Abstract

The efficient conversion of optical laser light into bright ultrafast x-ray pulses in laser created plasmas is of high interest for dense plasma physics studies, material science, and other fields. However, the rapid hydrodynamic expansion that cools hot plasmas has limited the x-ray conversion efficiency (CE) to 1% or less. Here we demonstrate more than one order of magnitude increase in picosecond x-ray CE by tailoring near solid density plasmas to achieve a large radiative to hydrodynamic energy loss rate ratio, leading into a radiation loss dominated plasma regime. A record 20% CE into hν>1  keV photons was measured in arrays of large aspect ratio Au nanowires heated to keV temperatures with ultrahigh contrast femtosecond laser pulses of relativistic intensity. The potential of these bright ultrafast x-ray point sources for table-top imaging is illustrated with single shot flash radiographs obtained using low laser pulse energy. These results will enable the deployment of brighter laser driven x-ray sources at both compact and large laser facilities.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]

2017 (2)

M. J. May, Y. P. Opachich, G. E. Kemp, J. D. Colvin, M. A. Barrios, K. W. Widmann, K. B. Fournier, M. Hohenberger, F. Albert, and S. P. Regan, “Demonstration of a long pulse x-ray source at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 24, 042701 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Bargsten, R. Hollinger, M. G. Capeluto, V. Kaymak, A. Pukhov, S. Wang, A. Rockwood, Y. Wang, D. Keiss, R. Tommasini, R. London, J. Park, M. Busquet, M. Klapisch, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, “Energy penetration into arrays of aligned nanowires irradiated with relativistic intensities: scaling to terabar pressures,” Sci. Adv. 3, 3–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

J. E. Bailey, T. Nagayama, G. P. Loisel, G. A. Rochau, C. Blancard, J. Colgan, P. Cosse, G. Faussurier, C. J. Fontes, F. Gilleron, I. Golovkin, S. B. Hansen, C. A. Iglesias, D. P. Kilcrease, J. J. Macfarlane, R. C. Mancini, S. N. Nahar, C. Orban, J. Pain, A. K. Pradhan, M. Sherrill, and B. G. Wilson, “A higher-than-predicted measurement of iron opacity at solar interior temperatures,” Nature 517, 56–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. A. Purvis, V. N. Shlyaptsev, R. Hollinger, C. Bargsten, A. Pukhov, A. Prieto, Y. Wang, B. M. Luther, L. Yin, S. Wang, and J. J. Rocca, “Relativistic plasma nanophotonics for ultrahigh energy density physics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 796–800 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

F. Pérez, J. J. Kay, J. R. Patterson, J. Kane, B. Villette, F. Girard, C. Reverdin, M. May, J. Emig, C. Sorce, J. Colvin, S. Gammon, J. Jaquez, J. H. Satcher, and K. B. Fournier, “Efficient laser-induced 6–8  keV x-ray production from iron oxide aerogel and foil-lined cavity targets,” Phys. Plasmas 19, 083101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

A. V. Ovchinnikov, O. F. Kostenko, O. V. Chefonov, O. N. Rosmej, N. E. Andreev, M. B. Agranat, J. L. Duan, J. Liu, and V. E. Fortov, “Characteristic x-rays generation under the action of femtosecond laser pulses on nano-structured targets,” Laser Part. Beams 29, 249–254 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Mondal, I. Chakraborty, S. Ahmad, D. Carvalho, P. Singh, A. D. Lad, V. Narayanan, P. Ayyub, G. R. Kumar, J. Zheng, and Z. M. Sheng, “Highly enhanced hard x-ray emission from oriented metal nanorod arrays excited by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 1–5 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

D. H. Martz, D. Alessi, B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, D. Kemp, M. Berrill, and J. J. Rocca, “High-energy 13.9  nm table-top soft-x-ray laser at 2.5 Hz repetition rate excited by a slab-pumped Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1632–1634 (2010).

C. M. Huntington, C. M. Krauland, C. C. Kuranz, R. P. Drake, H. S. Park, D. H. Kalantar, B. R. Maddox, B. A. Remington, and J. Kline, “Development of a short duration backlit pinhole for radiography on the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E536 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

F. J. Marshall, P. W. McKenty, J. A. Delettrez, R. Epstein, J. P. Knauer, V. A. Smalyuk, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, and R. C. Mancini, “Plasma-density determination from x-ray radiography of laser-driven spherical implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 185004 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

S. Kahaly, S. K. Yadav, W. M. Wang, S. Sengupta, Z. M. Sheng, A. Das, P. K. Kaw, and G. R. Kumar, “Near-complete absorption of intense, ultrashort laser light by sub- gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 145001 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. L. Dewald, M. Rosen, S. H. Glenzer, L. J. Suter, F. Girard, J. P. Jadaud, J. Schein, C. Constantin, F. Wagon, G. Huser, P. Neumayer, and O. L. Landen, “X-ray conversion efficiency of high-Z Hohlraum wall materials for indirect drive ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 072706 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Babonneau, M. Primout, F. Girard, J. P. Jadaud, M. Naudy, B. Villette, S. Depierreux, C. Blancard, G. Faussurier, K. B. Fournier, L. Suter, R. Kauffman, S. Glenzer, M. C. Miller, J. Grün, and J. Davis, “Efficient multi-keV x-ray sources from laser-exploded metallic thin foils,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 092702 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. A. Sumeruk, S. Kneip, D. R. Symes, I. V. Churina, A. V. Belolipetski, T. D. Donnelly, and T. Ditmire, “Control of strong-laser-field coupling to electrons in solid targets with wavelength-scale spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 45001 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

F. Y. Khattak, R. J. Clarke, E. J. Divall, M. Edwards, P. S. Foster, C. J. Hooker, A. J. Langley, O. A. M. B. du Sert Percie, C. Spindloe, G. Tallents, D. Riley, P. Mistry, D. Neely, J. Smith, and M. Tolley, “Enhanced He-alpha emission from “smoked” Ti targets irradiated with 400 nm, 45 fs laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett. 72, 242–248 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Yaakobi, T. R. Boehly, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. J. B. Collins, B. A. Remington, P. G. Allen, S. M. Pollaine, H. E. Lorenzana, and J. H. Eggert, “EXAFS measurement of iron bcc-to-hcp phase transformation in nanosecond-laser shocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

