Abstract

Recent studies of two-photon excitation of exciton-polaritons in microcavities have considered the possibility of an allowed absorption process into the 2p-state of the excitons that participate in the polariton effect. Here we report time-resolved measurements of two-photon excitation directly into the lower polariton states, invoking the 1s state of the excitons. Although this process is forbidden by symmetry for light at normal incidence, it is allowed at a nonzero angle of incidence due to state mixing. We examine the polarization dependence of two-photon absorption at finite k both theoretically and experimentally. Previous results should be reevaluated in light of the mechanism observed here.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Deng, H. Haug, and Y. Yamamoto, “Exciton-polariton Bose–Einstein condensation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1489–1537 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. I. Carusotto and C. Ciuti, “Quantum fluids of light,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 299–366 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, and F. P. Laussy, Microcavities (Oxford University, 2007).
  4. D. Sanvitto and V. Timofeev, Exciton Polaritons in Microcavities: New Frontiers (Springer, 2012).
  5. J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. Keeling, F. Marchetti, M. Szymańska, R. André, J. Staehli, V. Savona, P. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. Dang, “Bose–Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose–Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316, 1007–1010 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Byrnes, N. Y. Kim, and Y. Yamamoto, “Exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 10, 803–813 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Amo, J. Lefrere, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Cristofolini, A. Dreismann, G. Christmann, G. Franchetti, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Optical superfluid phase transitions and trapping of polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 186403 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. Martin, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Vina, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457, 291–295 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. Liu, D. Snoke, A. Daley, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “A new type of half-quantum circulation in a macroscopic polariton spinor ring condensate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 2676–2681 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. G. Lagoudakis, T. Ostatnický, A. V. Kavokin, Y. G. Rubo, R. André, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Observation of half-quantum vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Science 326, 974–976 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. Laussy, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. Hivet, E. Cancellieri, T. Boulier, D. Ballarini, D. Sanvitto, F. Marchetti, M. Szymanska, C. Ciuti, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Interaction-shaped vortex-antivortex lattices in polariton fluids,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 134501 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  19. P. Bhattacharya, B. Xiao, A. Das, S. Bhowmick, and J. Heo, “Solid state electrically injected exciton-polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 206403 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. Preliminary results from this work were reported in August 2013; see C. Gautham and D. Snoke, “Modulation of two-photon excitation by a polariton condensate,” in Fundamental Optical Processes and Semiconductors 2013, Kodiak Island, Alaska, 12–16 August2013.
  22. B. Nelsen, G. Liu, M. Steger, D. Snoke, R. Balili, K. West, and L. Pfeiffer, “Dissipationless flow and sharp threshold of a polariton condensate with long lifetime,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041015 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Steger, C. Gautham, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Slow reflection and two-photon generation of microcavity exciton-polaritons,” Optica 2, 1–5 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. Chaung, Physics of Photonic Devices, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, 2009), p. 399.
  25. J. K. Wuenschell, N. W. Sinclair, Z. Voros, D. W. Snoke, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Darkening of interwell excitons in coupled quantum wells due to a stress-induced direct-to-indirect transistion,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 235415 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2015 (3)

G. Liu, D. Snoke, A. Daley, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “A new type of half-quantum circulation in a macroscopic polariton spinor ring condensate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 2676–2681 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. K. Wuenschell, N. W. Sinclair, Z. Voros, D. W. Snoke, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Darkening of interwell excitons in coupled quantum wells due to a stress-induced direct-to-indirect transistion,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 235415 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Steger, C. Gautham, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Slow reflection and two-photon generation of microcavity exciton-polaritons,” Optica 2, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

G. Lemenager, F. Pisanello, J. Bloch, A. V. Kavokin, A. Amo, A. Lemaître, E. Galopin, I. Sagnes, M. De Vittorio, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Two-photon injection of polaritons in semiconductor microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 39, 307–310 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Hivet, E. Cancellieri, T. Boulier, D. Ballarini, D. Sanvitto, F. Marchetti, M. Szymanska, C. Ciuti, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Interaction-shaped vortex-antivortex lattices in polariton fluids,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 134501 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Schmutzler, M. Aßmann, T. Czerniuk, M. Kamp, C. Schneider, S. Hofling, and M. Bayer, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of exciton-polaritons in a GaAs-based microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 075103 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Byrnes, N. Y. Kim, and Y. Yamamoto, “Exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 10, 803–813 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

