Abstract

We present a method for enhancing the spatial resolution of optical-absorption-based photoacoustic imaging through or within highly scattering media. The optical speckle pattern that emerges as light propagates through diffuse media provides structured illumination to an object placed behind a scattering wall. The photoacoustic signal produced by such illumination is detected using a focused ultrasound transducer. We demonstrate through both simulation and experiment that, by acquiring multiple photoacoustic images, each produced by a different random and unknown speckle pattern, an image of an absorbing object can be reconstructed with a spatial resolution far exceeding that of the ultrasound transducer. The imaging approach and reconstruction method exploiting joint sparsity will be valuable for biomedical applications and other fields where high-frequency structural information is scrambled by diffusive processes.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
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  3. R. Horstmeyer, H. Ruan, and C. Yang, “Guidestar-assisted wavefront-shaping methods for focusing light into biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 9, 563–571 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6, 283–292 (2012).
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  5. Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2, 110–115 (2008).
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  6. J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 8434–8439 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Fluorescence imaging beyond the ballistic regime by ultrasound pulse guided digital phase conjugation,” Nat. Photonics 6, 657–661 (2012).
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    [Crossref]
  10. X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5, 154–157 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Breaking the spatial resolution barrier via iterative sound-light interaction in deep tissue microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 2, 748 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, and C. Yang, “Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE),” Nat. Photonics 7, 300–305 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. F. Kong, R. H. Silverman, L. Liu, P. V. Chitnis, K. K. Lee, and Y. C. Chen, “Photoacoustic-guided convergence of light through optically diffuse media,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2053–2055 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  14. T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light in scattering media non-invasively using the photoacoustic transmission matrix,” Nat. Photonics 8, 58–64 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, D. B. Conkey, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “High contrast three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging through scattering media by localized optical fluence enhancement,” Opt. Express 21, 26671–26676 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  19. J. Min, J. D. Jang, D. M. Keum, S. W. Ryu, C. H. Choi, K. H. Jeong, and J. C. Ye, “Fluorescent microscopy beyond diffraction limits using speckle illumination and joint support recovery,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2075 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. J. Gateau, T. Chaigne, O. Katz, S. Gigan, and E. Bossy, “Improving visibility in photoacoustic imaging using dynamic speckle illumination,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5188–5191 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. Chaigne, J. Gateau, M. Allain, O. Katz, S. Gigan, A. Sentenac, and E. Bossy, “Super-resolution photoacoustic fluctuation imaging with multiple speckle illumination,” Optica 3, 54–57 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 22287–22292 (2009).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  26. M. Haltmeier, “Block-sparse analysis regularization of ill-posed problems via ℓ1,2-minimization,” in 18th International Conference on Methods and Models in Automation and Robotics (MMAR) (IEEE, 2013) pp. 520–523.
  27. J. E. Ward, D. P. Kelly, and J. T. Sheridan, “Three-dimensional speckle size in generalized optical systems with limiting apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1855–1864 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Canumalla, “Resolution of broadband transducers in acoustic microscopy of encapsulated IC’s: transducer selection,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 22, 582–592 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (3)

R. Horstmeyer, H. Ruan, and C. Yang, “Guidestar-assisted wavefront-shaping methods for focusing light into biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 9, 563–571 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Lai, L. Wang, J. W. Tay, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustically guided wavefront shaping for enhanced optical focusing in scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 9, 126–132 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “Super-resolution photoacoustic imaging through a scattering wall,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light in scattering media non-invasively using the photoacoustic transmission matrix,” Nat. Photonics 8, 58–64 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, D. B. Conkey, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “High contrast three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging through scattering media by localized optical fluence enhancement,” Opt. Express 21, 26671–26676 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, and C. Yang, “Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE),” Nat. Photonics 7, 300–305 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Min, J. D. Jang, D. M. Keum, S. W. Ryu, C. H. Choi, K. H. Jeong, and J. C. Ye, “Fluorescent microscopy beyond diffraction limits using speckle illumination and joint support recovery,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2075 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gateau, T. Chaigne, O. Katz, S. Gigan, and E. Bossy, “Improving visibility in photoacoustic imaging using dynamic speckle illumination,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5188–5191 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Breaking the spatial resolution barrier via iterative sound-light interaction in deep tissue microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 2, 748 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6, 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 8434–8439 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Fluorescence imaging beyond the ballistic regime by ultrasound pulse guided digital phase conjugation,” Nat. Photonics 6, 657–661 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5, 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Kong, R. H. Silverman, L. Liu, P. V. Chitnis, K. K. Lee, and Y. C. Chen, “Photoacoustic-guided convergence of light through optically diffuse media,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2053–2055 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, J. Wright, T. Huang, and Y. Ma, “Image super-resolution via sparse representation,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 19, 2861–2873 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

J. E. Ward, D. P. Kelly, and J. T. Sheridan, “Three-dimensional speckle size in generalized optical systems with limiting apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1855–1864 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 22287–22292 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2, 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2, 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc. 198, 82–87 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. Canumalla, “Resolution of broadband transducers in acoustic microscopy of encapsulated IC’s: transducer selection,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 22, 582–592 (1999).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Allain, M.