A. L. Prieto, M. Martín-González, J. Keyani, R. Gronsky, T. Sands, and A. M. Stacy, “The electrodeposition of high-density, ordered arrays of Bi1-xSbx nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 2388–2389 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. P. Rajeev, P. Taneja, P. Ayyub, A. S. Sandhu, and G. R. Kumar, “Metal nanoplasmas as bright sources of hard x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 115002 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, and C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, K. Oguri, N. Uesugi, M. Nakao, K. Nishio, and H. Masuda, “Nanocylinder-array structure greatly increases the soft x-ray intensity generated from femtosecond-laser-produced plasma,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 185–188 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. L. H. Brown, D. M. Leitner, C. Tóth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. Horn Von Hoegen, D. von Der Linde, and M. Kammler, “Anharmonic lattice dynamics in germanium measured with ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 586–589 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Kulcsar, D. AlMawlawi, F. Budnik, P. Herman, M. Moskovits, L. Zhao, and R. Marjoribanks, “Intense picosecond x-ray pulses from laser plasmas by use of nanostructured ‘Velvet’ targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5149–5152 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. Pukhov, “Three-dimensional electromagnetic relativistic particle-in-cell code VLPL (Virtual Laser Plasma Lab),” J. Plasma Phys. 61, 425–433 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. P. Gordon, J. Bokor, E. N. Glytsis, and R. W. Falcone, “Efficient coupling of high-intensity subpicosecond laser pulses into solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1068–1070 (1993).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

A. V. Vinogradov and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Characteristics of a laser plasma x-ray source (review),” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1–14 (1987).
[Crossref]

Agranat, M. B.

A. V. Ovchinnikov, O. F. Kostenko, O. V. Chefonov, O. N. Rosmej, N. E. Andreev, M. B. Agranat, J. L. Duan, J. Liu, and V. E. Fortov, “Characteristic x-rays generation under the action of femtosecond laser pulses on nano-structured targets,” Laser Part. Beams 29, 249–254 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, S.

S. Mondal, I. Chakraborty, S. Ahmad, D. Carvalho, P. Singh, A. D. Lad, V. Narayanan, P. Ayyub, G. R. Kumar, J. Zheng, and Z. M. Sheng, “Highly enhanced hard x-ray emission from oriented metal nanorod arrays excited by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 1–5 (2011).
[Crossref]

Albert, F.

M. J. May, Y. P. Opachich, G. E. Kemp, J. D. Colvin, M. A. Barrios, K. W. Widmann, K. B. Fournier, M. Hohenberger, F. Albert, and S. P. Regan, “Demonstration of a long pulse x-ray source at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 24, 042701 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alessi, D.

Allen, P. G.

B. Yaakobi, T. R. Boehly, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. J. B. Collins, B. A. Remington, P. G. Allen, S. M. Pollaine, H. E. Lorenzana, and J. H. Eggert, “EXAFS measurement of iron bcc-to-hcp phase transformation in nanosecond-laser shocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

AlMawlawi, D.

G. Kulcsar, D. AlMawlawi, F. Budnik, P. Herman, M. Moskovits, L. Zhao, and R. Marjoribanks, “Intense picosecond x-ray pulses from laser plasmas by use of nanostructured ‘Velvet’ targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5149–5152 (2000).
[Crossref]

Andreev, N. E.

A. V. Ovchinnikov, O. F. Kostenko, O. V. Chefonov, O. N. Rosmej, N. E. Andreev, M. B. Agranat, J. L. Duan, J. Liu, and V. E. Fortov, “Characteristic x-rays generation under the action of femtosecond laser pulses on nano-structured targets,” Laser Part. Beams 29, 249–254 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ayyub, P.

S. Mondal, I. Chakraborty, S. Ahmad, D. Carvalho, P. Singh, A. D. Lad, V. Narayanan, P. Ayyub, G. R. Kumar, J. Zheng, and Z. M. Sheng, “Highly enhanced hard x-ray emission from oriented metal nanorod arrays excited by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 1–5 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. P. Rajeev, P. Ayyub, S. Bagchi, and G. R. Kumar, “Nanostructures, local fields, and enhanced absorption in intense light-matter interaction,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2662–2664 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. P. Rajeev, P. Taneja, P. Ayyub, A. S. Sandhu, and G. R. Kumar, “Metal nanoplasmas as bright sources of hard x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 115002 (2003).
[Crossref]

Babonneau, D.

D. Babonneau, M. Primout, F. Girard, J. P. Jadaud, M. Naudy, B. Villette, S. Depierreux, C. Blancard, G. Faussurier, K. B. Fournier, L. Suter, R. Kauffman, S. Glenzer, M. C. Miller, J. Grün, and J. Davis, “Efficient multi-keV x-ray sources from laser-exploded metallic thin foils,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 092702 (2008).
[Crossref]

Back, C. A.

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, and C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bagchi, S.

Bailey, J. E.

J. E. Bailey, T. Nagayama, G. P. Loisel, G. A. Rochau, C. Blancard, J. Colgan, P. Cosse, G. Faussurier, C. J. Fontes, F. Gilleron, I. Golovkin, S. B. Hansen, C. A. Iglesias, D. P. Kilcrease, J. J. Macfarlane, R. C. Mancini, S. N. Nahar, C. Orban, J. Pain, A. K. Pradhan, M. Sherrill, and B. G. Wilson, “A higher-than-predicted measurement of iron opacity at solar interior temperatures,” Nature 517, 56–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bargsten, C.

C. Bargsten, R. Hollinger, M. G. Capeluto, V. Kaymak, A. Pukhov, S. Wang, A. Rockwood, Y. Wang, D. Keiss, R. Tommasini, R. London, J. Park, M. Busquet, M. Klapisch, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, “Energy penetration into arrays of aligned nanowires irradiated with relativistic intensities: scaling to terabar pressures,” Sci. Adv. 3, 3–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. A. Purvis, V. N. Shlyaptsev, R. Hollinger, C. Bargsten, A. Pukhov, A. Prieto, Y. Wang, B. M. Luther, L. Yin, S. Wang, and J. J. Rocca, “Relativistic plasma nanophotonics for ultrahigh energy density physics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 796–800 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barrios, M. A.

M. J. May, Y. P. Opachich, G. E. Kemp, J. D. Colvin, M. A. Barrios, K. W. Widmann, K. B. Fournier, M. Hohenberger, F. Albert, and S. P. Regan, “Demonstration of a long pulse x-ray source at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 24, 042701 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barty, C. P. J.

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. L. H. Brown, D. M. Leitner, C. Tóth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. Horn Von Hoegen, D. von Der Linde, and M. Kammler, “Anharmonic lattice dynamics in germanium measured with ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 586–589 (2000).
[Crossref]

Belolipetski, A. V.