P. Cristofolini, A. Dreismann, G. Christmann, G. Franchetti, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Optical superfluid phase transitions and trapping of polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 186403 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Carusotto and C. Ciuti, “Quantum fluids of light,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 299–366 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Bhattacharya, B. Xiao, A. Das, S. Bhowmick, and J. Heo, “Solid state electrically injected exciton-polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 206403 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Nelsen, G. Liu, M. Steger, D. Snoke, R. Balili, K. West, and L. Pfeiffer, “Dissipationless flow and sharp threshold of a polariton condensate with long lifetime,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041015 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Manni, T. C. H. Liew, K. G. Lagoudakis, C. Ouellet-Plamondon, R. André, V. Savona, and B. Deveaud, “Spontaneous self-ordered states of vortex-antivortex pairs in a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 201303 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

A. V. Kavokin, I. A. Shelykh, T. Taylor, and M. M. Glazov, “Vertical cavity surface emitting terahertz laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 197401 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. Deng, H. Haug, and Y. Yamamoto, “Exciton-polariton Bose–Einstein condensation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1489–1537 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. Laussy, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. Martin, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Vina, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457, 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, J. Lefrere, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. G. Lagoudakis, T. Ostatnický, A. V. Kavokin, Y. G. Rubo, R. André, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Observation of half-quantum vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Science 326, 974–976 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose–Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316, 1007–1010 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. Keeling, F. Marchetti, M. Szymańska, R. André, J. Staehli, V. Savona, P. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. Dang, “Bose–Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Adrados, C.

A. Amo, J. Lefrere, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Amo, A.

G. Lemenager, F. Pisanello, J. Bloch, A. V. Kavokin, A. Amo, A. Lemaître, E. Galopin, I. Sagnes, M. De Vittorio, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Two-photon injection of polaritons in semiconductor microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 39, 307–310 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, J. Lefrere, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. Martin, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Vina, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457, 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Amthor, M.

C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
[Crossref]

André, R.

F. Manni, T. C. H. Liew, K. G. Lagoudakis, C. Ouellet-Plamondon, R. André, V. Savona, and B. Deveaud, “Spontaneous self-ordered states of vortex-antivortex pairs in a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 201303 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. G. Lagoudakis, T. Ostatnický, A. V. Kavokin, Y. G. Rubo, R. André, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Observation of half-quantum vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Science 326, 974–976 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. Keeling, F. Marchetti, M. Szymańska, R. André, J. Staehli, V. Savona, P. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. Dang, “Bose–Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Aßmann, M.

J. Schmutzler, M. Aßmann, T. Czerniuk, M. Kamp, C. Schneider, S. Hofling, and M. Bayer, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of exciton-polaritons in a GaAs-based microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 075103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baas, A.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. Keeling, F. Marchetti, M. Szymańska, R. André, J. Staehli, V. Savona, P. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. Dang, “Bose–Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Balili, R.

B. Nelsen, G. Liu, M. Steger, D. Snoke, R. Balili, K. West, and L. Pfeiffer, “Dissipationless flow and sharp threshold of a polariton condensate with long lifetime,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041015 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose–Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316, 1007–1010 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ballarini, D.

R. Hivet, E. Cancellieri, T. Boulier, D. Ballarini, D. Sanvitto, F. Marchetti, M. Szymanska, C. Ciuti, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Interaction-shaped vortex-antivortex lattices in polariton fluids,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 134501 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. Martin, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Vina, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457, 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baudisch, M.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. Laussy, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baumberg, J. J.

P. Cristofolini, A. Dreismann, G. Christmann, G. Franchetti, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Optical superfluid phase transitions and trapping of polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 186403 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, and F. P. Laussy, Microcavities (Oxford University, 2007).

Bayer, M.

J. Schmutzler, M. Aßmann, T. Czerniuk, M. Kamp, C. Schneider, S. Hofling, and M. Bayer, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of exciton-polaritons in a GaAs-based microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 075103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Berloff, N. G.

P. Cristofolini, A. Dreismann, G. Christmann, G. Franchetti, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Optical superfluid phase transitions and trapping of polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 186403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, P.

P. Bhattacharya, B. Xiao, A. Das, S. Bhowmick, and J. Heo, “Solid state electrically injected exciton-polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 206403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bhowmick, S.

P. Bhattacharya, B. Xiao, A. Das, S. Bhowmick, and J. Heo, “Solid state electrically injected exciton-polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 206403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bloch, J.

