Abstract

Attosecond pulses propagating in different directions, generated in a rotating wavefront of a driving laser field, can provide a source of multiple isolated attosecond pulses. Clear spatial separation of the attosecond pulses is attained if the divergence of the individual attosecond pulse is smaller than their angular separation, which is limited by the bandwidth of the driving laser pulse. Here we demonstrate both experimentally and numerically that an additional wavefront rotation is imposed during the propagation of the driving laser pulse in a highly ionizing medium. This dynamic wavefront rotation enables the generation of the isolated attosecond pulse even in the case when the conditions derived from a linear diffraction theory do not permit the angular separation. The described nonlinear phenomenon has its roots in the half-cycle ionization events, and may open up new ways to study strong field processes in highly ionizing media.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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  4. F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. D. Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  12. E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317, 769–775 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  22. C. Zhang, G. Vampa, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond lighthouse driven by sub-two-cycle, 1.8  μm laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 48, 061001 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. T. J. Hammond, K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling attosecond angular streaking with second harmonic radiation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1768–1770 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  24. T. J. Hammond, G. G. Brown, K. T. Kim, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond pulses measured from the attosecond lighthouse,” Nat. Photonics 10, 171–175 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  25. P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  26. T. Auguste, O. Gobert, T. Ruchon, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses in gases: a theoretical and numerical study,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033825 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. Couairon, E. Brambilla, T. Corti, D. Majus, O. de J. Ramírez-Góngora, and M. Kolesik, “Practitioner’s guide to laser pulse propagation models and simulation,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 199, 5–76 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  29. G. L. Yudin and M. Y. Ivanov, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization: looking inside a laser cycle,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013409 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  30. X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4747–4754 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  32. M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B 41, 132001 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  33. V. Tosa, J. S. Lee, H. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond pulses generated by the lighthouse effect in Ar gas,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 051801(R) (2015).
    [Crossref]
  34. J. Higuet, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, R. Cireasa, E. Constant, E. Cormier, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, B. Pons, Y. Mairesse, and B. Fabre, “High-order harmonic spectroscopy of the Cooper minimum in argon: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053401 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

T. J. Hammond, G. G. Brown, K. T. Kim, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond pulses measured from the attosecond lighthouse,” Nat. Photonics 10, 171–175 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Auguste, O. Gobert, T. Ruchon, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses in gases: a theoretical and numerical study,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033825 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, G. Vampa, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond lighthouse driven by sub-two-cycle, 1.8  μm laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 48, 061001 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. J. Hammond, K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling attosecond angular streaking with second harmonic radiation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1768–1770 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Tosa, J. S. Lee, H. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond pulses generated by the lighthouse effect in Ar gas,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 051801(R) (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

F. Quéré, H. Vincenti, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, T. J. Hammond, K. T. Kim, J. A. Wheeler, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, J. F. Hergott, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Applications of ultrafast wavefront rotation in highly nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. B 47, 124004 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. M. Heyl, S. N. Bengtsson, S. Carlström, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Noncollinear optical gating,” New J. Phys. 16, 052001 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. D. Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8, 178–186 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photonics 7, 651–656 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. A. Wheeler, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, H. Vincenti, A. Ricci, A. Malvache, R. Lopez-Martens, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses from plasma mirrors,” Nat. Photonics 6, 829–833 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Vincenti and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses: how to use spatiotemporally coupled light fields to generate isolated attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113904 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. Higuet, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, R. Cireasa, E. Constant, E. Cormier, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, B. Pons, Y. Mairesse, and B. Fabre, “High-order harmonic spectroscopy of the Cooper minimum in argon: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053401 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon, E. Brambilla, T. Corti, D. Majus, O. de J. Ramírez-Góngora, and M. Kolesik, “Practitioner’s guide to laser pulse propagation models and simulation,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 199, 5–76 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B 41, 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317, 769–775 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Remacle and R. D. Levine, “An electronic time scale in chemistry,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6793–6798 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

G. L. Yudin and M. Y. Ivanov, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization: looking inside a laser cycle,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013409 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4747–4754 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

M. Y. Kuchiev, “Atomic antenna,” Sov. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 45, 404–406 (1987).

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Anumula, S.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. D. Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
[Crossref]

Apolonski, A.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317, 769–775 (2007).
[Crossref]

Arnold, C. L.