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B. Yaakobi, T. R. Boehly, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. J. B. Collins, B. A. Remington, P. G. Allen, S. M. Pollaine, H. E. Lorenzana, and J. H. Eggert, “EXAFS measurement of iron bcc-to-hcp phase transformation in nanosecond-laser shocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 1–4 (2005).
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M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. P. Gordon, J. Bokor, E. N. Glytsis, and R. W. Falcone, “Efficient coupling of high-intensity subpicosecond laser pulses into solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1068–1070 (1993).
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A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. L. H. Brown, D. M. Leitner, C. Tóth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. Horn Von Hoegen, D. von Der Linde, and M. Kammler, “Anharmonic lattice dynamics in germanium measured with ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 586–589 (2000).
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A. V. Ovchinnikov, O. F. Kostenko, O. V. Chefonov, O. N. Rosmej, N. E. Andreev, M. B. Agranat, J. L. Duan, J. Liu, and V. E. Fortov, “Characteristic x-rays generation under the action of femtosecond laser pulses on nano-structured targets,” Laser Part. Beams 29, 249–254 (2011).
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H. A. Sumeruk, S. Kneip, D. R. Symes, I. V. Churina, A. V. Belolipetski, T. D. Donnelly, and T. Ditmire, “Control of strong-laser-field coupling to electrons in solid targets with wavelength-scale spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 45001 (2007).
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F. Y. Khattak, R. J. Clarke, E. J. Divall, M. Edwards, P. S. Foster, C. J. Hooker, A. J. Langley, O. A. M. B. du Sert Percie, C. Spindloe, G. Tallents, D. Riley, P. Mistry, D. Neely, J. Smith, and M. Tolley, “Enhanced He-alpha emission from “smoked” Ti targets irradiated with 400 nm, 45 fs laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett. 72, 242–248 (2005).
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J. E. Bailey, T. Nagayama, G. P. Loisel, G. A. Rochau, C. Blancard, J. Colgan, P. Cosse, G. Faussurier, C. J. Fontes, F. Gilleron, I. Golovkin, S. B. Hansen, C. A. Iglesias, D. P. Kilcrease, J. J. Macfarlane, R. C. Mancini, S. N. Nahar, C. Orban, J. Pain, A. K. Pradhan, M. Sherrill, and B. G. Wilson, “A higher-than-predicted measurement of iron opacity at solar interior temperatures,” Nature 517, 56–59 (2015).
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B. Yaakobi, T. R. Boehly, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. J. B. Collins, B. A. Remington, P. G. Allen, S. M. Pollaine, H. E. Lorenzana, and J. H. Eggert, “EXAFS measurement of iron bcc-to-hcp phase transformation in nanosecond-laser shocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 1–4 (2005).
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F. Pérez, J. J. Kay, J. R. Patterson, J. Kane, B. Villette, F. Girard, C. Reverdin, M. May, J. Emig, C. Sorce, J. Colvin, S. Gammon, J. Jaquez, J. H. Satcher, and K. B. Fournier, “Efficient laser-induced 6–8  keV x-ray production from iron oxide aerogel and foil-lined cavity targets,” Phys. Plasmas 19, 083101 (2012).
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M. J. May, Y. P. Opachich, G. E. Kemp, J. D. Colvin, M. A. Barrios, K. W. Widmann, K. B. Fournier, M. Hohenberger, F. Albert, and S. P. Regan, “Demonstration of a long pulse x-ray source at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 24, 042701 (2017).
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E. L. Dewald, M. Rosen, S. H. Glenzer, L. J. Suter, F. Girard, J. P. Jadaud, J. Schein, C. Constantin, F. Wagon, G. Huser, P. Neumayer, and O. L. Landen, “X-ray conversion efficiency of high-Z Hohlraum wall materials for indirect drive ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 072706 (2008).
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J. E. Bailey, T. Nagayama, G. P. Loisel, G. A. Rochau, C. Blancard, J. Colgan, P. Cosse, G. Faussurier, C. J. Fontes, F. Gilleron, I. Golovkin, S. B. Hansen, C. A. Iglesias, D. P. Kilcrease, J. J. Macfarlane, R. C. Mancini, S. N. Nahar, C. Orban, J. Pain, A. K. Pradhan, M. Sherrill, and B. G. Wilson, “A higher-than-predicted measurement of iron opacity at solar interior temperatures,” Nature 517, 56–59 (2015).
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S. Kahaly, S. K. Yadav, W. M. Wang, S. Sengupta, Z. M. Sheng, A. Das, P. K. Kaw, and G. R. Kumar, “Near-complete absorption of intense, ultrashort laser light by sub- gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 145001 (2008).
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[Crossref]

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, and C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003 (2001).
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C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, and C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003 (2001).
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F. J. Marshall, P. W. McKenty, J. A. Delettrez, R. Epstein, J. P. Knauer, V. A. Smalyuk, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, and R. C. Mancini, “Plasma-density determination from x-ray radiography of laser-driven spherical implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 185004 (2009).
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D. Babonneau, M. Primout, F. Girard, J. P. Jadaud, M. Naudy, B. Villette, S. Depierreux, C. Blancard, G. Faussurier, K. B. Fournier, L. Suter, R. Kauffman, S. Glenzer, M. C. Miller, J. Grün, and J. Davis, “Efficient multi-keV x-ray sources from laser-exploded metallic thin foils,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 092702 (2008).
[Crossref]

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E. L. Dewald, M. Rosen, S. H. Glenzer, L. J. Suter, F. Girard, J. P. Jadaud, J. Schein, C. Constantin, F. Wagon, G. Huser, P. Neumayer, and O. L. Landen, “X-ray conversion efficiency of high-Z Hohlraum wall materials for indirect drive ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 072706 (2008).
[Crossref]

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H. A. Sumeruk, S. Kneip, D. R. Symes, I. V. Churina, A. V. Belolipetski, T. D. Donnelly, and T. Ditmire, “Control of strong-laser-field coupling to electrons in solid targets with wavelength-scale spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 45001 (2007).
[Crossref]

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F. Y. Khattak, R. J. Clarke, E. J. Divall, M. Edwards, P. S. Foster, C. J. Hooker, A. J. Langley, O. A. M. B. du Sert Percie, C. Spindloe, G. Tallents, D. Riley, P. Mistry, D. Neely, J. Smith, and M. Tolley, “Enhanced He-alpha emission from “smoked” Ti targets irradiated with 400 nm, 45 fs laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett. 72, 242–248 (2005).
[Crossref]

Donnelly, T.

Donnelly, T. D.