G. Lemenager, F. Pisanello, J. Bloch, A. V. Kavokin, A. Amo, A. Lemaître, E. Galopin, I. Sagnes, M. De Vittorio, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Two-photon injection of polaritons in semiconductor microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 39, 307–310 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. Laussy, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. Martin, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Vina, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457, 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boulier, T.

R. Hivet, E. Cancellieri, T. Boulier, D. Ballarini, D. Sanvitto, F. Marchetti, M. Szymanska, C. Ciuti, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Interaction-shaped vortex-antivortex lattices in polariton fluids,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 134501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bramati, A.

R. Hivet, E. Cancellieri, T. Boulier, D. Ballarini, D. Sanvitto, F. Marchetti, M. Szymanska, C. Ciuti, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Interaction-shaped vortex-antivortex lattices in polariton fluids,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 134501 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Lemenager, F. Pisanello, J. Bloch, A. V. Kavokin, A. Amo, A. Lemaître, E. Galopin, I. Sagnes, M. De Vittorio, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Two-photon injection of polaritons in semiconductor microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 39, 307–310 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, J. Lefrere, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Byrnes, T.

T. Byrnes, N. Y. Kim, and Y. Yamamoto, “Exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 10, 803–813 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cancellieri, E.

R. Hivet, E. Cancellieri, T. Boulier, D. Ballarini, D. Sanvitto, F. Marchetti, M. Szymanska, C. Ciuti, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Interaction-shaped vortex-antivortex lattices in polariton fluids,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 134501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carusotto, I.

I. Carusotto and C. Ciuti, “Quantum fluids of light,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 299–366 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, J. Lefrere, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chaung, S.

S. Chaung, Physics of Photonic Devices, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, 2009), p. 399.

Christmann, G.

P. Cristofolini, A. Dreismann, G. Christmann, G. Franchetti, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Optical superfluid phase transitions and trapping of polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 186403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ciuti, C.

R. Hivet, E. Cancellieri, T. Boulier, D. Ballarini, D. Sanvitto, F. Marchetti, M. Szymanska, C. Ciuti, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Interaction-shaped vortex-antivortex lattices in polariton fluids,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 134501 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Carusotto and C. Ciuti, “Quantum fluids of light,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 299–366 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, J. Lefrere, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cristofolini, P.

P. Cristofolini, A. Dreismann, G. Christmann, G. Franchetti, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Optical superfluid phase transitions and trapping of polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 186403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Czerniuk, T.

J. Schmutzler, M. Aßmann, T. Czerniuk, M. Kamp, C. Schneider, S. Hofling, and M. Bayer, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of exciton-polaritons in a GaAs-based microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 075103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Daley, A.

G. Liu, D. Snoke, A. Daley, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “A new type of half-quantum circulation in a macroscopic polariton spinor ring condensate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 2676–2681 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dang, L.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. Keeling, F. Marchetti, M. Szymańska, R. André, J. Staehli, V. Savona, P. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. Dang, “Bose–Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Das, A.

P. Bhattacharya, B. Xiao, A. Das, S. Bhowmick, and J. Heo, “Solid state electrically injected exciton-polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 206403 (2013).
[Crossref]

De Vittorio, M.

del Valle, E.

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. Martin, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Vina, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457, 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Deng, H.

H. Deng, H. Haug, and Y. Yamamoto, “Exciton-polariton Bose–Einstein condensation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1489–1537 (2010).
[Crossref]

Deveaud, B.

F. Manni, T. C. H. Liew, K. G. Lagoudakis, C. Ouellet-Plamondon, R. André, V. Savona, and B. Deveaud, “Spontaneous self-ordered states of vortex-antivortex pairs in a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 201303 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. Keeling, F. Marchetti, M. Szymańska, R. André, J. Staehli, V. Savona, P. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. Dang, “Bose–Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Deveaud-Plédran, B.

K. G. Lagoudakis, T. Ostatnický, A. V. Kavokin, Y. G. Rubo, R. André, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Observation of half-quantum vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Science 326, 974–976 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dreismann, A.

P. Cristofolini, A. Dreismann, G. Christmann, G. Franchetti, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Optical superfluid phase transitions and trapping of polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 186403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fischer, J.

C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Forchel, A.

C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Franchetti, G.

P. Cristofolini, A. Dreismann, G. Christmann, G. Franchetti, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Optical superfluid phase transitions and trapping of polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 186403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Galopin, E.

Gautham, C.