C. M. Heyl, S. N. Bengtsson, S. Carlström, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Noncollinear optical gating,” New J. Phys. 16, 052001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Auguste, T.

T. Auguste, O. Gobert, T. Ruchon, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses in gases: a theoretical and numerical study,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033825 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Quéré, H. Vincenti, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, T. J. Hammond, K. T. Kim, J. A. Wheeler, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, J. F. Hergott, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Applications of ultrafast wavefront rotation in highly nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. B 47, 124004 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photonics 7, 651–656 (2013).
[Crossref]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ayuso, D.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. D. Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
[Crossref]

Azzeer, A. M.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Balcou, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref]

Baltuska, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

Belshaw, L.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. D. Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
[Crossref]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bengtsson, S. N.

C. M. Heyl, S. N. Bengtsson, S. Carlström, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Noncollinear optical gating,” New J. Phys. 16, 052001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref]

Borot, A.

F. Quéré, H. Vincenti, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, T. J. Hammond, K. T. Kim, J. A. Wheeler, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, J. F. Hergott, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Applications of ultrafast wavefront rotation in highly nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. B 47, 124004 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Wheeler, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, H. Vincenti, A. Ricci, A. Malvache, R. Lopez-Martens, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses from plasma mirrors,” Nat. Photonics 6, 829–833 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, E.

A. Couairon, E. Brambilla, T. Corti, D. Majus, O. de J. Ramírez-Góngora, and M. Kolesik, “Practitioner’s guide to laser pulse propagation models and simulation,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 199, 5–76 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brown, G. G.

T. J. Hammond, G. G. Brown, K. T. Kim, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond pulses measured from the attosecond lighthouse,” Nat. Photonics 10, 171–175 (2016).
[Crossref]

Burgdörfer, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Calegari, F.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. D. Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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Camillis, S. D.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. D. Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
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Carlström, S.

C. M. Heyl, S. N. Bengtsson, S. Carlström, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Noncollinear optical gating,” New J. Phys. 16, 052001 (2014).
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Cavalieri, A. L.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317, 769–775 (2007).
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Chang, Z.

M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8, 178–186 (2014).
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H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
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Chini, M.

M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8, 178–186 (2014).
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Cireasa, R.

J. Higuet, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, R. Cireasa, E. Constant, E. Cormier, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, B. Pons, Y. Mairesse, and B. Fabre, “High-order harmonic spectroscopy of the Cooper minimum in argon: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053401 (2011).
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Constant, E.

J. Higuet, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, R. Cireasa, E. Constant, E. Cormier, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, B. Pons, Y. Mairesse, and B. Fabre, “High-order harmonic spectroscopy of the Cooper minimum in argon: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

T. J. Hammond, G. G. Brown, K. T. Kim, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond pulses measured from the attosecond lighthouse,” Nat. Photonics 10, 171–175 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, G. Vampa, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond lighthouse driven by sub-two-cycle, 1.8  μm laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 48, 061001 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. J. Hammond, K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling attosecond angular streaking with second harmonic radiation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1768–1770 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Quéré, H. Vincenti, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, T. J. Hammond, K. T. Kim, J. A. Wheeler, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, J. F. Hergott, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Applications of ultrafast wavefront rotation in highly nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. B 47, 124004 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photonics 7, 651–656 (2013).
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M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
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P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
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Cormier, E.

J. Higuet, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, R. Cireasa, E. Constant, E. Cormier, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, B. Pons, Y. Mairesse, and B. Fabre, “High-order harmonic spectroscopy of the Cooper minimum in argon: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053401 (2011).
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Corti, T.

A. Couairon, E. Brambilla, T. Corti, D. Majus, O. de J. Ramírez-Góngora, and M. Kolesik, “Practitioner’s guide to laser pulse propagation models and simulation,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 199, 5–76 (2011).
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Couairon, A.

A. Couairon, E. Brambilla, T. Corti, D. Majus, O. de J. Ramírez-Góngora, and M. Kolesik, “Practitioner’s guide to laser pulse propagation models and simulation,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 199, 5–76 (2011).
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Cousin, S. L.