H. A. Sumeruk, S. Kneip, D. R. Symes, I. V. Churina, A. V. Belolipetski, T. D. Donnelly, and T. Ditmire, “Control of strong-laser-field coupling to electrons in solid targets with wavelength-scale spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 45001 (2007).
[Crossref]

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C. M. Huntington, C. M. Krauland, C. C. Kuranz, R. P. Drake, H. S. Park, D. H. Kalantar, B. R. Maddox, B. A. Remington, and J. Kline, “Development of a short duration backlit pinhole for radiography on the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E536 (2010).
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F. Y. Khattak, R. J. Clarke, E. J. Divall, M. Edwards, P. S. Foster, C. J. Hooker, A. J. Langley, O. A. M. B. du Sert Percie, C. Spindloe, G. Tallents, D. Riley, P. Mistry, D. Neely, J. Smith, and M. Tolley, “Enhanced He-alpha emission from “smoked” Ti targets irradiated with 400 nm, 45 fs laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett. 72, 242–248 (2005).
[Crossref]

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A. V. Ovchinnikov, O. F. Kostenko, O. V. Chefonov, O. N. Rosmej, N. E. Andreev, M. B. Agranat, J. L. Duan, J. Liu, and V. E. Fortov, “Characteristic x-rays generation under the action of femtosecond laser pulses on nano-structured targets,” Laser Part. Beams 29, 249–254 (2011).
[Crossref]

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F. Y. Khattak, R. J. Clarke, E. J. Divall, M. Edwards, P. S. Foster, C. J. Hooker, A. J. Langley, O. A. M. B. du Sert Percie, C. Spindloe, G. Tallents, D. Riley, P. Mistry, D. Neely, J. Smith, and M. Tolley, “Enhanced He-alpha emission from “smoked” Ti targets irradiated with 400 nm, 45 fs laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett. 72, 242–248 (2005).
[Crossref]

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B. Yaakobi, T. R. Boehly, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. J. B. Collins, B. A. Remington, P. G. Allen, S. M. Pollaine, H. E. Lorenzana, and J. H. Eggert, “EXAFS measurement of iron bcc-to-hcp phase transformation in nanosecond-laser shocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

Emig, J.

F. Pérez, J. J. Kay, J. R. Patterson, J. Kane, B. Villette, F. Girard, C. Reverdin, M. May, J. Emig, C. Sorce, J. Colvin, S. Gammon, J. Jaquez, J. H. Satcher, and K. B. Fournier, “Efficient laser-induced 6–8  keV x-ray production from iron oxide aerogel and foil-lined cavity targets,” Phys. Plasmas 19, 083101 (2012).
[Crossref]

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F. J. Marshall, P. W. McKenty, J. A. Delettrez, R. Epstein, J. P. Knauer, V. A. Smalyuk, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, and R. C. Mancini, “Plasma-density determination from x-ray radiography of laser-driven spherical implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 185004 (2009).
[Crossref]

Falcone, R. W.

S. P. Gordon, T. Donnelly, A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, and R. W. Falcone, “X rays from microstructured targets heated by femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 484–486 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. P. Gordon, J. Bokor, E. N. Glytsis, and R. W. Falcone, “Efficient coupling of high-intensity subpicosecond laser pulses into solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1068–1070 (1993).
[Crossref]

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J. E. Bailey, T. Nagayama, G. P. Loisel, G. A. Rochau, C. Blancard, J. Colgan, P. Cosse, G. Faussurier, C. J. Fontes, F. Gilleron, I. Golovkin, S. B. Hansen, C. A. Iglesias, D. P. Kilcrease, J. J. Macfarlane, R. C. Mancini, S. N. Nahar, C. Orban, J. Pain, A. K. Pradhan, M. Sherrill, and B. G. Wilson, “A higher-than-predicted measurement of iron opacity at solar interior temperatures,” Nature 517, 56–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Babonneau, M. Primout, F. Girard, J. P. Jadaud, M. Naudy, B. Villette, S. Depierreux, C. Blancard, G. Faussurier, K. B. Fournier, L. Suter, R. Kauffman, S. Glenzer, M. C. Miller, J. Grün, and J. Davis, “Efficient multi-keV x-ray sources from laser-exploded metallic thin foils,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 092702 (2008).
[Crossref]

Feldman, U.

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, and C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fontes, C. J.

J. E. Bailey, T. Nagayama, G. P. Loisel, G. A. Rochau, C. Blancard, J. Colgan, P. Cosse, G. Faussurier, C. J. Fontes, F. Gilleron, I. Golovkin, S. B. Hansen, C. A. Iglesias, D. P. Kilcrease, J. J. Macfarlane, R. C. Mancini, S. N. Nahar, C. Orban, J. Pain, A. K. Pradhan, M. Sherrill, and B. G. Wilson, “A higher-than-predicted measurement of iron opacity at solar interior temperatures,” Nature 517, 56–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fortov, V. E.

A. V. Ovchinnikov, O. F. Kostenko, O. V. Chefonov, O. N. Rosmej, N. E. Andreev, M. B. Agranat, J. L. Duan, J. Liu, and V. E. Fortov, “Characteristic x-rays generation under the action of femtosecond laser pulses on nano-structured targets,” Laser Part. Beams 29, 249–254 (2011).
[Crossref]

Foster, P. S.

F. Y. Khattak, R. J. Clarke, E. J. Divall, M. Edwards, P. S. Foster, C. J. Hooker, A. J. Langley, O. A. M. B. du Sert Percie, C. Spindloe, G. Tallents, D. Riley, P. Mistry, D. Neely, J. Smith, and M. Tolley, “Enhanced He-alpha emission from “smoked” Ti targets irradiated with 400 nm, 45 fs laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett. 72, 242–248 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fournier, K. B.

M. J. May, Y. P. Opachich, G. E. Kemp, J. D. Colvin, M. A. Barrios, K. W. Widmann, K. B. Fournier, M. Hohenberger, F. Albert, and S. P. Regan, “Demonstration of a long pulse x-ray source at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 24, 042701 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Pérez, J. J. Kay, J. R. Patterson, J. Kane, B. Villette, F. Girard, C. Reverdin, M. May, J. Emig, C. Sorce, J. Colvin, S. Gammon, J. Jaquez, J. H. Satcher, and K. B. Fournier, “Efficient laser-induced 6–8  keV x-ray production from iron oxide aerogel and foil-lined cavity targets,” Phys. Plasmas 19, 083101 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Babonneau, M. Primout, F. Girard, J. P. Jadaud, M. Naudy, B. Villette, S. Depierreux, C. Blancard, G. Faussurier, K. B. Fournier, L. Suter, R. Kauffman, S. Glenzer, M. C. Miller, J. Grün, and J. Davis, “Efficient multi-keV x-ray sources from laser-exploded metallic thin foils,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 092702 (2008).
[Crossref]

Frenje, J. A.

