Abstract

Hybrid integration of plasmonics and Si photonics is a promising architecture for global microprocessor interconnects. To this end, practical plasmonic devices should provide not only athermal, broadband operation over a wavelength-scale footprint, but also support non-intrusive integration with low-loss Si waveguides as well as CMOS back-end-of-line processes. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid plasmonic photodetector with a single active junction fabricated via back-end deposited amorphous materials coupled to Si nanowires with only 1.5 dB loss. Utilizing internal photoemission, our detectors measured sensitivity of 35  dBm in a 620 nm by 5 μm footprint at 7 V bias. Moreover, responsivity up to 0.4 mA/W and dark current down to 0.2 nA were obtained. The high process tolerance is demonstrated between λ=1.21.8  μm and up to 100°C. The results suggest the potential toward plasmonic–photonic optoelectronic integration on top of Si chips without costly process modifications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

2015 (1)

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y. Chen, K. Asanovic, R. Ram, M. Popovic, and V. Stojanovic, Nature 528, 534 (2015).

2014 (1)

2013 (4)

L. Haret, X. Checoury, F. Bayle, N. Cazier, P. Boucaud, S. Combrié, and A. de Rossi, Opt. Express 21, 10324 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Casalino, M. Iodice, L. Sirleto, I. Rendina, and G. Coppola, Opt. Express 21, 28072 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Liu, Y. C. Chang, T. B. Norris, and Z. Zhong, Nat. Nano. 9, 273 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Akbari, A. Olivieri, and P. Berini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4600209 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2008 (2)

S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081103 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. Maassen, A. Yelon, and L. A. Hamel, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 4779 (2007).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

D. Bapat and K. Narasimhan, Philos. Mag. B 56(1), 71 (1987).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

S. Sze, D. Coleman, and A. Loya, Solid State Electron. 14, 1209 (1971).
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Aitchison, J. S.

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A. Akbari, A. Olivieri, and P. Berini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4600209 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Akbari, R. Tait, and P. Berini, Opt. Express 18, 8505 (2010).
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Alam, M. Z.

M. Z. Alam, J. Meier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics Laser Science Conference (QELS) (2007), paper JThD112.

Alloatti, L.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y. Chen, K. Asanovic, R. Ram, M. Popovic, and V. Stojanovic, Nature 528, 534 (2015).

Asanovic, K.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y. Chen, K. Asanovic, R. Ram, M. Popovic, and V. Stojanovic, Nature 528, 534 (2015).

Atabaki, A.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y. Chen, K. Asanovic, R. Ram, M. Popovic, and V. Stojanovic, Nature 528, 534 (2015).

Avizienis, R.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y. Chen, K. Asanovic, R. Ram, M. Popovic, and V. Stojanovic, Nature 528, 534 (2015).

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C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. S. Orcutt, B. R. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. C. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. A. Popovic, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanovic, in Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (2014).

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D. Bapat and K. Narasimhan, Philos. Mag. B 56(1), 71 (1987).
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Bayle, F.

Berini, P.

A. Akbari, A. Olivieri, and P. Berini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4600209 (2013).
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A. Akbari, R. Tait, and P. Berini, Opt. Express 18, 8505 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boucaud, P.

Casalino, M.

Cazier, N.

Chang, Y. C.

C. H. Liu, Y. C. Chang, T. B. Norris, and Z. Zhong, Nat. Nano. 9, 273 (2013).
[Crossref]

Checoury, X.

Chen, Y.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y. Chen, K. Asanovic, R. Ram, M. Popovic, and V. Stojanovic, Nature 528, 534 (2015).

Chen, Y. H.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. S. Orcutt, B. R. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. C. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. A. Popovic, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanovic, in Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (2014).

Chong, J.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. S. Orcutt, B. R. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. C. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. A. Popovic, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanovic, in Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (2014).

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S. Sze, D. Coleman, and A. Loya, Solid State Electron. 14, 1209 (1971).
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Combrié, S.