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
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de J. Ramírez-Góngora, O.

A. Couairon, E. Brambilla, T. Corti, D. Majus, O. de J. Ramírez-Góngora, and M. Kolesik, “Practitioner’s guide to laser pulse propagation models and simulation,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 199, 5–76 (2011).
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De Silvestri, S.

Decleva, P.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. D. Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
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Descamps, D.

J. Higuet, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, R. Cireasa, E. Constant, E. Cormier, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, B. Pons, Y. Mairesse, and B. Fabre, “High-order harmonic spectroscopy of the Cooper minimum in argon: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053401 (2011).
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Drescher, M.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
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Ernstorfer, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fabre, B.

J. Higuet, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, R. Cireasa, E. Constant, E. Cormier, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, B. Pons, Y. Mairesse, and B. Fabre, “High-order harmonic spectroscopy of the Cooper minimum in argon: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053401 (2011).
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Feist, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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Ferencz, K.

Ferrari, F.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fieß, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Frassetto, F.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. D. Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
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M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B 41, 132001 (2008).
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M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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Gilbertson, S.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
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T. Auguste, O. Gobert, T. Ruchon, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses in gases: a theoretical and numerical study,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033825 (2016).
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Goulielmakis, E.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317, 769–775 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

Greenwood, J. B.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. D. Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hammond, T. J.

T. J. Hammond, G. G. Brown, K. T. Kim, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond pulses measured from the attosecond lighthouse,” Nat. Photonics 10, 171–175 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. J. Hammond, K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling attosecond angular streaking with second harmonic radiation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1768–1770 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Quéré, H. Vincenti, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, T. J. Hammond, K. T. Kim, J. A. Wheeler, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, J. F. Hergott, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Applications of ultrafast wavefront rotation in highly nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. B 47, 124004 (2014).
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Heinzmann, U.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hemmer, M.

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hentschel, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hergott, J. F.

F. Quéré, H. Vincenti, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, T. J. Hammond, K. T. Kim, J. A. Wheeler, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, J. F. Hergott, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Applications of ultrafast wavefront rotation in highly nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. B 47, 124004 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hergott, J.-F.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photonics 7, 651–656 (2013).
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Heyl, C. M.

C. M. Heyl, S. N. Bengtsson, S. Carlström, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Noncollinear optical gating,” New J. Phys. 16, 052001 (2014).
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Higuet, J.

J. Higuet, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, R. Cireasa, E. Constant, E. Cormier, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, B. Pons, Y. Mairesse, and B. Fabre, “High-order harmonic spectroscopy of the Cooper minimum in argon: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053401 (2011).
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Hofstetter, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
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Ivanov, M. Y.

G. L. Yudin and M. Y. Ivanov, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization: looking inside a laser cycle,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013409 (2001).
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M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref]

Karpowicz, N.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Khan, S. D.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kienberger, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317, 769–775 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. T.

V. Tosa, J. S. Lee, H. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond pulses generated by the lighthouse effect in Ar gas,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 051801(R) (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. T.

T. J. Hammond, G. G. Brown, K. T. Kim, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond pulses measured from the attosecond lighthouse,” Nat. Photonics 10, 171–175 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. J. Hammond, K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling attosecond angular streaking with second harmonic radiation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1768–1770 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Quéré, H. Vincenti, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, T. J. Hammond, K. T. Kim, J. A. Wheeler, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, J. F. Hergott, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Applications of ultrafast wavefront rotation in highly nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. B 47, 124004 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photonics 7, 651–656 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317, 769–775 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kolesik, M.

A. Couairon, E. Brambilla, T. Corti, D. Majus, O. de J. Ramírez-Góngora, and M. Kolesik, “Practitioner’s guide to laser pulse propagation models and simulation,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 199, 5–76 (2011).
[Crossref]