F. J. Marshall, P. W. McKenty, J. A. Delettrez, R. Epstein, J. P. Knauer, V. A. Smalyuk, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, and R. C. Mancini, “Plasma-density determination from x-ray radiography of laser-driven spherical implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 185004 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gammon, S.

F. Pérez, J. J. Kay, J. R. Patterson, J. Kane, B. Villette, F. Girard, C. Reverdin, M. May, J. Emig, C. Sorce, J. Colvin, S. Gammon, J. Jaquez, J. H. Satcher, and K. B. Fournier, “Efficient laser-induced 6–8  keV x-ray production from iron oxide aerogel and foil-lined cavity targets,” Phys. Plasmas 19, 083101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gilleron, F.

J. E. Bailey, T. Nagayama, G. P. Loisel, G. A. Rochau, C. Blancard, J. Colgan, P. Cosse, G. Faussurier, C. J. Fontes, F. Gilleron, I. Golovkin, S. B. Hansen, C. A. Iglesias, D. P. Kilcrease, J. J. Macfarlane, R. C. Mancini, S. N. Nahar, C. Orban, J. Pain, A. K. Pradhan, M. Sherrill, and B. G. Wilson, “A higher-than-predicted measurement of iron opacity at solar interior temperatures,” Nature 517, 56–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Girard, F.

F. Pérez, J. J. Kay, J. R. Patterson, J. Kane, B. Villette, F. Girard, C. Reverdin, M. May, J. Emig, C. Sorce, J. Colvin, S. Gammon, J. Jaquez, J. H. Satcher, and K. B. Fournier, “Efficient laser-induced 6–8  keV x-ray production from iron oxide aerogel and foil-lined cavity targets,” Phys. Plasmas 19, 083101 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. L. Dewald, M. Rosen, S. H. Glenzer, L. J. Suter, F. Girard, J. P. Jadaud, J. Schein, C. Constantin, F. Wagon, G. Huser, P. Neumayer, and O. L. Landen, “X-ray conversion efficiency of high-Z Hohlraum wall materials for indirect drive ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 072706 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Babonneau, M. Primout, F. Girard, J. P. Jadaud, M. Naudy, B. Villette, S. Depierreux, C. Blancard, G. Faussurier, K. B. Fournier, L. Suter, R. Kauffman, S. Glenzer, M. C. Miller, J. Grün, and J. Davis, “Efficient multi-keV x-ray sources from laser-exploded metallic thin foils,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 092702 (2008).
[Crossref]

Glenzer, S.

D. Babonneau, M. Primout, F. Girard, J. P. Jadaud, M. Naudy, B. Villette, S. Depierreux, C. Blancard, G. Faussurier, K. B. Fournier, L. Suter, R. Kauffman, S. Glenzer, M. C. Miller, J. Grün, and J. Davis, “Efficient multi-keV x-ray sources from laser-exploded metallic thin foils,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 092702 (2008).
[Crossref]

Glenzer, S. H.

E. L. Dewald, M. Rosen, S. H. Glenzer, L. J. Suter, F. Girard, J. P. Jadaud, J. Schein, C. Constantin, F. Wagon, G. Huser, P. Neumayer, and O. L. Landen, “X-ray conversion efficiency of high-Z Hohlraum wall materials for indirect drive ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 072706 (2008).
[Crossref]

Glytsis, E. N.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. P. Gordon, J. Bokor, E. N. Glytsis, and R. W. Falcone, “Efficient coupling of high-intensity subpicosecond laser pulses into solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1068–1070 (1993).
[Crossref]

Golovkin, I.

J. E. Bailey, T. Nagayama, G. P. Loisel, G. A. Rochau, C. Blancard, J. Colgan, P. Cosse, G. Faussurier, C. J. Fontes, F. Gilleron, I. Golovkin, S. B. Hansen, C. A. Iglesias, D. P. Kilcrease, J. J. Macfarlane, R. C. Mancini, S. N. Nahar, C. Orban, J. Pain, A. K. Pradhan, M. Sherrill, and B. G. Wilson, “A higher-than-predicted measurement of iron opacity at solar interior temperatures,” Nature 517, 56–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gordon, S. P.

S. P. Gordon, T. Donnelly, A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, and R. W. Falcone, “X rays from microstructured targets heated by femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 484–486 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. P. Gordon, J. Bokor, E. N. Glytsis, and R. W. Falcone, “Efficient coupling of high-intensity subpicosecond laser pulses into solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1068–1070 (1993).
[Crossref]

Gronsky, R.

A. L. Prieto, M. Martín-González, J. Keyani, R. Gronsky, T. Sands, and A. M. Stacy, “The electrodeposition of high-density, ordered arrays of Bi1-xSbx nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 2388–2389 (2003).
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C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, and C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003 (2001).
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F. J. Marshall, P. W. McKenty, J. A. Delettrez, R. Epstein, J. P. Knauer, V. A. Smalyuk, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, and R. C. Mancini, “Plasma-density determination from x-ray radiography of laser-driven spherical implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 185004 (2009).
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C. M. Huntington, C. M. Krauland, C. C. Kuranz, R. P. Drake, H. S. Park, D. H. Kalantar, B. R. Maddox, B. A. Remington, and J. Kline, “Development of a short duration backlit pinhole for radiography on the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E536 (2010).
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J. E. Bailey, T. Nagayama, G. P. Loisel, G. A. Rochau, C. Blancard, J. Colgan, P. Cosse, G. Faussurier, C. J. Fontes, F. Gilleron, I. Golovkin, S. B. Hansen, C. A. Iglesias, D. P. Kilcrease, J. J. Macfarlane, R. C. Mancini, S. N. Nahar, C. Orban, J. Pain, A. K. Pradhan, M. Sherrill, and B. G. Wilson, “A higher-than-predicted measurement of iron opacity at solar interior temperatures,” Nature 517, 56–59 (2015).
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G. Kulcsar, D. AlMawlawi, F. Budnik, P. Herman, M. Moskovits, L. Zhao, and R. Marjoribanks, “Intense picosecond x-ray pulses from laser plasmas by use of nanostructured ‘Velvet’ targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5149–5152 (2000).
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M. J. May, Y. P. Opachich, G. E. Kemp, J. D. Colvin, M. A. Barrios, K. W. Widmann, K. B. Fournier, M. Hohenberger, F. Albert, and S. P. Regan, “Demonstration of a long pulse x-ray source at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 24, 042701 (2017).
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Smith, J.