Cook, H.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y. Chen, K. Asanovic, R. Ram, M. Popovic, and V. Stojanovic, Nature 528, 534 (2015).

Coppola, G.

de Rossi, A.

Desiatov, B.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, Plasmonics: Theory and Applications (Springer, 2014), pp. 149–166.

Fedoryshyn, Y.

Freude, W.

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[Crossref]

Georgas, M.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y. Chen, K. Asanovic, R. Ram, M. Popovic, and V. Stojanovic, Nature 528, 534 (2015).

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. S. Orcutt, B. R. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. C. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. A. Popovic, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanovic, in Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (2014).

Gioffrè, M.

Goykhman, I.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, Plasmonics: Theory and Applications (Springer, 2014), pp. 149–166.

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J. Maassen, A. Yelon, and L. A. Hamel, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 4779 (2007).
[Crossref]

Haret, L.

Harter, T.

Helmy, A.

Iodice, M.

Jakobs, P.

Kohl, M.

Kohnle, K.

Koos, C.

Kumar, R.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y. Chen, K. Asanovic, R. Ram, M. Popovic, and V. Stojanovic, Nature 528, 534 (2015).

Kwong, D.

S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y. Chen, K. Asanovic, R. Ram, M. Popovic, and V. Stojanovic, Nature 528, 534 (2015).

Leu, J.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y. Chen, K. Asanovic, R. Ram, M. Popovic, and V. Stojanovic, Nature 528, 534 (2015).

Leu, J. C.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. S. Orcutt, B. R. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. C. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. A. Popovic, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanovic, in Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (2014).

Leuthold, J.

Levy, U.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, Plasmonics: Theory and Applications (Springer, 2014), pp. 149–166.

Lin, S.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y. Chen, K. Asanovic, R. Ram, M. Popovic, and V. Stojanovic, Nature 528, 534 (2015).

Liu, C. H.

C. H. Liu, Y. C. Chang, T. B. Norris, and Z. Zhong, Nat. Nano. 9, 273 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.

S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Loya, A.

S. Sze, D. Coleman, and A. Loya, Solid State Electron. 14, 1209 (1971).
[Crossref]

Ma, W.

Maassen, J.

J. Maassen, A. Yelon, and L. A. Hamel, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 4779 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meade, R.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. S. Orcutt, B. R. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. C. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. A. Popovic, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanovic, in Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (2014).

Mehta, K.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. S. Orcutt, B. R. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. C. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. A. Popovic, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanovic, in Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (2014).

Meier, J.

M. Z. Alam, J. Meier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics Laser Science Conference (QELS) (2007), paper JThD112.

Melikyan, A.

Miller, D.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. S. Orcutt, B. R. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. C. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. A. Popovic, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanovic, in Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (2014).

Mojahedi, M.

M. Z. Alam, J. Meier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics Laser Science Conference (QELS) (2007), paper JThD112.

Moretti, L.

Moss, B.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y. Chen, K. Asanovic, R. Ram, M. Popovic, and V. Stojanovic, Nature 528, 534 (2015).

Moss, B. R.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. S. Orcutt, B. R. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. C. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. A. Popovic, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanovic, in Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (2014).

Muehlbrandt, S.

Muslija, A.

Nammari, K.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. S. Orcutt, B. R. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. C. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. A. Popovic, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanovic, in Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (2014).

Narasimhan, K.

D. Bapat and K. Narasimhan, Philos. Mag. B 56(1), 71 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ng, K. K.

S. Sze and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2006).

Norris, T. B.

C. H. Liu, Y. C. Chang, T. B. Norris, and Z. Zhong, Nat. Nano. 9, 273 (2013).
[Crossref]

Olivieri, A.

A. Akbari, A. Olivieri, and P. Berini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4600209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Orcutt, J. S.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y. Chen, K. Asanovic, R. Ram, M. Popovic, and V. Stojanovic, Nature 528, 534 (2015).

