Abstract

Realizing long-distance entanglement swapping with independent sources in the real-world condition is important for both future quantum networks and fundamental study of quantum theory. Currently, entanglement swapping over a few tens of kilometers of underground optical fiber has been achieved. However, future applications demand entanglement swapping over longer distances in more complicated environments. We exploit two independent 1-GHz-clock sequential time-bin entangled photon-pair sources; develop several automatic stability controls; and successfully implement a field test of entanglement swapping over an optical fiber link of more than 100 km, including coiled, underground, and suspended optical fibers. Our result verifies the feasibility of such technologies for long-distance quantum networks and for many interesting quantum information experiments.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, Y.-F. Jiang, Q. Zhao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, L. Li, Y.-D. Huang, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Entanglement swapping with independent sources over an optical-fiber network,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 032306 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10, 671–675 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Valivarthi, M. l. G. Puigibert, Q. Zhou, G. H. Aguilar, V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, S. W. Nam, D. Oblak, and W. Tittel, “Quantum teleportation across a metropolitan fibre network,” Nat. Photonics 10, 676–680 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, B. Wittmann, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 14202–14205 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Takesue, S. D. Dyer, M. J. Stevens, V. Verma, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Quantum teleportation over 100 km of fiber using highly efficient superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Optica 2, 832–835 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dreau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

R. M. Stevenson, J. Nilsson, A. J. Bennett, J. Skiba-Szymanska, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum teleportation of laser-generated photons with an entangled-light-emitting diode,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2859 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

X.-S. Ma, S. Zotter, J. Kofler, R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, C. Brukner, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental delayed-choice entanglement swapping,” Nat. Phys. 8, 479–484 (2012).

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

C. Branciard, N. Gisin, and S. Pironio, “Characterizing the nonlocal correlations created via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 170401 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

R. Kaltenbaek, R. Prevedel, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “High-fidelity entanglement swapping with fully independent sources,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 040302 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Takesue and B. Miquel, “Entanglement swapping using telecom-band photons generated in fibers,” Opt. Express 17, 10748–10756 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

M. Halder, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, C. Simon, and H. Zbinden, “Entangling independent photons by time measurement,” Nat. Phys. 3, 692–695 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

T. Yang, Q. Zhang, T. Y. Chen, S. Lu, J. Yin, J. W. Pan, Z. Y. Wei, J. R. Tian, and J. Zhang, “Experimental synchronization of independent entangled photon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 110501 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Kaltenbaek, B. Blauensteiner, M. Zukowski, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental interference of independent photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 240502 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “1.5-μm band quantum-correlated photon pair generation in dispersion-shifted fiber: suppression of noise photons by cooling fiber,” Opt. Express 13, 7832–7839 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs and violation of Bell’s inequality using spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber loop,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 031802 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. De Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 050304 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, “Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047904 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

E. Waks, A. Zeevi, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 052310 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. Jacobs, T. Pittman, and J. Franson, “Quantum relays and noise suppression using linear optics,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 052307 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414, 413–418 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. Peres, “Delayed choice for entanglement swapping,” J. Mod. Opt 47, 139–143 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

J.-W. Pan, D. Bouwmeester, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental entanglement swapping: entangling photons that never interacted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3891–3894 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. J. Briegel, W. Dur, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932–5935 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, and H. Mabuchi, “Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3221–3224 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. Peres, “Separability criterion for density matrices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1413–1415 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. Żukowski, A. Zeilinger, M. Horne, and A. Ekert, ““Event-ready-detectors” Bell experiment via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4287–4290 (1993).
[Crossref]

Abellan, C.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dreau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aguilar, G. H.

R. Valivarthi, M. l. G. Puigibert, Q. Zhou, G. H. Aguilar, V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, S. W. Nam, D. Oblak, and W. Tittel, “Quantum teleportation across a metropolitan fibre network,” Nat. Photonics 10, 676–680 (2016).
[Crossref]

Amaya, W.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dreau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref]

Anisimova, E.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aspelmeyer, M.

R. Kaltenbaek, R. Prevedel, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “High-fidelity entanglement swapping with fully independent sources,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 040302 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Kaltenbaek, B. Blauensteiner, M. Zukowski, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental interference of independent photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 240502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bennett, A. J.

R. M. Stevenson, J. Nilsson, A. J. Bennett, J. Skiba-Szymanska, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum teleportation of laser-generated photons with an entangled-light-emitting diode,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2859 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bernien, H.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dreau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beveratos, A.

M. Halder, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, C. Simon, and H. Zbinden, “Entangling independent photons by time measurement,” Nat. Phys. 3, 692–695 (2007).
[Crossref]

Blauensteiner, B.

