Abstract

Terahertz (THz) and sub-THz frequency emitter and detector technologies are receiving increasing attention, underpinned by emerging applications in ultra-fast THz physics, frequency-combs technology and pulsed laser development in this relatively unexplored region of the electromagnetic spectrum. In particular, semiconductor-based ultrafast THz receivers are required for compact, ultrafast spectroscopy and communication systems, and to date, quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) have proved to be an excellent technology to address this, given their intrinsic picosecond-range response. However, with research focused on diffraction-limited QWIP structures (λ/2), RC constants cannot be reduced indefinitely, and detection speeds are bound to eventually meet an upper limit. The key to an ultra-fast response with no intrinsic upper limit even at tens of gigahertz (GHz) is an aggressive reduction in device size, below the diffraction limit. Here we demonstrate sub-wavelength (λ/10) THz QWIP detectors based on a 3D split-ring geometry, yielding ultra-fast operation at a wavelength of around 100 μm. Each sensing meta-atom pixel features a suspended loop antenna that feeds THz radiation in the 20  μm3 active volume (Veff3×104(λ/2)3). Arrays of detectors as well as single-pixel detectors have been implemented with this new architecture, with the latter exhibiting ultra-low dark currents below the nA level. This extremely small resonator architecture leads to measured optical response speeds—on arrays of 300 devices—of up to 3  GHz and an expected device operation of up to tens of GHz, based on the measured S parameters on single devices and arrays.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (2)

F. Wang, H. Nong, T. Fobbe, V. Pistore, S. Houver, S. Markmann, N. Jukam, M. Amanti, C. Sirtori, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, L. Li, E. Linfield, G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Short terahertz pulse generation from a dispersion compensated modelocked semiconductor laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1700013 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Li, W.-J. Wan, Z.-Y. Tan, Z.-L. Fu, H.-X. Wang, T. Zhou, Z.-P. Li, C. Wang, X.-G. Guo, and J.-C. Cao, “6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors,” Sci. Rep. 7, 3452 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

H. Durmaz, D. Nothern, G. Brummer, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Terahertz intersubband photodetectors based on semi-polar GaN/AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 201102 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Paulillo, J.-M. Manceau, L. H. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Room temperature strong light-matter coupling in three dimensional terahertz meta-atoms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 101101 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Bachmann, M. Rösch, M. J. Süess, M. Beck, K. Unterrainer, J. Darmo, J. Faist, and G. Scalari, “Short pulse generation and mode control of broadband terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 3, 1087–1094 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (6)

A. Benz, M. Krall, S. Schwarz, D. Dietze, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Resonant metamaterial detectors based on THz quantum-cascade structures,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4269 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Xu, L. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. Giles Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091112 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Paulillo, J. M. Manceau, A. Degiron, N. Zerounian, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and R. Colombelli, “Circuit-tunable sub-wavelength THz resonators: hybridizing optical cavities and loop antennas,” Opt. Express 22, 21302–21312 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9, 42–47 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. H. L. Koppens, T. Mueller, P. Avouris, A. C. Ferrari, M. S. Vitiello, and M. Polini, “Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 780–793 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, J. Kamann, J. Eroms, D. Weiss, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Ultrafast graphene-based broadband THz detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021113 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, M. Mundt, V. Krozer, and H. G. Roskos, “Subharmonic mixing with field-effect transistors: theory and experiment at 639  GHz high above fT,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 124–132 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Dietze, J. Darmo, and K. Unterrainer, “Efficient population transfer in modulation doped single quantum wells by intense few-cycle terahertz pulses,” New J. Phys. 15, 065014 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Three-dimensional broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 161104 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Zhang, X. G. Guo, C. Y. Song, M. Buchanan, Z. R. Wasilewski, J. C. Cao, and H. C. Liu, “Metal-grating-coupled terahertz quantum-well photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 659–661 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

F. Sizov and A. Rogalski, “THz detectors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 278–347 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

P. D. Grant, S. R. Laframboise, R. Dudek, M. Graf, A. Bezinger, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz free space communications demonstration with quantum cascade laser and quantum well photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 45, 952–954 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1.55  μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Milostnaya, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting single photon nanowire detectors development for IR and THz applications,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 151, 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445, 39–46 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

H. Luo, H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “Background-limited terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231103 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, A. J. SpringThorpe, and J. C. Cao, “Terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4068–4070 (2004).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

H. C. Liu, G. E. Jenkins, E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and M. J. Manfra, “Optical heterodyne detection and microwave rectification up to 26  GHz using quantum well infrared photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 253–255 (1995).
[Crossref]

Amanti, M.

