Abstract

Interference between independent single photons is perhaps the most fundamental interaction in quantum optics. It has become increasingly important as a tool for optical quantum information science, as one of the rudimentary quantum operations, together with photon detection, for generating entanglement between non-interacting particles. Despite this, demonstrations of large-scale photonic networks involving more than two independent sources of quantum light have been limited due to the difficulty in constructing large arrays of high-quality, single-photon sources. Here, we solve the key challenge, reporting on a novel array of five near-identical, low-loss, high-purity, heralded single-photon sources using spontaneous four-wave mixing on a silica chip. We verify source quality through a series of heralded Hong–Ou–Mandel (HOM) experiments, and further report the experimental three-photon extension of the HOM interference effect, which maps out for the first time, to our knowledge, the interference landscape between three independent single-photon sources.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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2016 (1)

K. Heshami, D. G. England, P. C. Humphreys, P. J. Bustard, V. M. Acosta, J. Nunn, and B. J. Sussman, “Quantum memories: emerging applications and recent advances,” J. Modern Opt. 63, 2005–2028 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martn-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O. Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349, 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. C. Tichy, “Sampling of partially distinguishable bosons and the relation to the multidimensional permanent,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 022316 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. A. Ngah, O. Alibart, L. Labonté, V. D’Auria, and S. Tanzilli, “Ultra-fast heralded single photon source based on telecom technology,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, L1–L5 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Bentivegna, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, F. Flamini, N. Viggianiello, L. Latmiral, P. Mataloni, D. J. Brod, E. F. Galvão, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and F. Sciarrino, “Experimental scattershot boson sampling,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1400255 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (8)

A. P. Lund, A. Laing, S. Rahimi-Keshari, T. Rudolph, J. L. O’Brien, and T. C. Ralph, “Boson sampling from a Gaussian state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 100502 (2014).
[Crossref]

R.-B. Jin, R. Shimizu, I. Morohashi, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Izumi, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujiwara, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, Z. Wang, and M. Sasaki, “Efficient generation of twin photons at telecom wavelengths with 2.5  GHz repetition rate tunable comb laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7468 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Tichy, “Interference of identical particles from entanglement to boson-sampling,” J. Phys. B 47, 103001 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Tichy, K. Mayer, A. Buchleitner, and K. Mølmer, “Stringent and efficient assessment of boson-sampling devices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 020502 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. C. Harris, D. Grassani, A. Simbula, M. Pant, M. Galli, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, D. Englund, D. Bajoni, and C. Galland, “Integrated source of spectrally filtered correlated photons for large-scale quantum photonic systems,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 1–10 (2014).

T. Meany, L. A. Ngah, M. J. Collins, A. S. Clark, R. J. Williams, B. J. Eggleton, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “Hybrid photonic circuit for multiplexed heralded single photons,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L42–L46 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. J. Metcalf, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Quantum teleportation on a photonic chip,” Nat. Photonics 8, 770–774 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

B. Calkins, P. L. Mennea, A. E. Lita, B. J. Metcalf, W. S. Kolthammer, A. L. Linares, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, R. P. Mirin, J. C. Gates, P. G. R. Smith, I. A. Walmsley, T. Gerrits, and S. W. Nam, “High quantum-efficiency photon-number-resolving detector for photonic on-chip information processing,” Opt. Express 21, 22657–22670 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. J. Metcalf, N. Thomas-Peter, J. B. Spring, D. Kundys, M. A. Broome, P. C. Humphreys, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, N. K. Langford, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Multiphoton quantum interference in a multiport integrated photonic device,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1356 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339, 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, D. J. Brod, E. F. Galvão, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, E. Maiorino, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Integrated multimode interferometers with arbitrary designs for photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 7, 545–549 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, L. Aparo, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Three-photon bosonic coalescence in an integrated tritter,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1606 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. Spring, P. S. Salter, B. J. Metcalf, C. Humphreys, P. M. Moore, N. Thomas-Peter, X.-M. Jin, N. K. Langford, W. S. Kolthammer, M. J. Booth, and I. A. Walmsley, “On-chip low loss heralded source of pure single photons,” Opt. Express 21, 13522–13532 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Ra, M. C. Tichy, H. T. Lim, O. Kwon, F. Mintert, A. Buchleitner, and Y. H. Kim, “Nonmonotonicity in quantum-to-classical transition in multiparticle interference,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 1227–1231 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