T. Chaigne, J. Gateau, M. Allain, O. Katz, S. Gigan, A. Sentenac, and E. Bossy, “Super-resolution photoacoustic fluctuation imaging with multiple speckle illumination,” Optica 3, 54–57 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Belkebir, K.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boccara, A. C.

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light in scattering media non-invasively using the photoacoustic transmission matrix,” Nat. Photonics 8, 58–64 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bossy, E.

Canumalla, S.

S. Canumalla, “Resolution of broadband transducers in acoustic microscopy of encapsulated IC’s: transducer selection,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 22, 582–592 (1999).
[Crossref]

Caravaca-Aguirre, A. M.

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “Super-resolution photoacoustic imaging through a scattering wall,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, D. B. Conkey, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “High contrast three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging through scattering media by localized optical fluence enhancement,” Opt. Express 21, 26671–26676 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carminati, R.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chaigne, T.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. C.

Chitnis, P. V.

Choi, C. H.

J. Min, J. D. Jang, D. M. Keum, S. W. Ryu, C. H. Choi, K. H. Jeong, and J. C. Ye, “Fluorescent microscopy beyond diffraction limits using speckle illumination and joint support recovery,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2075 (2013).
[Crossref]

Colyer, R.

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 22287–22292 (2009).
[Crossref]

Conkey, D. B.

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “Super-resolution photoacoustic imaging through a scattering wall,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, D. B. Conkey, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “High contrast three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging through scattering media by localized optical fluence enhancement,” Opt. Express 21, 26671–26676 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cui, M.

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Breaking the spatial resolution barrier via iterative sound-light interaction in deep tissue microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 2, 748 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Fluorescence imaging beyond the ballistic regime by ultrasound pulse guided digital phase conjugation,” Nat. Photonics 6, 657–661 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 8434–8439 (2012).
[Crossref]

Denk, W.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2, 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dertinger, T.

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 22287–22292 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dove, J. D.

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “Super-resolution photoacoustic imaging through a scattering wall,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, D. B. Conkey, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “High contrast three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging through scattering media by localized optical fluence enhancement,” Opt. Express 21, 26671–26676 (2013).
[Crossref]

Enderlein, J.

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 22287–22292 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feld, M. S.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2, 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fink, M.

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light in scattering media non-invasively using the photoacoustic transmission matrix,” Nat. Photonics 8, 58–64 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6, 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fiolka, R.

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Fluorescence imaging beyond the ballistic regime by ultrasound pulse guided digital phase conjugation,” Nat. Photonics 6, 657–661 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Breaking the spatial resolution barrier via iterative sound-light interaction in deep tissue microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 2, 748 (2012).
[Crossref]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gateau, J.

Germain, R. N.

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 8434–8439 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gigan, S.

T. Chaigne, J. Gateau, M. Allain, O. Katz, S. Gigan, A. Sentenac, and E. Bossy, “Super-resolution photoacoustic fluctuation imaging with multiple speckle illumination,” Optica 3, 54–57 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light in scattering media non-invasively using the photoacoustic transmission matrix,” Nat. Photonics 8, 58–64 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Gateau, T. Chaigne, O. Katz, S. Gigan, and E. Bossy, “Improving visibility in photoacoustic imaging using dynamic speckle illumination,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5188–5191 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Girard, J.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gustafsson, M. G. L.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc. 198, 82–87 (2000).
[Crossref]

Haltmeier, M.

M. Haltmeier, “Block-sparse analysis regularization of ill-posed problems via ℓ1,2-minimization,” in 18th International Conference on Methods and Models in Automation and Robotics (MMAR) (IEEE, 2013) pp. 520–523.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Helmchen, F.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2, 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref]

Horstmeyer, R.

R. Horstmeyer, H. Ruan, and C. Yang, “Guidestar-assisted wavefront-shaping methods for focusing light into biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 9, 563–571 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, and C. Yang, “Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE),” Nat. Photonics 7, 300–305 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Huang, T.