F. Wang, H. Nong, T. Fobbe, V. Pistore, S. Houver, S. Markmann, N. Jukam, M. Amanti, C. Sirtori, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, L. Li, E. Linfield, G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Short terahertz pulse generation from a dispersion compensated modelocked semiconductor laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1700013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Andrews, A. M.

A. Benz, M. Krall, S. Schwarz, D. Dietze, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Resonant metamaterial detectors based on THz quantum-cascade structures,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4269 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arnold, A.

B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
[Crossref]

Asgekar, V.

B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Three-dimensional broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 161104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

F. H. L. Koppens, T. Mueller, P. Avouris, A. C. Ferrari, M. S. Vitiello, and M. Polini, “Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 780–793 (2014).
[Crossref]

Awari, N.

B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bachmann, D.

Bahir, G.

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1.55  μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barbieri, S.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bauer, C.

B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
[Crossref]

Beaudoin, G.

Beck, M.

Benz, A.

A. Benz, M. Krall, S. Schwarz, D. Dietze, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Resonant metamaterial detectors based on THz quantum-cascade structures,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4269 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bezinger, A.

P. D. Grant, S. R. Laframboise, R. Dudek, M. Graf, A. Bezinger, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz free space communications demonstration with quantum cascade laser and quantum well photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 45, 952–954 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boppel, S.

A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, M. Mundt, V. Krozer, and H. G. Roskos, “Subharmonic mixing with field-effect transistors: theory and experiment at 639  GHz high above fT,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 124–132 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bougerol, C.

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Guillot, F.

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R. Zhang, X. G. Guo, C. Y. Song, M. Buchanan, Z. R. Wasilewski, J. C. Cao, and H. C. Liu, “Metal-grating-coupled terahertz quantum-well photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 659–661 (2011).
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H. Li, W.-J. Wan, Z.-Y. Tan, Z.-L. Fu, H.-X. Wang, T. Zhou, Z.-P. Li, C. Wang, X.-G. Guo, and J.-C. Cao, “6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors,” Sci. Rep. 7, 3452 (2017).
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G. Xu, L. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. Giles Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091112 (2014).
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D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
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M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, J. Kamann, J. Eroms, D. Weiss, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Ultrafast graphene-based broadband THz detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021113 (2013).
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F. Wang, H. Nong, T. Fobbe, V. Pistore, S. Houver, S. Markmann, N. Jukam, M. Amanti, C. Sirtori, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, L. Li, E. Linfield, G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Short terahertz pulse generation from a dispersion compensated modelocked semiconductor laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1700013 (2017).
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D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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G. Xu, L. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. Giles Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091112 (2014).
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H. C. Liu, G. E. Jenkins, E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and M. J. Manfra, “Optical heterodyne detection and microwave rectification up to 26  GHz using quantum well infrared photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 253–255 (1995).
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F. Wang, H. Nong, T. Fobbe, V. Pistore, S. Houver, S. Markmann, N. Jukam, M. Amanti, C. Sirtori, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, L. Li, E. Linfield, G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Short terahertz pulse generation from a dispersion compensated modelocked semiconductor laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1700013 (2017).
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Julien, F. H.

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1.55  μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 193509 (2008).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, J. Kamann, J. Eroms, D. Weiss, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Ultrafast graphene-based broadband THz detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kampfrath, T.