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. S. Orcutt, B. R. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. C. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. A. Popovic, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanovic, in Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (2014).

Ou, A.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y. Chen, K. Asanovic, R. Ram, M. Popovic, and V. Stojanovic, Nature 528, 534 (2015).

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pavanello, F.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y. Chen, K. Asanovic, R. Ram, M. Popovic, and V. Stojanovic, Nature 528, 534 (2015).

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[Crossref]

Popovic, M.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y. Chen, K. Asanovic, R. Ram, M. Popovic, and V. Stojanovic, Nature 528, 534 (2015).

Popovic, M. A.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. S. Orcutt, B. R. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. C. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. A. Popovic, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanovic, in Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (2014).

Radamson, H.

H. Radamson and L. Thylén, Monolithic Nanoscale Photonics-Electronics Integration in Silicon and Other Group IV Elements (Elsevier, 2014).

Ram, R.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y. Chen, K. Asanovic, R. Ram, M. Popovic, and V. Stojanovic, Nature 528, 534 (2015).

Ram, R. J.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. S. Orcutt, B. R. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. C. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. A. Popovic, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanovic, in Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (2014).

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Analysis of the asymmetric hybrid plasmonic waveguide; detector modeling; suppl. experimental results: series resistance, sensitivity, current variations, parasitics; comparison of our device against other internal photoemission devices in literature

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the AHPW and field profile of its symmetric supermode. Light is primarily confined at the α Si–Al interface, leading to enhanced light–matter interaction for IPE at the α Si–Al interface. (b) Waveguide absorption as a function of waveguide width and wavelength. The waveguide platform is versatile as it is capable of supporting low insertion loss (width of 200 nm) as well as significant absorption (width of 620 nm) under the same fabrication process. (c) Direct endfire excitation of the AHPW via TM-polarized light from a Si nanowire with 220 nm thickness and 800 nm width with a coupling loss of only 1.5 dB.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic and (b) SEM of the AHPW photodetector. The layer thicknesses are indicated in Fig. 1(a). A 500-nm-long taper is utilized to link between the AHPW coupler and photodetector sections, which have widths of 200 and 620 nm, respectively. The cut-through view of contact fingers shows two reverse-biased Schottky junctions in MSM configuration separated by the α Si layer. Micrometer-sized collector contacts are deposited on fingers extending away from the AHPW core to minimize scattering of the optical mode.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Energy band diagram for an active MSM junction with α Si gap (Ls) of 185 nm when not biased, where ϕBn0=0.54  eV and ϕBp0=0.58  eV are the intrinsic electron and hole barrier heights. (b) Energy band diagram for the same junction when biased at or above flatband voltage (VFB), computed to be 0.3 V for a moderate doping concentration of 1016  cm3. ΔϕBn and ΔϕBp are the barrier height reductions due to image force lowering effect at V>VFB. Jn and Jp are the dark current density contributions from electron and hole injection, respectively. (c) Computed dark current, responsivity, and (d) minimum sensitivity for a 10-μm-long AHPW photodetector with 90% absorption. See Supplement 1 for detailed modeling.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured responsivities and (b) dark currents for photodetector lengths of 5–20 μm at room temperature. (c) Measured photocurrents and dark currents for 10-μm-long detectors at 60°C and 100°C, normalized with respect to room temperature. The sensitivity improves with temperature as the increase in photogeneration is more dominant than dark currents. (d) Measured photocurrents as a function of wavelength, normalized to photogeneration at λ=1550  nm and the coupling efficiency from a Si nanowire. The device is tested up to only 1.575 μm due to equipment limitations but is expected to be operational up to 1.8 μm based on simulation. (e) Frequency response measured between 100 MHz and 2.5 GHz fitted to the theoretical RC response, modeled using a 50  Ω load resistance and 8 fF measured capacitance. However, the upper limit in speed of the current generation of devices is expected to be dictated by carrier transit time.