M. Lucamarini, G. Vallone, I. Gianani, P. Mataloni, and G. Di Giuseppe, “Device-independent entanglement-based Bennett 1992 protocol,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 032325 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, P. Xu, H. Lu, G.-S. Pan, X.-H. Bao, C.-Z. Peng, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Observation of eight-photon entanglement,” Nat. Photonics 6, 225–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental demonstration of topological error correction,” Nature 482, 489–494 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys. 8, 285–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, “Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 071101 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Lepert, M. Trupke, E. A. Hinds, H. Rogers, J. C. Gates, and P. G. R. Smith, “Demonstration of UV-written waveguides, Bragg gratings and cavities at 780  nm, and an original experimental measurement of group delay,” Opt. Express 19, 24933–24943 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, G. D. Marshall, A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, A. S. Clark, D.-Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, T. Zijlstra, V. Zwiller, M. G. Thompson, J. G. Rarity, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generation of correlated photon pairs in a chalcogenide As2S3 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 051101 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Datta, L. Zhang, N. Thomas-Peter, U. Dorner, B. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Quantum metrology with imperfect states and detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 063836 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. C. Tichy, M. Tiersch, F. De Melo, F. Mintert, and A. Buchleitner, “Zero-transmission law for multiport beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 220405 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Aboussouan, O. Alibart, D. B. Ostrowsky, P. Baldi, and S. Tanzilli, “High-visibility two-photon interference at a telecom wavelength using picosecond-regime separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021801 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

M. Varnava, D. Browne, and T. Rudolph, “How good must single photon sources and detectors be for efficient linear optical quantum computation?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 060502 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

J. H. Shapiro and F. N. Wong, “On-demand single-photon generation using a modular array of parametric downconverters with electro-optic polarization controls,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2698–2700 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Gisin and R. Thew, “Quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 1, 165–171 (2007).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Lu, X.-Q. Zhou, O. Gühne, W.-B. Gao, J. Zhang, Z.-S. Yuan, A. Goebel, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental entanglement of six photons in graph states,” Nat. Phys. 3, 91–95 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

I. A. Walmsley and M. G. Raymer, “Toward quantum-information processing with photons,” Science 307, 1733–1734 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. B. U’Ren, E. Mukamel, K. Banaszek, and I. A. Walmsley, “Managing photons for quantum information processing,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 361, 1493–1506 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. Migdall, D. Branning, and S. Castelletto, “Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053805 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. Zukowski, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Entangling photons radiated by independent pulsed sources,” Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 755, 91–102 (1995).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C. Hong, Z. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044–2046 (1987).
[Crossref]

Aaronson, S.

S. Aaronson and attributed to W. S. Kolthammer, “Scattershot bosonsampling: a new approach to scalable bosonsampling experiments” (2013).

Aboussouan, P.

P. Aboussouan, O. Alibart, D. B. Ostrowsky, P. Baldi, and S. Tanzilli, “High-visibility two-photon interference at a telecom wavelength using picosecond-regime separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Acosta, V. M.

K. Heshami, D. G. England, P. C. Humphreys, P. J. Bustard, V. M. Acosta, J. Nunn, and B. J. Sussman, “Quantum memories: emerging applications and recent advances,” J. Modern Opt. 63, 2005–2028 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alibart, O.

L. A. Ngah, O. Alibart, L. Labonté, V. D’Auria, and S. Tanzilli, “Ultra-fast heralded single photon source based on telecom technology,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, L1–L5 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Meany, L. A. Ngah, M. J. Collins, A. S. Clark, R. J. Williams, B. J. Eggleton, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “Hybrid photonic circuit for multiplexed heralded single photons,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L42–L46 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Aboussouan, O. Alibart, D. B. Ostrowsky, P. Baldi, and S. Tanzilli, “High-visibility two-photon interference at a telecom wavelength using picosecond-regime separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Aparo, L.