M. Steger, C. Gautham, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Slow reflection and two-photon generation of microcavity exciton-polaritons,” Optica 2, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

Preliminary results from this work were reported in August 2013; see C. Gautham and D. Snoke, “Modulation of two-photon excitation by a polariton condensate,” in Fundamental Optical Processes and Semiconductors 2013, Kodiak Island, Alaska, 12–16 August2013.

Giacobino, E.

G. Lemenager, F. Pisanello, J. Bloch, A. V. Kavokin, A. Amo, A. Lemaître, E. Galopin, I. Sagnes, M. De Vittorio, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Two-photon injection of polaritons in semiconductor microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 39, 307–310 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Hivet, E. Cancellieri, T. Boulier, D. Ballarini, D. Sanvitto, F. Marchetti, M. Szymanska, C. Ciuti, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Interaction-shaped vortex-antivortex lattices in polariton fluids,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 134501 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, J. Lefrere, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Glazov, M. M.

A. V. Kavokin, I. A. Shelykh, T. Taylor, and M. M. Glazov, “Vertical cavity surface emitting terahertz laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 197401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hartwell, V.

R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose–Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316, 1007–1010 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hatzopoulos, Z.

P. Cristofolini, A. Dreismann, G. Christmann, G. Franchetti, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Optical superfluid phase transitions and trapping of polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 186403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Haug, H.

H. Deng, H. Haug, and Y. Yamamoto, “Exciton-polariton Bose–Einstein condensation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1489–1537 (2010).
[Crossref]

Heo, J.

P. Bhattacharya, B. Xiao, A. Das, S. Bhowmick, and J. Heo, “Solid state electrically injected exciton-polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 206403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hivet, R.

R. Hivet, E. Cancellieri, T. Boulier, D. Ballarini, D. Sanvitto, F. Marchetti, M. Szymanska, C. Ciuti, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Interaction-shaped vortex-antivortex lattices in polariton fluids,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 134501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hofling, S.

J. Schmutzler, M. Aßmann, T. Czerniuk, M. Kamp, C. Schneider, S. Hofling, and M. Bayer, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of exciton-polaritons in a GaAs-based microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 075103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Höfling, S.

C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Houdré, R.

A. Amo, J. Lefrere, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jeambrun, P.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. Keeling, F. Marchetti, M. Szymańska, R. André, J. Staehli, V. Savona, P. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. Dang, “Bose–Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kamp, M.

J. Schmutzler, M. Aßmann, T. Czerniuk, M. Kamp, C. Schneider, S. Hofling, and M. Bayer, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of exciton-polaritons in a GaAs-based microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 075103 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kasprzak, J.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. Keeling, F. Marchetti, M. Szymańska, R. André, J. Staehli, V. Savona, P. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. Dang, “Bose–Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kavokin, A. V.

G. Lemenager, F. Pisanello, J. Bloch, A. V. Kavokin, A. Amo, A. Lemaître, E. Galopin, I. Sagnes, M. De Vittorio, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Two-photon injection of polaritons in semiconductor microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 39, 307–310 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kavokin, I. A. Shelykh, T. Taylor, and M. M. Glazov, “Vertical cavity surface emitting terahertz laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 197401 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. G. Lagoudakis, T. Ostatnický, A. V. Kavokin, Y. G. Rubo, R. André, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Observation of half-quantum vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Science 326, 974–976 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, and F. P. Laussy, Microcavities (Oxford University, 2007).

Keeling, J.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. Keeling, F. Marchetti, M. Szymańska, R. André, J. Staehli, V. Savona, P. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. Dang, “Bose–Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, N. Y.

T. Byrnes, N. Y. Kim, and Y. Yamamoto, “Exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 10, 803–813 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krizhanovskii, D.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. Laussy, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. Martin, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Vina, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457, 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kulakovskii, V.

C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kundermann, S.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. Keeling, F. Marchetti, M. Szymańska, R. André, J. Staehli, V. Savona, P. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. Dang, “Bose–Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lagoudakis, K. G.

F. Manni, T. C. H. Liew, K. G. Lagoudakis, C. Ouellet-Plamondon, R. André, V. Savona, and B. Deveaud, “Spontaneous self-ordered states of vortex-antivortex pairs in a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 201303 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. G. Lagoudakis, T. Ostatnický, A. V. Kavokin, Y. G. Rubo, R. André, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Observation of half-quantum vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Science 326, 974–976 (2009).
[Crossref]

Laussy, F.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. Laussy, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

Laussy, F. P.