Komninos, Y.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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Korbman, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
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M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
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M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5  fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997).
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M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4747–4754 (1995).
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F. Quéré, H. Vincenti, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, T. J. Hammond, K. T. Kim, J. A. Wheeler, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, J. F. Hergott, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Applications of ultrafast wavefront rotation in highly nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. B 47, 124004 (2014).
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J. A. Wheeler, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, H. Vincenti, A. Ricci, A. Malvache, R. Lopez-Martens, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses from plasma mirrors,” Nat. Photonics 6, 829–833 (2012).
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F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
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J. Higuet, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, R. Cireasa, E. Constant, E. Cormier, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, B. Pons, Y. Mairesse, and B. Fabre, “High-order harmonic spectroscopy of the Cooper minimum in argon: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053401 (2011).
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J. A. Wheeler, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, H. Vincenti, A. Ricci, A. Malvache, R. Lopez-Martens, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses from plasma mirrors,” Nat. Photonics 6, 829–833 (2012).
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F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. D. Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
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H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
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C. M. Heyl, S. N. Bengtsson, S. Carlström, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Noncollinear optical gating,” New J. Phys. 16, 052001 (2014).
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Mercouris, T.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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Mével, E.

J. Higuet, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, R. Cireasa, E. Constant, E. Cormier, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, B. Pons, Y. Mairesse, and B. Fabre, “High-order harmonic spectroscopy of the Cooper minimum in argon: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053401 (2011).
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F. Quéré, H. Vincenti, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, T. J. Hammond, K. T. Kim, J. A. Wheeler, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, J. F. Hergott, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Applications of ultrafast wavefront rotation in highly nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. B 47, 124004 (2014).
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J. A. Wheeler, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, H. Vincenti, A. Ricci, A. Malvache, R. Lopez-Martens, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses from plasma mirrors,” Nat. Photonics 6, 829–833 (2012).
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Moon, E.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
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M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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Nam, C. H.

V. Tosa, J. S. Lee, H. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond pulses generated by the lighthouse effect in Ar gas,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 051801(R) (2015).
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M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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Nisoli, M.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. D. Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
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F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5  fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997).
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F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. D. Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
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Pazourek, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317, 769–775 (2007).
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J. Higuet, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, R. Cireasa, E. Constant, E. Cormier, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, B. Pons, Y. Mairesse, and B. Fabre, “High-order harmonic spectroscopy of the Cooper minimum in argon: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053401 (2011).
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F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. D. Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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Pons, B.

J. Higuet, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, R. Cireasa, E. Constant, E. Cormier, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, B. Pons, Y. Mairesse, and B. Fabre, “High-order harmonic spectroscopy of the Cooper minimum in argon: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053401 (2011).
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Quéré, F.

T. Auguste, O. Gobert, T. Ruchon, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses in gases: a theoretical and numerical study,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033825 (2016).
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F. Quéré, H. Vincenti, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, T. J. Hammond, K. T. Kim, J. A. Wheeler, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, J. F. Hergott, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Applications of ultrafast wavefront rotation in highly nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. B 47, 124004 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photonics 7, 651–656 (2013).
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H. Vincenti and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses: how to use spatiotemporally coupled light fields to generate isolated attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113904 (2012).
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J. A. Wheeler, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, H. Vincenti, A. Ricci, A. Malvache, R. Lopez-Martens, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses from plasma mirrors,” Nat. Photonics 6, 829–833 (2012).
[Crossref]

Remacle, F.

F. Remacle and R. D. Levine, “An electronic time scale in chemistry,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6793–6798 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ricci, A.

J. A. Wheeler, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, H. Vincenti, A. Ricci, A. Malvache, R. Lopez-Martens, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses from plasma mirrors,” Nat. Photonics 6, 829–833 (2012).
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Ruchon, T.

T. Auguste, O. Gobert, T. Ruchon, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses in gases: a theoretical and numerical study,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033825 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Quéré, H. Vincenti, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, T. J. Hammond, K. T. Kim, J. A. Wheeler, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, J. F. Hergott, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Applications of ultrafast wavefront rotation in highly nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. B 47, 124004 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photonics 7, 651–656 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ruf, H.

J. Higuet, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, R. Cireasa, E. Constant, E. Cormier, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, B. Pons, Y. Mairesse, and B. Fabre, “High-order harmonic spectroscopy of the Cooper minimum in argon: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Salières, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4747–4754 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sansone, G.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sartania, S.

Schafer, K. J.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B 41, 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[Crossref]

Schultze, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Scrinzi, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shakya, M. M.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[Crossref]

Silva, F.