N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, L. Aparo, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Three-photon bosonic coalescence in an integrated tritter,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1606 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aspuru-Guzik, A.

A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys. 8, 285–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

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Data contained in the figures are available from https://doi.org/10.5287/bodleian:2NQayR8De .

S. Aaronson and attributed to W. S. Kolthammer, “Scattershot bosonsampling: a new approach to scalable bosonsampling experiments” (2013).

Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Dataset 1       Data contained in the figures are available from Ref. [44].
» Supplement 1: PDF (863 KB)      Supplementary Information

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Array of heralded single-photon sources on a silica photonic chip. A series of straight waveguides are fabricated via UV-laser writing in a germanium-doped silica-on-silicon photonic chip, each of which constitutes its own heralded single-photon source. Spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) is achieved through birefringent phase matching and generates correlated pairs of photons. Each source is pumped using the same pulsed laser centered at 736 nm, and the marginal spectrum of each heralded photon is recorded using a single-photon spectrometer. While 18 sources were fabricated with nearly identical spectra, all quantum interference experiments were performed on a subset of five sources. This was necessary due to constraints imposed by the free-space pump-coupling optics, and was not inherent to the sources themselves. An example output spatial mode of the source and a fiber are shown in the inset with mode diameters of 4.5 ± 0.5    μm and 5.0 ± 0.5    μm , respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Heralded HOM interference experiments. (a) The uniformity of UV-written SFWM sources is first quantified by measuring λ i λ s for 18 different guides on the same chip. The full marginal spectra for each of the 18 idler photons are shown in Fig. 1. The error bars represent the 1 σ widths of each marginal spectrum. The five sources shown in the box are selected for the two-source HOM-interference experiments. (b) Calculated joint spectral amplitude (JSA) for our source. The yellow lines indicate the bandpass filters applied to each photon. This filtering removes residual spectral correlations between signal and idler and thus improves the heralded state purity from 87% to 97%. Importantly, > 92 % of the generated single photons are still transmitted through the filters, which is the basis for our claim that the spectral filters are not narrowband. (c) Results of a series of HOM interference experiments using five waveguides, taking the heralded emission from two sources at a time. Blue bars indicate background subtracted results, while squares show raw visibility results. The maximum expected visibility, V max n = 0.97 , is shown as a dashed line. This upper bound to the visibility is primarily due to the slight angular offset between the two herald photons providing a different bandpass from the shared spectral filters. This is a constraint of our bulk optics and is not intrinsic to the source; using dedicated filters for each individual source would restore V max n > 0.99 . (d) Example of two-source HOM interference data showing the reduction in heralded two-fold coincidences as the optical delay is adjusted.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental interference of three independent heralded photons in a tritter. Top: Theoretical output probabilities P 111 , P 210 , and P 300 for ideal single Fock state inputs as a function of the delays of the impinging photons. Bottom: Measured three-photon interference data. The data constitute over 340,000 six-photon events detected in 10 days, a data rate of 0.41 Hz, using commercial APDs. Three heralded photons are coupled to a 3 × 3 fiber splitter, with the resulting number statistics collected as two delay stages scanned through the point of maximum indistinguishability (plot centers). Pseudo-number resolution is obtained (for N 210 and N 300 ) by relying on additional fiber beam splitters and extra APDs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured and modeled interference visibilities. For all results, τ 1 = 0 and τ 2 is scanned and the magnitude of the visibility is plotted. Our measured results are shown by the blue crosses. The black dashed line represents the modeled visibility for three single photons, including the effects of higher-order pair emission and residual distinguishability. The errors on this model were estimated using a Monte-Carlo method, taking into account the uncertainties in the model parameters. Black solid lines indicate the maximum theoretical visibility for ideal Fock state inputs for which the full interference landscape is plotted in Fig. 3. White circles indicate the maximum visibilities for classical coherent state inputs.

Equations (1)

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U = 1 3 ( 1 1 1 1 e i 2 π / 3 e i 4 π / 3 1 e i 4 π / 3 e i 2 π / 3 ) .

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