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. Martin, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Vina, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457, 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, and F. P. Laussy, Microcavities (Oxford University, 2007).

Lefrere, J.

A. Amo, J. Lefrere, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lemaitre, A.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. Laussy, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. Martin, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Vina, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457, 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lemaître, A.

Lemenager, G.

Lermer, M.

C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liew, T. C. H.

F. Manni, T. C. H. Liew, K. G. Lagoudakis, C. Ouellet-Plamondon, R. André, V. Savona, and B. Deveaud, “Spontaneous self-ordered states of vortex-antivortex pairs in a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 201303 (2013).
[Crossref]

Littlewood, P.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. Keeling, F. Marchetti, M. Szymańska, R. André, J. Staehli, V. Savona, P. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. Dang, “Bose–Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.

G. Liu, D. Snoke, A. Daley, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “A new type of half-quantum circulation in a macroscopic polariton spinor ring condensate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 2676–2681 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Nelsen, G. Liu, M. Steger, D. Snoke, R. Balili, K. West, and L. Pfeiffer, “Dissipationless flow and sharp threshold of a polariton condensate with long lifetime,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Malpuech, G.

A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, and F. P. Laussy, Microcavities (Oxford University, 2007).

Manni, F.

F. Manni, T. C. H. Liew, K. G. Lagoudakis, C. Ouellet-Plamondon, R. André, V. Savona, and B. Deveaud, “Spontaneous self-ordered states of vortex-antivortex pairs in a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 201303 (2013).
[Crossref]

Marchetti, F.

R. Hivet, E. Cancellieri, T. Boulier, D. Ballarini, D. Sanvitto, F. Marchetti, M. Szymanska, C. Ciuti, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Interaction-shaped vortex-antivortex lattices in polariton fluids,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 134501 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. Keeling, F. Marchetti, M. Szymańska, R. André, J. Staehli, V. Savona, P. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. Dang, “Bose–Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Marchetti, F. M.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. Laussy, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

Marrucci, L.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. Laussy, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

Martin, M.

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. Martin, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Vina, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457, 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nelsen, B.

B. Nelsen, G. Liu, M. Steger, D. Snoke, R. Balili, K. West, and L. Pfeiffer, “Dissipationless flow and sharp threshold of a polariton condensate with long lifetime,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ostatnický, T.

K. G. Lagoudakis, T. Ostatnický, A. V. Kavokin, Y. G. Rubo, R. André, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Observation of half-quantum vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Science 326, 974–976 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ouellet-Plamondon, C.

F. Manni, T. C. H. Liew, K. G. Lagoudakis, C. Ouellet-Plamondon, R. André, V. Savona, and B. Deveaud, “Spontaneous self-ordered states of vortex-antivortex pairs in a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 201303 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, L.

G. Liu, D. Snoke, A. Daley, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “A new type of half-quantum circulation in a macroscopic polariton spinor ring condensate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 2676–2681 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Steger, C. Gautham, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Slow reflection and two-photon generation of microcavity exciton-polaritons,” Optica 2, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Nelsen, G. Liu, M. Steger, D. Snoke, R. Balili, K. West, and L. Pfeiffer, “Dissipationless flow and sharp threshold of a polariton condensate with long lifetime,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041015 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose–Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316, 1007–1010 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, L. N.

J. K. Wuenschell, N. W. Sinclair, Z. Voros, D. W. Snoke, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Darkening of interwell excitons in coupled quantum wells due to a stress-induced direct-to-indirect transistion,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 235415 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pigeon, S.

A. Amo, J. Lefrere, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pisanello, F.

Rahimi-Iman, A.

C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reitzenstein, S.

C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Richard, M.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. Keeling, F. Marchetti, M. Szymańska, R. André, J. Staehli, V. Savona, P. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. Dang, “Bose–Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rubo, Y. G.

K. G. Lagoudakis, T. Ostatnický, A. V. Kavokin, Y. G. Rubo, R. André, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Observation of half-quantum vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Science 326, 974–976 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sagnes, I.

Sanvitto, D.

R. Hivet, E. Cancellieri, T. Boulier, D. Ballarini, D. Sanvitto, F. Marchetti, M. Szymanska, C. Ciuti, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Interaction-shaped vortex-antivortex lattices in polariton fluids,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 134501 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. Laussy, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. Martin, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Vina, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457, 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Sanvitto and V. Timofeev, Exciton Polaritons in Microcavities: New Frontiers (Springer, 2012).

