thibos, L. N.

Troitskii, Y.

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebotaev, and Y. Troitskii, Sov. Phys. JEPT 21, 513 (1965).

Unterhuber, A.

Vasilenko, L. S.

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebotaev, and Y. Troitskii, Sov. Phys. JEPT 21, 513 (1965).

Villegas, E. A.

E. A. Villegas, C. González, B. Bourdoncle, T. Bonnin, and P. Artal, Opt. Vis. Sci. 79, 60 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vinberg, F.

G. Palczewska, F. Vinberg, P. Stremplewski, M. P. Bircher, D. Salom, K. Komar, J. Zhang, M. Cascella, M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Kefalov, and K. Palczewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E5445 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wald, G.

Wangemann, R. T.

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075 (2003).
[Crossref]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wojtkowski, M.

G. Palczewska, F. Vinberg, P. Stremplewski, M. P. Bircher, D. Salom, K. Komar, J. Zhang, M. Cascella, M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Kefalov, and K. Palczewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E5445 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wolbarsht, M. L.

Ye, M.

Yova, D.

T. Theodossiou, E. Georgiou, V. Hovhannisyan, and D. Yova, Lasers Med. Sci. 16, 34 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zaidi, Q.

Zhang, J.

G. Palczewska, F. Vinberg, P. Stremplewski, M. P. Bircher, D. Salom, K. Komar, J. Zhang, M. Cascella, M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Kefalov, and K. Palczewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E5445 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075 (2003).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biofizika (3)

V. Y. Prokopyev, Biofizika 25, 305 (1980).

V. Y. Prokopyev, Biofizika 25, 2 (1980).

V. Y. Prokopyev, Biofizika 30, 4 (1985).

Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (2)

B. M. Savin and E. E. Kolchin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 1, 235 (1977).

B. M. Savin, R. I. Kovach, and E. E. Kolchin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 221, 225 (1975).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, and P. Artal, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066004 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Cell Biol. (1)

Y. Imanishi, M. L. Batten, D. W. Piston, W. Baehr, and K. Palczewski, J. Cell Biol. 164, 373 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Laser Phys. (1)

P. V. Kazakevich, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, Laser Phys. 16, 1078 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

T. Theodossiou, E. Georgiou, V. Hovhannisyan, and D. Yova, Lasers Med. Sci. 16, 34 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

P. Artal and J. Tabernero, Nat. Photonics 2, 586 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Vis. Sci. (1)

E. A. Villegas, C. González, B. Bourdoncle, T. Bonnin, and P. Artal, Opt. Vis. Sci. 79, 60 (2002).
[Crossref]

Optica (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Palczewska, F. Vinberg, P. Stremplewski, M. P. Bircher, D. Salom, K. Komar, J. Zhang, M. Cascella, M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Kefalov, and K. Palczewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E5445 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. G. Dmitriev, V. N. Emel’yanov, M. A. Kashintsev, V. V. Kulikov, A. A. Solov’ev, M. F. Stel’makh, and O. B. Cherednichenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 5 (1979).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. JEPT (1)

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebotaev, and Y. Troitskii, Sov. Phys. JEPT 21, 513 (1965).

Other (1)

H. H. Emsley, Visual Optics (Butterworths, 1952).

Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Data File 1       VA data
» Supplement 1       Exposure safety limits calculations

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the apparatus. Either a visible CW (cwL) or an IR pulsed (fsL) laser is used to deliver visual stimuli to the subject’s eye by means of a galvo mirror system (xyG). Double-pass images are acquired using high-sensitivity (CAM1). Additional elements are: DM, dichroic mirror; A1–A3, apertures; L1–L5, achromatic doubles; BS, beam splitter; tL, trial lenses; NDF, neutral density filter; C-Pol, crossed linear polarizers; CAM2, alignment camera.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

On the left, the Y axis (solid lines) is represented by the averaged visual acuity across subjects measured in visible and IR light as a function of defocus. Values are shown normalized to the maximum. All defocus values are relative to the focus position where the best VA is achieved in visible light. Error bars stand for intersubject variability. See Data File 1 for underlying values. On the right Y axis (dashed lines and open symbols), the averaged-across-subjects through-focus maximum intensity in the recorded double-pass images.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Example of the recorded double-pass images. They correspond to the best focused images recorded from subject #4 in (A) visible and (B) IR. They are normalized to the maximum. The width of each scale bar represents the corresponding Airy disk diameter for the wavelength and pupil size used (4.6 and 4.4 min of arc for visible and IR, respectively).