F. Y. Khattak, R. J. Clarke, E. J. Divall, M. Edwards, P. S. Foster, C. J. Hooker, A. J. Langley, O. A. M. B. du Sert Percie, C. Spindloe, G. Tallents, D. Riley, P. Mistry, D. Neely, J. Smith, and M. Tolley, “Enhanced He-alpha emission from “smoked” Ti targets irradiated with 400 nm, 45 fs laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett. 72, 242–248 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. L. H. Brown, D. M. Leitner, C. Tóth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. Horn Von Hoegen, D. von Der Linde, and M. Kammler, “Anharmonic lattice dynamics in germanium measured with ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 586–589 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sorce, C.

F. Pérez, J. J. Kay, J. R. Patterson, J. Kane, B. Villette, F. Girard, C. Reverdin, M. May, J. Emig, C. Sorce, J. Colvin, S. Gammon, J. Jaquez, J. H. Satcher, and K. B. Fournier, “Efficient laser-induced 6–8  keV x-ray production from iron oxide aerogel and foil-lined cavity targets,” Phys. Plasmas 19, 083101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Spindloe, C.

F. Y. Khattak, R. J. Clarke, E. J. Divall, M. Edwards, P. S. Foster, C. J. Hooker, A. J. Langley, O. A. M. B. du Sert Percie, C. Spindloe, G. Tallents, D. Riley, P. Mistry, D. Neely, J. Smith, and M. Tolley, “Enhanced He-alpha emission from “smoked” Ti targets irradiated with 400 nm, 45 fs laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett. 72, 242–248 (2005).
[Crossref]

Squier, J. A.

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. L. H. Brown, D. M. Leitner, C. Tóth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. Horn Von Hoegen, D. von Der Linde, and M. Kammler, “Anharmonic lattice dynamics in germanium measured with ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 586–589 (2000).
[Crossref]

Stacy, A. M.

A. L. Prieto, M. Martín-González, J. Keyani, R. Gronsky, T. Sands, and A. M. Stacy, “The electrodeposition of high-density, ordered arrays of Bi1-xSbx nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 2388–2389 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, A.

Sumeruk, H. A.

H. A. Sumeruk, S. Kneip, D. R. Symes, I. V. Churina, A. V. Belolipetski, T. D. Donnelly, and T. Ditmire, “Control of strong-laser-field coupling to electrons in solid targets with wavelength-scale spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 45001 (2007).
[Crossref]

Suter, L.

D. Babonneau, M. Primout, F. Girard, J. P. Jadaud, M. Naudy, B. Villette, S. Depierreux, C. Blancard, G. Faussurier, K. B. Fournier, L. Suter, R. Kauffman, S. Glenzer, M. C. Miller, J. Grün, and J. Davis, “Efficient multi-keV x-ray sources from laser-exploded metallic thin foils,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 092702 (2008).
[Crossref]

Suter, L. J.

E. L. Dewald, M. Rosen, S. H. Glenzer, L. J. Suter, F. Girard, J. P. Jadaud, J. Schein, C. Constantin, F. Wagon, G. Huser, P. Neumayer, and O. L. Landen, “X-ray conversion efficiency of high-Z Hohlraum wall materials for indirect drive ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 072706 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, and C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003 (2001).
[Crossref]

Symes, D. R.

H. A. Sumeruk, S. Kneip, D. R. Symes, I. V. Churina, A. V. Belolipetski, T. D. Donnelly, and T. Ditmire, “Control of strong-laser-field coupling to electrons in solid targets with wavelength-scale spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 45001 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tallents, G.

F. Y. Khattak, R. J. Clarke, E. J. Divall, M. Edwards, P. S. Foster, C. J. Hooker, A. J. Langley, O. A. M. B. du Sert Percie, C. Spindloe, G. Tallents, D. Riley, P. Mistry, D. Neely, J. Smith, and M. Tolley, “Enhanced He-alpha emission from “smoked” Ti targets irradiated with 400 nm, 45 fs laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett. 72, 242–248 (2005).
[Crossref]

Taneja, P.

P. P. Rajeev, P. Taneja, P. Ayyub, A. S. Sandhu, and G. R. Kumar, “Metal nanoplasmas as bright sources of hard x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 115002 (2003).
[Crossref]

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F. Y. Khattak, R. J. Clarke, E. J. Divall, M. Edwards, P. S. Foster, C. J. Hooker, A. J. Langley, O. A. M. B. du Sert Percie, C. Spindloe, G. Tallents, D. Riley, P. Mistry, D. Neely, J. Smith, and M. Tolley, “Enhanced He-alpha emission from “smoked” Ti targets irradiated with 400 nm, 45 fs laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett. 72, 242–248 (2005).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. L. H. Brown, D. M. Leitner, C. Tóth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. Horn Von Hoegen, D. von Der Linde, and M. Kammler, “Anharmonic lattice dynamics in germanium measured with ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 586–589 (2000).
[Crossref]

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T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, K. Oguri, N. Uesugi, M. Nakao, K. Nishio, and H. Masuda, “Nanocylinder-array structure greatly increases the soft x-ray intensity generated from femtosecond-laser-produced plasma,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 185–188 (2001).
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F. Pérez, J. J. Kay, J. R. Patterson, J. Kane, B. Villette, F. Girard, C. Reverdin, M. May, J. Emig, C. Sorce, J. Colvin, S. Gammon, J. Jaquez, J. H. Satcher, and K. B. Fournier, “Efficient laser-induced 6–8  keV x-ray production from iron oxide aerogel and foil-lined cavity targets,” Phys. Plasmas 19, 083101 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Babonneau, M. Primout, F. Girard, J. P. Jadaud, M. Naudy, B. Villette, S. Depierreux, C. Blancard, G. Faussurier, K. B. Fournier, L. Suter, R. Kauffman, S. Glenzer, M. C. Miller, J. Grün, and J. Davis, “Efficient multi-keV x-ray sources from laser-exploded metallic thin foils,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 092702 (2008).
[Crossref]

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A. V. Vinogradov and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Characteristics of a laser plasma x-ray source (review),” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1–14 (1987).
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von Der Linde, D.

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. L. H. Brown, D. M. Leitner, C. Tóth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. Horn Von Hoegen, D. von Der Linde, and M. Kammler, “Anharmonic lattice dynamics in germanium measured with ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 586–589 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wagon, F.