Savenko, I. G.

C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Savona, V.

F. Manni, T. C. H. Liew, K. G. Lagoudakis, C. Ouellet-Plamondon, R. André, V. Savona, and B. Deveaud, “Spontaneous self-ordered states of vortex-antivortex pairs in a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 201303 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. Keeling, F. Marchetti, M. Szymańska, R. André, J. Staehli, V. Savona, P. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. Dang, “Bose–Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Savvidis, P. G.

P. Cristofolini, A. Dreismann, G. Christmann, G. Franchetti, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Optical superfluid phase transitions and trapping of polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 186403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmutzler, J.

J. Schmutzler, M. Aßmann, T. Czerniuk, M. Kamp, C. Schneider, S. Hofling, and M. Bayer, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of exciton-polaritons in a GaAs-based microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 075103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schneider, C.

J. Schmutzler, M. Aßmann, T. Czerniuk, M. Kamp, C. Schneider, S. Hofling, and M. Bayer, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of exciton-polaritons in a GaAs-based microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 075103 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shelykh, I.

C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shelykh, I. A.

A. V. Kavokin, I. A. Shelykh, T. Taylor, and M. M. Glazov, “Vertical cavity surface emitting terahertz laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 197401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sinclair, N. W.

J. K. Wuenschell, N. W. Sinclair, Z. Voros, D. W. Snoke, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Darkening of interwell excitons in coupled quantum wells due to a stress-induced direct-to-indirect transistion,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 235415 (2015).
[Crossref]

Skolnick, M.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. Laussy, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. Martin, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Vina, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457, 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Snoke, D.

G. Liu, D. Snoke, A. Daley, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “A new type of half-quantum circulation in a macroscopic polariton spinor ring condensate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 2676–2681 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Steger, C. Gautham, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Slow reflection and two-photon generation of microcavity exciton-polaritons,” Optica 2, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Nelsen, G. Liu, M. Steger, D. Snoke, R. Balili, K. West, and L. Pfeiffer, “Dissipationless flow and sharp threshold of a polariton condensate with long lifetime,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041015 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose–Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316, 1007–1010 (2007).
[Crossref]

Preliminary results from this work were reported in August 2013; see C. Gautham and D. Snoke, “Modulation of two-photon excitation by a polariton condensate,” in Fundamental Optical Processes and Semiconductors 2013, Kodiak Island, Alaska, 12–16 August2013.

Snoke, D. W.

J. K. Wuenschell, N. W. Sinclair, Z. Voros, D. W. Snoke, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Darkening of interwell excitons in coupled quantum wells due to a stress-induced direct-to-indirect transistion,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 235415 (2015).
[Crossref]

Staehli, J.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. Keeling, F. Marchetti, M. Szymańska, R. André, J. Staehli, V. Savona, P. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. Dang, “Bose–Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Steger, M.

M. Steger, C. Gautham, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Slow reflection and two-photon generation of microcavity exciton-polaritons,” Optica 2, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Nelsen, G. Liu, M. Steger, D. Snoke, R. Balili, K. West, and L. Pfeiffer, “Dissipationless flow and sharp threshold of a polariton condensate with long lifetime,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Szymanska, M.

R. Hivet, E. Cancellieri, T. Boulier, D. Ballarini, D. Sanvitto, F. Marchetti, M. Szymanska, C. Ciuti, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Interaction-shaped vortex-antivortex lattices in polariton fluids,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 134501 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. Keeling, F. Marchetti, M. Szymańska, R. André, J. Staehli, V. Savona, P. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. Dang, “Bose–Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Szymanska, M. H.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. Laussy, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

Taylor, T.

A. V. Kavokin, I. A. Shelykh, T. Taylor, and M. M. Glazov, “Vertical cavity surface emitting terahertz laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 197401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tejedor, C.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. Laussy, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. Martin, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Vina, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457, 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Timofeev, V.

D. Sanvitto and V. Timofeev, Exciton Polaritons in Microcavities: New Frontiers (Springer, 2012).

Tosi, G.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. Laussy, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsotsis, P.

P. Cristofolini, A. Dreismann, G. Christmann, G. Franchetti, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Optical superfluid phase transitions and trapping of polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 186403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vina, L.

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. Martin, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Vina, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457, 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Viña, L.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. Laussy, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

Voros, Z.