B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
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A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1.55  μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 193509 (2008).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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F. Wang, H. Nong, T. Fobbe, V. Pistore, S. Houver, S. Markmann, N. Jukam, M. Amanti, C. Sirtori, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, L. Li, E. Linfield, G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Short terahertz pulse generation from a dispersion compensated modelocked semiconductor laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1700013 (2017).
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F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 2, 944–949 (2015).
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G. Xu, L. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. Giles Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091112 (2014).
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B. Paulillo, J.-M. Manceau, L. H. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Room temperature strong light-matter coupling in three dimensional terahertz meta-atoms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 101101 (2016).
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D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, Y. N. Chen, J. Madeo, A. Vasanelli, L. H. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and C. Sirtori, “Patch antenna terahertz photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161102 (2015).
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H. Li, W.-J. Wan, Z.-Y. Tan, Z.-L. Fu, H.-X. Wang, T. Zhou, Z.-P. Li, C. Wang, X.-G. Guo, and J.-C. Cao, “6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors,” Sci. Rep. 7, 3452 (2017).
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F. Wang, H. Nong, T. Fobbe, V. Pistore, S. Houver, S. Markmann, N. Jukam, M. Amanti, C. Sirtori, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, L. Li, E. Linfield, G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Short terahertz pulse generation from a dispersion compensated modelocked semiconductor laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1700013 (2017).
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B. Paulillo, J.-M. Manceau, L. H. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Room temperature strong light-matter coupling in three dimensional terahertz meta-atoms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 101101 (2016).
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D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, Y. N. Chen, J. Madeo, A. Vasanelli, L. H. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and C. Sirtori, “Patch antenna terahertz photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161102 (2015).
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F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 2, 944–949 (2015).
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G. Xu, L. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. Giles Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091112 (2014).
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S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
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A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, M. Mundt, V. Krozer, and H. G. Roskos, “Subharmonic mixing with field-effect transistors: theory and experiment at 639  GHz high above fT,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 124–132 (2013).
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R. Zhang, X. G. Guo, C. Y. Song, M. Buchanan, Z. R. Wasilewski, J. C. Cao, and H. C. Liu, “Metal-grating-coupled terahertz quantum-well photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 659–661 (2011).
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H. C. Liu, G. E. Jenkins, E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and M. J. Manfra, “Optical heterodyne detection and microwave rectification up to 26  GHz using quantum well infrared photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 253–255 (1995).
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McIntosh, K. A.

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A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1.55  μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 193509 (2008).
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F. Wang, H. Nong, T. Fobbe, V. Pistore, S. Houver, S. Markmann, N. Jukam, M. Amanti, C. Sirtori, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, L. Li, E. Linfield, G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Short terahertz pulse generation from a dispersion compensated modelocked semiconductor laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1700013 (2017).
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F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 2, 944–949 (2015).
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H. C. Liu, G. E. Jenkins, E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and M. J. Manfra, “Optical heterodyne detection and microwave rectification up to 26  GHz using quantum well infrared photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 253–255 (1995).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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[Crossref]

Paiella, R.

H. Durmaz, D. Nothern, G. Brummer, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Terahertz intersubband photodetectors based on semi-polar GaN/AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 201102 (2016).
[Crossref]

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D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, Y. N. Chen, J. Madeo, A. Vasanelli, L. H. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and C. Sirtori, “Patch antenna terahertz photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161102 (2015).
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B. Paulillo, J.-M. Manceau, L. H. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Room temperature strong light-matter coupling in three dimensional terahertz meta-atoms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 101101 (2016).
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B. Paulillo, J. M. Manceau, A. Degiron, N. Zerounian, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and R. Colombelli, “Circuit-tunable sub-wavelength THz resonators: hybridizing optical cavities and loop antennas,” Opt. Express 22, 21302–21312 (2014).
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F. H. L. Koppens, T. Mueller, P. Avouris, A. C. Ferrari, M. S. Vitiello, and M. Polini, “Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 780–793 (2014).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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Rauscher, A. A.

B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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Sagnes, I.

Santarelli, G.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
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Schacham, S.

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1.55  μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 193509 (2008).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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Schneider, H.

B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, J. Kamann, J. Eroms, D. Weiss, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Ultrafast graphene-based broadband THz detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021113 (2013).
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H. Schneider and H. C. Liu, Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors: Physics and Applications, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2007).

Schramm, U.

B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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Schwarz, S.

A. Benz, M. Krall, S. Schwarz, D. Dietze, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Resonant metamaterial detectors based on THz quantum-cascade structures,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4269 (2014).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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Sirtori, C.

F. Wang, H. Nong, T. Fobbe, V. Pistore, S. Houver, S. Markmann, N. Jukam, M. Amanti, C. Sirtori, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, L. Li, E. Linfield, G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Short terahertz pulse generation from a dispersion compensated modelocked semiconductor laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1700013 (2017).
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D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, Y. N. Chen, J. Madeo, A. Vasanelli, L. H. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and C. Sirtori, “Patch antenna terahertz photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161102 (2015).
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S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
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I. Milostnaya, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting single photon nanowire detectors development for IR and THz applications,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 151, 591–596 (2008).
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Song, C. Y.