E. L. Dewald, M. Rosen, S. H. Glenzer, L. J. Suter, F. Girard, J. P. Jadaud, J. Schein, C. Constantin, F. Wagon, G. Huser, P. Neumayer, and O. L. Landen, “X-ray conversion efficiency of high-Z Hohlraum wall materials for indirect drive ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 072706 (2008).
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C. Bargsten, R. Hollinger, M. G. Capeluto, V. Kaymak, A. Pukhov, S. Wang, A. Rockwood, Y. Wang, D. Keiss, R. Tommasini, R. London, J. Park, M. Busquet, M. Klapisch, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, “Energy penetration into arrays of aligned nanowires irradiated with relativistic intensities: scaling to terabar pressures,” Sci. Adv. 3, 3–11 (2017).
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M. A. Purvis, V. N. Shlyaptsev, R. Hollinger, C. Bargsten, A. Pukhov, A. Prieto, Y. Wang, B. M. Luther, L. Yin, S. Wang, and J. J. Rocca, “Relativistic plasma nanophotonics for ultrahigh energy density physics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 796–800 (2013).
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S. Kahaly, S. K. Yadav, W. M. Wang, S. Sengupta, Z. M. Sheng, A. Das, P. K. Kaw, and G. R. Kumar, “Near-complete absorption of intense, ultrashort laser light by sub- gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 145001 (2008).
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C. Bargsten, R. Hollinger, M. G. Capeluto, V. Kaymak, A. Pukhov, S. Wang, A. Rockwood, Y. Wang, D. Keiss, R. Tommasini, R. London, J. Park, M. Busquet, M. Klapisch, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, “Energy penetration into arrays of aligned nanowires irradiated with relativistic intensities: scaling to terabar pressures,” Sci. Adv. 3, 3–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. A. Purvis, V. N. Shlyaptsev, R. Hollinger, C. Bargsten, A. Pukhov, A. Prieto, Y. Wang, B. M. Luther, L. Yin, S. Wang, and J. J. Rocca, “Relativistic plasma nanophotonics for ultrahigh energy density physics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 796–800 (2013).
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D. H. Martz, D. Alessi, B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, D. Kemp, M. Berrill, and J. J. Rocca, “High-energy 13.9  nm table-top soft-x-ray laser at 2.5 Hz repetition rate excited by a slab-pumped Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1632–1634 (2010).

Widmann, K. W.

M. J. May, Y. P. Opachich, G. E. Kemp, J. D. Colvin, M. A. Barrios, K. W. Widmann, K. B. Fournier, M. Hohenberger, F. Albert, and S. P. Regan, “Demonstration of a long pulse x-ray source at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 24, 042701 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wilson, B. G.

J. E. Bailey, T. Nagayama, G. P. Loisel, G. A. Rochau, C. Blancard, J. Colgan, P. Cosse, G. Faussurier, C. J. Fontes, F. Gilleron, I. Golovkin, S. B. Hansen, C. A. Iglesias, D. P. Kilcrease, J. J. Macfarlane, R. C. Mancini, S. N. Nahar, C. Orban, J. Pain, A. K. Pradhan, M. Sherrill, and B. G. Wilson, “A higher-than-predicted measurement of iron opacity at solar interior temperatures,” Nature 517, 56–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wilson, K. R.

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. L. H. Brown, D. M. Leitner, C. Tóth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. Horn Von Hoegen, D. von Der Linde, and M. Kammler, “Anharmonic lattice dynamics in germanium measured with ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 586–589 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wuest, C.

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, and C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003 (2001).
[Crossref]

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B. Yaakobi, T. R. Boehly, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. J. B. Collins, B. A. Remington, P. G. Allen, S. M. Pollaine, H. E. Lorenzana, and J. H. Eggert, “EXAFS measurement of iron bcc-to-hcp phase transformation in nanosecond-laser shocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

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S. Kahaly, S. K. Yadav, W. M. Wang, S. Sengupta, Z. M. Sheng, A. Das, P. K. Kaw, and G. R. Kumar, “Near-complete absorption of intense, ultrashort laser light by sub- gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 145001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yin, L.

M. A. Purvis, V. N. Shlyaptsev, R. Hollinger, C. Bargsten, A. Pukhov, A. Prieto, Y. Wang, B. M. Luther, L. Yin, S. Wang, and J. J. Rocca, “Relativistic plasma nanophotonics for ultrahigh energy density physics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 796–800 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

G. Kulcsar, D. AlMawlawi, F. Budnik, P. Herman, M. Moskovits, L. Zhao, and R. Marjoribanks, “Intense picosecond x-ray pulses from laser plasmas by use of nanostructured ‘Velvet’ targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5149–5152 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

S. Mondal, I. Chakraborty, S. Ahmad, D. Carvalho, P. Singh, A. D. Lad, V. Narayanan, P. Ayyub, G. R. Kumar, J. Zheng, and Z. M. Sheng, “Highly enhanced hard x-ray emission from oriented metal nanorod arrays excited by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 1–5 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, K. Oguri, N. Uesugi, M. Nakao, K. Nishio, and H. Masuda, “Nanocylinder-array structure greatly increases the soft x-ray intensity generated from femtosecond-laser-produced plasma,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 185–188 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. P. Gordon, J. Bokor, E. N. Glytsis, and R. W. Falcone, “Efficient coupling of high-intensity subpicosecond laser pulses into solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1068–1070 (1993).
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[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

A. L. Prieto, M. Martín-González, J. Keyani, R. Gronsky, T. Sands, and A. M. Stacy, “The electrodeposition of high-density, ordered arrays of Bi1-xSbx nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 2388–2389 (2003).
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A. V. Ovchinnikov, O. F. Kostenko, O. V. Chefonov, O. N. Rosmej, N. E. Andreev, M. B. Agranat, J. L. Duan, J. Liu, and V. E. Fortov, “Characteristic x-rays generation under the action of femtosecond laser pulses on nano-structured targets,” Laser Part. Beams 29, 249–254 (2011).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

M. A. Purvis, V. N. Shlyaptsev, R. Hollinger, C. Bargsten, A. Pukhov, A. Prieto, Y. Wang, B. M. Luther, L. Yin, S. Wang, and J. J. Rocca, “Relativistic plasma nanophotonics for ultrahigh energy density physics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 796–800 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. E. Bailey, T. Nagayama, G. P. Loisel, G. A. Rochau, C. Blancard, J. Colgan, P. Cosse, G. Faussurier, C. J. Fontes, F. Gilleron, I. Golovkin, S. B. Hansen, C. A. Iglesias, D. P. Kilcrease, J. J. Macfarlane, R. C. Mancini, S. N. Nahar, C. Orban, J. Pain, A. K. Pradhan, M. Sherrill, and B. G. Wilson, “A higher-than-predicted measurement of iron opacity at solar interior temperatures,” Nature 517, 56–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Plasmas (4)