R. Kaltenbaek, B. Blauensteiner, M. Zukowski, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental interference of independent photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 240502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Blok, M. S.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dreau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bouwmeester, D.

J.-W. Pan, D. Bouwmeester, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental entanglement swapping: entangling photons that never interacted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3891–3894 (1998).
[Crossref]

Branciard, C.

C. Branciard, N. Gisin, and S. Pironio, “Characterizing the nonlocal correlations created via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 170401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Briegel, H. J.

H. J. Briegel, W. Dur, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932–5935 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brukner, C.

X.-S. Ma, S. Zotter, J. Kofler, R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, C. Brukner, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental delayed-choice entanglement swapping,” Nat. Phys. 8, 479–484 (2012).

Cai, X.-D.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.-J.

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, Y.-F. Jiang, Q. Zhao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, L. Li, Y.-D. Huang, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Entanglement swapping with independent sources over an optical-fiber network,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 032306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10, 671–675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. Y.

T. Yang, Q. Zhang, T. Y. Chen, S. Lu, J. Yin, J. W. Pan, Z. Y. Wei, J. R. Tian, and J. Zhang, “Experimental synchronization of independent entangled photon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 110501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.-Y.

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, Y.-F. Jiang, Q. Zhao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, L. Li, Y.-D. Huang, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Entanglement swapping with independent sources over an optical-fiber network,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 032306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10, 671–675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.-F.

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, Y.-F. Jiang, Q. Zhao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, L. Li, Y.-D. Huang, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Entanglement swapping with independent sources over an optical-fiber network,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 032306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10, 671–675 (2016).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme of the entanglement swapping experiment. (a) Setup of sequential time-bin entangled photon-pair source. DFB, distributed feedback laser; EOM, electro-optic modulator; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; DWDM, dense wavelength-division multiplexing filter; DSF, dispersion-shifted fiber. (b) Experimental realization. Two sequential time-bin entangled photon-pair sources, S1 and S2, are placed in nodes Alice and Bob, respectively. Each of them keeps the idler photons in coiled fibers and distributes the signal photons to Charlie through a deployed optical fiber. The yellow dashed lines represent the deployed fibers and the circles represent the coiled fibers. The total transmission loss of the 77 km coiled optical fiber is about 16 dB, whereas those of the optical fiber deployed in the Alice–Charlie and Bob–Charlie links are 6 dB and 7 dB, respectively. To synchronize the two sources, Charlie prepares 1 GHz laser pulses (Sync) and sends them to Alice and Bob through the deployed optical fiber (represented by the purple dashed lines) to generate the driven signal for their EOMs. Setup: MZI, unbalanced Mach–Zehnder interferometer; EPC, electronic-controlled polarization controller; FBG, fiber Bragg grating; SNSPD, superconducting nanowire single-photon detector. (c) Setup of synchronization signal generation. Charlie first generates laser pulses with a repetition rate of 500 MHz and then doubles them using an MZI with a path difference of 1 ns. MG, microwave generator; PPG, pulse pattern generator; MWA, microwave amplifier. (d) Setup to generate the driven signal for the EOM in (a). VDL, variable-delay line; PD, photodiode. (e) Satellite image of the experimental nodes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical delay compensation (blue line) and relative delay between the arrival time of photons from Alice and Bob (red line) under different weather conditions. Measured by a TDC with time resolution of 4 ps, the standard deviations of the relative delay in (a), (b), and (c) are 6.7 ps, 6.0 ps, and 6.5 ps, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Two-fold coincidence counts of the sequential time-bin entangled photon pairs distributed by (a) Alice and (b) Bob as functions of the temperature of the MZIs. The measurement results are represented by squares and circles corresponding to Charlie’s MZI at temperatures of 20.425°C and 20.6°C, respectively. The error bars indicate one standard deviation calculated from the measured counts assuming Poissonian detection statistics. The visibility of the fitted sinusoidal curves for the squares (circles) is (89.8±0.6)% [(89.5±1.2)%] and (83.5±1.5)% [(82.3±0.8)%] for (a) and (b), respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Four-fold coincidence count probabilities as functions of the temperature of Alice’s MZI. The error bars indicate one standard deviation calculated from the measured counts assuming Poissonian detection statistics. Each data point is calculated by using 100 four-fold coincidence counts. The visibility of the fitted curve is (74.8±8.7)% and (71.7±7.2)% for the measured results with TB=20.175°C and TB=20°C, respectively.

Equations (1)

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|Γ1,21n{k=0n1e4ikθ2n|tk1i|tk2i(|ϕ+s,k+|ϕs,k)+k=0n2ei(4k+2)θ[12(|tk1i|tk+12i+|tk+11i|tk2i)|Ψ+s,k12(|tk1i|tk+12i|tk+11i|tk2i)|Ψs,k]},