R. Zhang, X. G. Guo, C. Y. Song, M. Buchanan, Z. R. Wasilewski, J. C. Cao, and H. C. Liu, “Metal-grating-coupled terahertz quantum-well photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 659–661 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Luo, H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “Background-limited terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231103 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, A. J. SpringThorpe, and J. C. Cao, “Terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4068–4070 (2004).
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SpringThorpe, A. J.

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, A. J. SpringThorpe, and J. C. Cao, “Terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4068–4070 (2004).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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Strasser, G.

A. Benz, M. Krall, S. Schwarz, D. Dietze, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Resonant metamaterial detectors based on THz quantum-cascade structures,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4269 (2014).
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K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Three-dimensional broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 161104 (2013).
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Tan, Z.

Tan, Z.-Y.

H. Li, W.-J. Wan, Z.-Y. Tan, Z.-L. Fu, H.-X. Wang, T. Zhou, Z.-P. Li, C. Wang, X.-G. Guo, and J.-C. Cao, “6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors,” Sci. Rep. 7, 3452 (2017).
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I. Milostnaya, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting single photon nanowire detectors development for IR and THz applications,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 151, 591–596 (2008).
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A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1.55  μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 193509 (2008).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 2, 944–949 (2015).
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D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, Y. N. Chen, J. Madeo, A. Vasanelli, L. H. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and C. Sirtori, “Patch antenna terahertz photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161102 (2015).
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A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1.55  μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 193509 (2008).
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D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, Y. N. Chen, J. Madeo, A. Vasanelli, L. H. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and C. Sirtori, “Patch antenna terahertz photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161102 (2015).
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A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1.55  μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 193509 (2008).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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I. Milostnaya, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting single photon nanowire detectors development for IR and THz applications,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 151, 591–596 (2008).
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B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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H. Li, W.-J. Wan, Z.-Y. Tan, Z.-L. Fu, H.-X. Wang, T. Zhou, Z.-P. Li, C. Wang, X.-G. Guo, and J.-C. Cao, “6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors,” Sci. Rep. 7, 3452 (2017).
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F. Wang, H. Nong, T. Fobbe, V. Pistore, S. Houver, S. Markmann, N. Jukam, M. Amanti, C. Sirtori, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, L. Li, E. Linfield, G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Short terahertz pulse generation from a dispersion compensated modelocked semiconductor laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1700013 (2017).
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F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 2, 944–949 (2015).
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Wang, H.-X.

H. Li, W.-J. Wan, Z.-Y. Tan, Z.-L. Fu, H.-X. Wang, T. Zhou, Z.-P. Li, C. Wang, X.-G. Guo, and J.-C. Cao, “6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors,” Sci. Rep. 7, 3452 (2017).
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Wasilewski, Z. R.

R. Zhang, X. G. Guo, C. Y. Song, M. Buchanan, Z. R. Wasilewski, J. C. Cao, and H. C. Liu, “Metal-grating-coupled terahertz quantum-well photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 659–661 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Luo, H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “Background-limited terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231103 (2005).
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Weiss, D.

M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, J. Kamann, J. Eroms, D. Weiss, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Ultrafast graphene-based broadband THz detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021113 (2013).
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Winnerl, S.

B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, J. Kamann, J. Eroms, D. Weiss, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Ultrafast graphene-based broadband THz detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021113 (2013).
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Wu, Q.

Wustmann, B.

B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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Xu, G.

G. Xu, L. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. Giles Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091112 (2014).
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Yang, Y.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
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Zhang, L.

B. Green, S. Kovalev, V. Asgekar, G. Geloni, U. Lehnert, T. Golz, M. Kuntzsch, C. Bauer, J. Hauser, J. Voigtlaender, B. Wustmann, I. Koesterke, M. Schwarz, M. Freitag, A. Arnold, J. Teichert, M. Justus, W. Seidel, C. Ilgner, N. Awari, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, Y. Laplace, S. Rajasekaran, L. Zhang, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, G. Schay, I. Lorincz, A. A. Rauscher, I. Radu, S. Mahrlein, T. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. Kampfrath, S. Wall, J. Heberle, A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, A. Steiger, A. S. Muller, M. Helm, U. Schramm, T. Cowan, P. Michel, A. Cavalleri, A. S. Fisher, N. Stojanovic, and M. Gensch, “High-field high-repetition-rate sources for the coherent THz control of matter,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22256 (2016).
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Zhang, R.