J. K. Wuenschell, N. W. Sinclair, Z. Voros, D. W. Snoke, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Darkening of interwell excitons in coupled quantum wells due to a stress-induced direct-to-indirect transistion,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 235415 (2015).
[Crossref]

West, K.

M. Steger, C. Gautham, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Slow reflection and two-photon generation of microcavity exciton-polaritons,” Optica 2, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Liu, D. Snoke, A. Daley, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “A new type of half-quantum circulation in a macroscopic polariton spinor ring condensate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 2676–2681 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Nelsen, G. Liu, M. Steger, D. Snoke, R. Balili, K. West, and L. Pfeiffer, “Dissipationless flow and sharp threshold of a polariton condensate with long lifetime,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041015 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose–Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316, 1007–1010 (2007).
[Crossref]

West, K. W.

J. K. Wuenschell, N. W. Sinclair, Z. Voros, D. W. Snoke, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Darkening of interwell excitons in coupled quantum wells due to a stress-induced direct-to-indirect transistion,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 235415 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wolf, A.

C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Worschech, L.

C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wuenschell, J. K.

J. K. Wuenschell, N. W. Sinclair, Z. Voros, D. W. Snoke, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Darkening of interwell excitons in coupled quantum wells due to a stress-induced direct-to-indirect transistion,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 235415 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, B.

P. Bhattacharya, B. Xiao, A. Das, S. Bhowmick, and J. Heo, “Solid state electrically injected exciton-polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 206403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, Y.

T. Byrnes, N. Y. Kim, and Y. Yamamoto, “Exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 10, 803–813 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Deng, H. Haug, and Y. Yamamoto, “Exciton-polariton Bose–Einstein condensation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1489–1537 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (3)

T. Byrnes, N. Y. Kim, and Y. Yamamoto, “Exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 10, 803–813 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, J. Lefrere, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. Laussy, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. Martin, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, D. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Vina, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457, 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. Keeling, F. Marchetti, M. Szymańska, R. André, J. Staehli, V. Savona, P. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. Dang, “Bose–Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Schneider, A. Rahimi-Iman, N. Y. Kim, J. Fischer, I. G. Savenko, M. Amthor, M. Lermer, A. Wolf, L. Worschech, V. Kulakovskii, I. Shelykh, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and S. Höfling, “An electrically pumped polariton laser,” Nature 497, 348–352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

J. K. Wuenschell, N. W. Sinclair, Z. Voros, D. W. Snoke, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Darkening of interwell excitons in coupled quantum wells due to a stress-induced direct-to-indirect transistion,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 235415 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Schmutzler, M. Aßmann, T. Czerniuk, M. Kamp, C. Schneider, S. Hofling, and M. Bayer, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of exciton-polaritons in a GaAs-based microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 075103 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Hivet, E. Cancellieri, T. Boulier, D. Ballarini, D. Sanvitto, F. Marchetti, M. Szymanska, C. Ciuti, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Interaction-shaped vortex-antivortex lattices in polariton fluids,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 134501 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Manni, T. C. H. Liew, K. G. Lagoudakis, C. Ouellet-Plamondon, R. André, V. Savona, and B. Deveaud, “Spontaneous self-ordered states of vortex-antivortex pairs in a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 201303 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. V. Kavokin, I. A. Shelykh, T. Taylor, and M. M. Glazov, “Vertical cavity surface emitting terahertz laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 197401 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Bhattacharya, B. Xiao, A. Das, S. Bhowmick, and J. Heo, “Solid state electrically injected exciton-polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 206403 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Cristofolini, A. Dreismann, G. Christmann, G. Franchetti, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Optical superfluid phase transitions and trapping of polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 186403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

B. Nelsen, G. Liu, M. Steger, D. Snoke, R. Balili, K. West, and L. Pfeiffer, “Dissipationless flow and sharp threshold of a polariton condensate with long lifetime,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

G. Liu, D. Snoke, A. Daley, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “A new type of half-quantum circulation in a macroscopic polariton spinor ring condensate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 2676–2681 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

H. Deng, H. Haug, and Y. Yamamoto, “Exciton-polariton Bose–Einstein condensation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1489–1537 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Carusotto and C. Ciuti, “Quantum fluids of light,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 299–366 (2013).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose–Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316, 1007–1010 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. G. Lagoudakis, T. Ostatnický, A. V. Kavokin, Y. G. Rubo, R. André, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Observation of half-quantum vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Science 326, 974–976 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, and F. P. Laussy, Microcavities (Oxford University, 2007).