J. Yang, J. Wright, T. Huang, and Y. Ma, “Image super-resolution via sparse representation,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 19, 2861–2873 (2010).
[Crossref]

Iyer, G.

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 22287–22292 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jang, J. D.

J. Min, J. D. Jang, D. M. Keum, S. W. Ryu, C. H. Choi, K. H. Jeong, and J. C. Ye, “Fluorescent microscopy beyond diffraction limits using speckle illumination and joint support recovery,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2075 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jeong, K. H.

J. Min, J. D. Jang, D. M. Keum, S. W. Ryu, C. H. Choi, K. H. Jeong, and J. C. Ye, “Fluorescent microscopy beyond diffraction limits using speckle illumination and joint support recovery,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2075 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ju, H.

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “Super-resolution photoacoustic imaging through a scattering wall,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, D. B. Conkey, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “High contrast three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging through scattering media by localized optical fluence enhancement,” Opt. Express 21, 26671–26676 (2013).
[Crossref]

Judkewitz, B.

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, and C. Yang, “Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE),” Nat. Photonics 7, 300–305 (2013).
[Crossref]

Katz, O.

Kelly, D. P.

Keum, D. M.

J. Min, J. D. Jang, D. M. Keum, S. W. Ryu, C. H. Choi, K. H. Jeong, and J. C. Ye, “Fluorescent microscopy beyond diffraction limits using speckle illumination and joint support recovery,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2075 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kong, F.

Lagendijk, A.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6, 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lai, P.

P. Lai, L. Wang, J. W. Tay, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustically guided wavefront shaping for enhanced optical focusing in scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 9, 126–132 (2015).
[Crossref]

Le Moal, E.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).
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Lee, K. K.

Lerosey, G.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6, 283–292 (2012).
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S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
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Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5, 154–157 (2011).
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Liu, L.

Ma, Y.

J. Yang, J. Wright, T. Huang, and Y. Ma, “Image super-resolution via sparse representation,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 19, 2861–2873 (2010).
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Mallat, S.

S. Mallat, A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing: The Sparse Way (Academic, 2008).

Mathy, A.

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, and C. Yang, “Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE),” Nat. Photonics 7, 300–305 (2013).
[Crossref]

Min, J.

J. Min, J. D. Jang, D. M. Keum, S. W. Ryu, C. H. Choi, K. H. Jeong, and J. C. Ye, “Fluorescent microscopy beyond diffraction limits using speckle illumination and joint support recovery,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2075 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mosk, A. P.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6, 283–292 (2012).
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I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2309–2311 (2007).
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Mudry, E.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Murray, T. W.

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “Super-resolution photoacoustic imaging through a scattering wall,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, D. B. Conkey, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “High contrast three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging through scattering media by localized optical fluence enhancement,” Opt. Express 21, 26671–26676 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nicoletti, C.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Piestun, R.

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “Super-resolution photoacoustic imaging through a scattering wall,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, D. B. Conkey, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “High contrast three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging through scattering media by localized optical fluence enhancement,” Opt. Express 21, 26671–26676 (2013).
[Crossref]

Popoff, S. M.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Psaltis, D.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2, 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ruan, H.

R. Horstmeyer, H. Ruan, and C. Yang, “Guidestar-assisted wavefront-shaping methods for focusing light into biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 9, 563–571 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ryu, S. W.

J. Min, J. D. Jang, D. M. Keum, S. W. Ryu, C. H. Choi, K. H. Jeong, and J. C. Ye, “Fluorescent microscopy beyond diffraction limits using speckle illumination and joint support recovery,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2075 (2013).
[Crossref]

Savatier, J.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sentenac, A.

T. Chaigne, J. Gateau, M. Allain, O. Katz, S. Gigan, A. Sentenac, and E. Bossy, “Super-resolution photoacoustic fluctuation imaging with multiple speckle illumination,” Optica 3, 54–57 (2016).
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E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sheridan, J. T.

Si, K.

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Breaking the spatial resolution barrier via iterative sound-light interaction in deep tissue microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 2, 748 (2012).
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K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Fluorescence imaging beyond the ballistic regime by ultrasound pulse guided digital phase conjugation,” Nat. Photonics 6, 657–661 (2012).
[Crossref]

Silverman, R. H.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tang, J.

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 8434–8439 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tay, J. W.

P. Lai, L. Wang, J. W. Tay, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustically guided wavefront shaping for enhanced optical focusing in scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 9, 126–132 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vellekoop, I. M.

Wang, L.

P. Lai, L. Wang, J. W. Tay, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustically guided wavefront shaping for enhanced optical focusing in scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 9, 126–132 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. V.