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref]

Silvestri, S. D.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, C.

Stagira, S.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Svelto, O.

Szipöcs, R.

Tate, J. L.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B 41, 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Teichmann, S. M.

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thiré, N.

J. Higuet, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, R. Cireasa, E. Constant, E. Cormier, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, B. Pons, Y. Mairesse, and B. Fabre, “High-order harmonic spectroscopy of the Cooper minimum in argon: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tong, X. M.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tosa, V.

V. Tosa, J. S. Lee, H. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond pulses generated by the lighthouse effect in Ar gas,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 051801(R) (2015).
[Crossref]

Trabattoni, A.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. D. Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
[Crossref]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317, 769–775 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vampa, G.

C. Zhang, G. Vampa, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond lighthouse driven by sub-two-cycle, 1.8  μm laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 48, 061001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, D. M.

T. J. Hammond, G. G. Brown, K. T. Kim, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond pulses measured from the attosecond lighthouse,” Nat. Photonics 10, 171–175 (2016).
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C. Zhang, G. Vampa, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond lighthouse driven by sub-two-cycle, 1.8  μm laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 48, 061001 (2015).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Scheme of spatial chirp generation in a focusing laser beam, and spatiotemporal profiles of the pulse around the focal plane. Note that the negative time (leading edge of the pulse) is shown in the right side of the figures throughout the paper to present the pulses propagating from left to right. The instantaneous intensity of the pulse near the focus is shown in the bottom panels [(a) 2.5  mm, (b) 1.3  mm, and (c) +1.3  mm, where -/+ indicates the position before/after the geometrical focus.]. The pulse is slightly chirped (4  fs2). Results for the gas jet placed in these three selected positions will be discussed throughout the paper. The intensities in the three subfigures are normalized independently.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Spatially resolved high-harmonic far-field spectra generated in neon. In (a)–(c) experimental and in (d)–(f) numerical results are shown. The gas jet position is: (a) and (d) 2.5 mm before, (b) and (e) 1.3 mm before, and (c) and (f) 1.3 mm after the geometrical focus. The insets show the temporal intensity profile of the spectral components from the indicated region. This is calculated by the Fourier transform of the complex spectral components encompassing harmonics above 45 eV, and then integrated over 1 mrad propagation angle. The estimated peak intensities were 4.2×1014  W/cm2 in the case shown in (a), and 5.4×1014  W/cm2 in the cases shown in (b) and (c). The GDD of the laser pulse was 10  fs2 in the experiment. The experimental spectra were reasonably well reproduced when the GDD of the laser pulse was 4  fs2 in the calculation.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Spatially resolved far-field high-harmonic spectra generated in N2. In (a)–(c) experimental and in (d)–(f) numerical results are shown. The gas jet position is: (a) and (d) 2.5 mm before, (b) and (e) 1.3 mm before, and (c) and (f) 1.3 mm after the geometrical focus. The insets show the temporal intensity profiles of the spectral components from the indicated regions. This is calculated by the Fourier transform of the complex spectral components encompassing harmonics above 45 eV, and then integrated over a propagation angle of 3.7 mrad. The estimated peak intensities were 3.1×1014  W/cm2 in the case shown in (a) and 4.0×1014  W/cm2 in the cases shown in (b) and (c).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Evolution of the laser wavefronts and generated attosecond pulses in a highly ionizing medium. (a) and (b) Wavefronts of the laser pulse at the entrance (black, dashed line) and at the exit (colored solid line) of the N2 gas medium are shown, with parameters corresponding to those used in Figs. 3(d) and 3(f), respectively. The colors in (a) and (b) represent the ionization level at the end of the medium. (c) and (d) Intensity profile of attosecond pulses at the end of the gas medium, synthesized from harmonics above 45 eV. (e) and (f) Corresponding attosecond pulses in the far field. In (b) the dashed black arrows are perpendicular to the initial wavefronts of the field in the corresponding half-cycles. The solid red arrows in (b) and (d) are perpendicular to the laser wavefront at the end of the gas medium. The arrows in (d) are at the same relative positions as in (b). The dotted lines in (e) and (f) illustrate the same region of propagation angles as selected in Figs. 3(d) and 3(f), respectively.

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