D. Sanvitto and V. Timofeev, Exciton Polaritons in Microcavities: New Frontiers (Springer, 2012).

S. Chaung, Physics of Photonic Devices, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, 2009), p. 399.

Preliminary results from this work were reported in August 2013; see C. Gautham and D. Snoke, “Modulation of two-photon excitation by a polariton condensate,” in Fundamental Optical Processes and Semiconductors 2013, Kodiak Island, Alaska, 12–16 August2013.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Time-averaged spectrum while exciting with half the energy of the lower polariton with a laser focused at x = 0    μm . There is a spatial gradient to the polariton energy, because there is a wedge in the cavity thickness across the sample. (b) Time-resolved spectrum at the generation spot while exciting with half the energy of the lower polariton. There is a fast rise time of the emission comparable to our time resolution, which indicates there is direct excitation of the lower polariton.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Power dependence of the polariton emission intensity at the creation spot. Solid line: fit to the square of the pump power, indicating two-photon absorption.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Intensity versus time for different pump wavelengths of (a) 1565 nm, (b) 1555 nm, (c) 1540 nm, (d) 1530 nm, (e) 1525 nm, and (f) 1515 nm. A fast initial peak appears when the median pump photon energy is at half the lower polariton energy ( λ = 1555    nm ). A later population dominates for higher pump energies.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Polariton emission intensity versus pump photon energy from the time-resolved data. (a) Initial peak intensity, showing maximum absorption at the lower polariton energy with a slight peak at the UP energy, (b) total integrated intensity, showing an increase in intensity as the energy is increased. The circles and diamonds represent two data sets viewed on two different days.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Time versus intensity at (a) 8.3 K and (b) 2.5 K. As the temperature is increased, the intensity of the latter peak decreases. (c) Summary of the late-time intensity data as a function of T .

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Intensity of the light from two-photon absorption versus the central in-plane momentum of the incoming light beam. The dots represent our data, and the solid line is a convolution fit A ( f * g ) + B , where f = k 4 and g = e k 2 σ 2 with σ 2 = 0.07 , which takes into account the finite width of our laser spot. A = 0.95 and B = 0.14 are scaling parameters that take into account background light. This indicates that the absorption is k 4 .

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Schematic of the experimental setup.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H L K | u k = ( P + Q S R 0 S / 2 2 R S * P Q 0 R 2 Q 3 / 2 S R 0 P Q S 3 / 2 S 2 Q 0 R * S * P + Q 2 R S * / 2 S * / 2 2 Q * 3 / 2 S 2 R P + δ 0 2 R * 3 / 2 S * 2 Q * S / 2 0 P + δ ) ( | 3 2 , 3 2 | 3 2 , 1 2 | 3 2 , 1 2 | 3 2 , 3 2 | 1 2 , 1 2 | 1 2 , 1 2 ) J , m j ,
P = γ 1 2 m 0 ( k x 2 + k y 2 + k z 2 ) , Q = γ 2 2 m 0 ( k x 2 + k y 2 2 k z 2 ) , R = 2 m 0 ( 3 γ 2 ( k x 2 k y 2 ) + i 2 3 γ 3 k x k y ) , S = γ 3 2 m 0 3 ( k x i k y ) k z .
| 3 2 , 3 2 + S Δ | 3 2 , 1 2 S Δ | 3 2 , 3 2 + | 3 2 , 1 2 , | 3 2 , 3 2 + S Δ | 3 2 , 1 2 S Δ | 3 2 , 3 2 + | 3 2 , 1 2 .
| 3 2 , 1 2 = 1 6 | ( cos θ cos φ i sin φ ) x ^ + ( cos θ sin φ + i cos φ ) y ^ sin θ z ^ | + 2 3 | sin θ cos φ x ^ + sin θ sin φ y ^ + cos θ z ^ | ,
| 3 2 , 1 2 = 1 6 | ( cos θ cos φ + i sin φ ) x ^ + ( cos θ sin φ i cos φ ) y ^ sin θ z ^ | + 2 3 | sin θ cos φ x ^ + sin θ sin φ y ^ + cos θ z ^ | ,
i S | p | 3 2 , 1 2 = 2 3 ( sin θ cos φ x ^ + sin θ sin φ y ^ + cos θ z ^ ) P ,
i S | p | 3 2 , 1 2 = 2 3 ( sin θ cos φ x ^ + sin θ sin φ y ^ + cos θ z ^ ) P ,

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