P. Lai, L. Wang, J. W. Tay, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustically guided wavefront shaping for enhanced optical focusing in scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 9, 126–132 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5, 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. M.

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, and C. Yang, “Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE),” Nat. Photonics 7, 300–305 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ward, J. E.

Weiss, S.

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 22287–22292 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wright, J.

J. Yang, J. Wright, T. Huang, and Y. Ma, “Image super-resolution via sparse representation,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 19, 2861–2873 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5, 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

R. Horstmeyer, H. Ruan, and C. Yang, “Guidestar-assisted wavefront-shaping methods for focusing light into biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 9, 563–571 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, and C. Yang, “Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE),” Nat. Photonics 7, 300–305 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2, 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, J. Wright, T. Huang, and Y. Ma, “Image super-resolution via sparse representation,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 19, 2861–2873 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yaqoob, Z.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2, 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ye, J. C.

J. Min, J. D. Jang, D. M. Keum, S. W. Ryu, C. H. Choi, K. H. Jeong, and J. C. Ye, “Fluorescent microscopy beyond diffraction limits using speckle illumination and joint support recovery,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2075 (2013).
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IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

J. Yang, J. Wright, T. Huang, and Y. Ma, “Image super-resolution via sparse representation,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 19, 2861–2873 (2010).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “Super-resolution photoacoustic imaging through a scattering wall,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7902 (2015).
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F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2, 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (9)

R. Horstmeyer, H. Ruan, and C. Yang, “Guidestar-assisted wavefront-shaping methods for focusing light into biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 9, 563–571 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6, 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2, 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Fluorescence imaging beyond the ballistic regime by ultrasound pulse guided digital phase conjugation,” Nat. Photonics 6, 657–661 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5, 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Lai, L. Wang, J. W. Tay, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustically guided wavefront shaping for enhanced optical focusing in scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 9, 126–132 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, and C. Yang, “Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE),” Nat. Photonics 7, 300–305 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light in scattering media non-invasively using the photoacoustic transmission matrix,” Nat. Photonics 8, 58–64 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 8434–8439 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 22287–22292 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Breaking the spatial resolution barrier via iterative sound-light interaction in deep tissue microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 2, 748 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Min, J. D. Jang, D. M. Keum, S. W. Ryu, C. H. Choi, K. H. Jeong, and J. C. Ye, “Fluorescent microscopy beyond diffraction limits using speckle illumination and joint support recovery,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2075 (2013).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

S. Mallat, A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing: The Sparse Way (Academic, 2008).

M. Haltmeier, “Block-sparse analysis regularization of ill-posed problems via ℓ1,2-minimization,” in 18th International Conference on Methods and Models in Automation and Robotics (MMAR) (IEEE, 2013) pp. 520–523.

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1: PDF (1369 KB)      Algorithm and Supporting Data

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Simulated results showing (a) an absorbing object consisting of a series of 10 μm wide lines separated by distances varying between 40 and 150 μm, (b) a speckle pattern with a speckle size of 25 μm, (c) the product of the absorber distribution and speckle pattern giving the photoacoustic (PA) source distribution and (d) the detected PA response found by convolving the PA source distribution with the transducer PSF (Gaussian with a FWHM of 100 μm).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Simulated results showing the photoacoustic (PA) response measured from line scans over the absorber distribution in Fig. 1(a) subjected to six different random illumination patterns. (b) The object and reconstructions of the object using 100 speckle patterns. The mean response, variance response, RLD of the mean response, and reconstructed BSIPAM response are shown.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Simulated results using a two-dimensional sample and 200 random speckle patterns. (a) The object; a star sample with a minimum spacing between lines of 17 μm. The reconstructed objects found using (b) the mean photoacoustic (PA) response, (c) regularized deconvolution, and (d) BSIPAM are shown.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic of the experimental setup. The inset shows an optical image of the five fiber sample used in the experiments, with the vertical line indicating the approximate measurement location. PA: photoacoustic.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) The transducer LSF, the mean photoacoustic (PA) response measured from 101 line scans across the sample, and the responses from several individual line scans are shown. The relative positions of the fibers (determined from the optical image) are also displayed. (b) Comparison of the object reconstruction using the mean PA response, RLD of the mean response, and BSIPAM. (c) Simulation of the experimental measurement showing the object, the simulated LSF, the mean PA response from 100 line scans across the sample, the PA response from several individual line scans, and the BSIPAM reconstruction.

Equations (2)

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ym=h*[Φm·ρ]+εmform=1,,M.
p2,1=i=1Nm=1M|pm(xi)|2,

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