M. J. May, Y. P. Opachich, G. E. Kemp, J. D. Colvin, M. A. Barrios, K. W. Widmann, K. B. Fournier, M. Hohenberger, F. Albert, and S. P. Regan, “Demonstration of a long pulse x-ray source at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 24, 042701 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Pérez, J. J. Kay, J. R. Patterson, J. Kane, B. Villette, F. Girard, C. Reverdin, M. May, J. Emig, C. Sorce, J. Colvin, S. Gammon, J. Jaquez, J. H. Satcher, and K. B. Fournier, “Efficient laser-induced 6–8  keV x-ray production from iron oxide aerogel and foil-lined cavity targets,” Phys. Plasmas 19, 083101 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. L. Dewald, M. Rosen, S. H. Glenzer, L. J. Suter, F. Girard, J. P. Jadaud, J. Schein, C. Constantin, F. Wagon, G. Huser, P. Neumayer, and O. L. Landen, “X-ray conversion efficiency of high-Z Hohlraum wall materials for indirect drive ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 072706 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Babonneau, M. Primout, F. Girard, J. P. Jadaud, M. Naudy, B. Villette, S. Depierreux, C. Blancard, G. Faussurier, K. B. Fournier, L. Suter, R. Kauffman, S. Glenzer, M. C. Miller, J. Grün, and J. Davis, “Efficient multi-keV x-ray sources from laser-exploded metallic thin foils,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 092702 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Mondal, I. Chakraborty, S. Ahmad, D. Carvalho, P. Singh, A. D. Lad, V. Narayanan, P. Ayyub, G. R. Kumar, J. Zheng, and Z. M. Sheng, “Highly enhanced hard x-ray emission from oriented metal nanorod arrays excited by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 1–5 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

F. J. Marshall, P. W. McKenty, J. A. Delettrez, R. Epstein, J. P. Knauer, V. A. Smalyuk, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, and R. C. Mancini, “Plasma-density determination from x-ray radiography of laser-driven spherical implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 185004 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Kulcsar, D. AlMawlawi, F. Budnik, P. Herman, M. Moskovits, L. Zhao, and R. Marjoribanks, “Intense picosecond x-ray pulses from laser plasmas by use of nanostructured ‘Velvet’ targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5149–5152 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Kahaly, S. K. Yadav, W. M. Wang, S. Sengupta, Z. M. Sheng, A. Das, P. K. Kaw, and G. R. Kumar, “Near-complete absorption of intense, ultrashort laser light by sub- gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 145001 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. P. Rajeev, P. Taneja, P. Ayyub, A. S. Sandhu, and G. R. Kumar, “Metal nanoplasmas as bright sources of hard x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 115002 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. A. Sumeruk, S. Kneip, D. R. Symes, I. V. Churina, A. V. Belolipetski, T. D. Donnelly, and T. Ditmire, “Control of strong-laser-field coupling to electrons in solid targets with wavelength-scale spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 45001 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. A. Back, J. Grun, C. Decker, L. J. Suter, J. Davis, O. L. Landen, R. Wallace, W. W. Hsing, J. M. Laming, U. Feldman, M. C. Miller, and C. Wuest, “Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 275003 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Yaakobi, T. R. Boehly, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. J. B. Collins, B. A. Remington, P. G. Allen, S. M. Pollaine, H. E. Lorenzana, and J. H. Eggert, “EXAFS measurement of iron bcc-to-hcp phase transformation in nanosecond-laser shocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. L. H. Brown, D. M. Leitner, C. Tóth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. Horn Von Hoegen, D. von Der Linde, and M. Kammler, “Anharmonic lattice dynamics in germanium measured with ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 586–589 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. M. Huntington, C. M. Krauland, C. C. Kuranz, R. P. Drake, H. S. Park, D. H. Kalantar, B. R. Maddox, B. A. Remington, and J. Kline, “Development of a short duration backlit pinhole for radiography on the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E536 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sci. Adv. (1)

C. Bargsten, R. Hollinger, M. G. Capeluto, V. Kaymak, A. Pukhov, S. Wang, A. Rockwood, Y. Wang, D. Keiss, R. Tommasini, R. London, J. Park, M. Busquet, M. Klapisch, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, “Energy penetration into arrays of aligned nanowires irradiated with relativistic intensities: scaling to terabar pressures,” Sci. Adv. 3, 3–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. V. Vinogradov and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Characteristics of a laser plasma x-ray source (review),” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1–14 (1987).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a)–(c) PIC simulation of the electron temperature distribution in a 55 nm diameter Au nanowire array irradiated by a λ=400  nm laser pulse of 55 fs duration at an intensity of 4×1019  Wcm2 at three different times after the laser pulse. (d)–(f) show the corresponding electron density maps.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Computed evolution of the x-ray radiation power for (a) a Au flat target and (b) a Au nanowire target, both irradiated at an intensity of 4×1019  Wcm2 with a 55 fs FWHM pulse. The array of nanowires is assumed to be composed of 55 nm diameter wires with an average density of 12% solid. Time is measured with respect to the peak of the laser pulse, and the distance is in the direction normal to the target surface.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of radiative and hydrodynamic cooling times as a function of electron temperature for two different Au plasmas with characteristics corresponding to the x-ray emitting region of (a) a flat solid target, ne=6×1022  cm3, plasma size L=0.2  μm, and (b) a nanowire array plasma ne=4×1023  cm3 and plasma size L=4  μm. The total radiation time is the effective radiative cooling time computed from the photorecombination, bremsstrahlung, and line radiation rates.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured angular distribution of the x-ray fluence on each diode from nanowire arrays at photon energies >1  keV for (a) Au and (b) Ni nanowire targets of different nanowire diameters. Measurements for flat solid targets of the same materials are included for comparison. The irradiation intensity was 4×1019  Wcm2. Error bars correspond to 1 standard deviation. Fluctuations in x-ray CE result mostly from irregularities and imperfections in the ordered wire array. The angle is measured with respect to the normal to the target surface.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) x-ray CE (hν>1  keV) for Au and Ni nanowire arrays of different wire diameters compared to flat solid targets of the same material. I=4×1019  Wcm2. The values are averages of 10 shots. Error bars correspond to 1 standard deviation. The maximum measured single shot CE for 80 nm diameter wires exceeded 22% in 4π sr, which is represented by the point without an error bar. This yield corresponds to an increase of 35× with respect to a polished flat target; (b) CE into hν>6  keV x-rays. An enhancement of 14× in x-ray emission is observed compared to flat targets.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Single shot radiograph of a wasp’s knee using the x-ray flash emitted from (a) a flat Ni target, and (b) an array of 100 nm Ni nanowires. A 13 μm Be filter was used to block photons of hν<1  keV. The sample was placed at 4 cm from the plasma, and a CCD array was placed at a distance of 35 cm from the sample, leading to an effective magnification of 8.75× with a field of view of 425 μm. Both images are plotted on the same intensity scale. The laser energy on target was 25 mJ.

Equations (1)

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τrad1σνne<ΔLCsτhydro.