R. Zhang, X. G. Guo, C. Y. Song, M. Buchanan, Z. R. Wasilewski, J. C. Cao, and H. C. Liu, “Metal-grating-coupled terahertz quantum-well photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 659–661 (2011).
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Zhang, X.

K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Three-dimensional broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 161104 (2013).
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Zhou, T.

H. Li, W.-J. Wan, Z.-Y. Tan, Z.-L. Fu, H.-X. Wang, T. Zhou, Z.-P. Li, C. Wang, X.-G. Guo, and J.-C. Cao, “6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors,” Sci. Rep. 7, 3452 (2017).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, J. Kamann, J. Eroms, D. Weiss, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Ultrafast graphene-based broadband THz detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021113 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Luo, H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “Background-limited terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231103 (2005).
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H. Durmaz, D. Nothern, G. Brummer, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Terahertz intersubband photodetectors based on semi-polar GaN/AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 201102 (2016).
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A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1.55  μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, Y. N. Chen, J. Madeo, A. Vasanelli, L. H. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and C. Sirtori, “Patch antenna terahertz photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161102 (2015).
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B. Paulillo, J.-M. Manceau, L. H. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Room temperature strong light-matter coupling in three dimensional terahertz meta-atoms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 101101 (2016).
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G. Xu, L. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. Giles Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091112 (2014).
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H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, A. J. SpringThorpe, and J. C. Cao, “Terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4068–4070 (2004).
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Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of the sub-wavelength meta-atom detector (single pixel). (b) RLC equivalent circuit: the meta-atom LC resonance is set by the MSM capacitance (CAR) and the antenna inductance (Lant). RAR and Rant are the active region and antenna resistances, respectively. Cgap is the capacitance arising from the opening in the gold ground plane. (c) Pictures of the fabricated sample, at increasing magnification: optical microscopy image of the meta-atoms arranged in array geometry (left panel), SEM picture of the same array (right top panel), and close view of a single meta-atom (right bottom panel). The SEM images have been colored to highlight the metallic regions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated optical response of an array of meta-atoms illuminated by normally incident THz radiation. Top panel: reflectivity spectra. When the antenna is not present and the MSM capacitor alone is considered (gray dashed–dotted line), the spectrum shows a grating mode due to the sub-wavelength openings in the ground plane; when the antenna is added (black solid line), the meta-atom LC resonance appears. Bottom panel: ohmic dissipation computed in the MSM cavity as a function of the excitation frequency, revealing that energy is resonantly dissipated in the semiconductor only if the inductive antenna completes the RLC circuit (see Supplement 1 for further details).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Photocurrent spectra from an array of 300 meta-atom detectors for unpolarized (black curve) and polarized (red and blue curves) radiation from a Hg lamp: THz radiation is fed into the device when the magnetic field is orthogonal to the antennas. (b) Typical current–voltage curves under dark conditions (black solid line) and under illumination from a 300 K blackbody (red solid line) for an array of meta-atom detectors. (c) Estimated array responsivity. The inset clarifies the definition of the field of view (FOV) of the detector inside the cryostat. All the measurements are performed at 4.5 K and using a TPX cryostat window (no other filters have been added).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical detection of ultrafast THz signals with a meta-atom array. (a) Sketch of the experimental arrangement: the emitter is an RF-modulated THz QCL operating in CW (f=3  THz, I=220  mA, T=10  K). The receiver is an unbiased meta-atom array (T=5  K), and the RF signal is recovered on a spectrum analyzer after an amplification stage. (b) RF spectrum measured when the QCL is modulated at 1.5 GHz (PRF=13  dBm, 30 dB amplification). Two polarizations are shown: magnetic field orthogonal (red curve) and parallel (blue curve) to the antennas. The latter is taken as a noise reference. (c) Normalized RF spectra acquired when the QCL is driven at 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 GHz (20 dB amplification).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Normalized detector impedance z=Z/Z0 as a function of frequency for a single meta-atom and an array (T=300  K): experimental (red symbols) versus equivalent circuit model (blue dashed line). (b) Equivalent circuit of a single meta-atom detector, including the access contact lines. (c) Extracted RF signal Iout/Iin (simulation) as a function of frequency for: (i) a single detector in the actual geometry (solid black line), (ii) a single detector with top ohmic contact (solid gray line), and (iii) a single detector with top ohmic contact and reduced contact pad capacitance (dashed gray line).