Abstract

If we are to utilize deep-subwavelength plasmonic waveguides in photonic integrated circuit applications, highly efficient three-dimensional (3D) mode conversion must be achieved between deep-subwavelength plasmonic waveguides and conventional dielectric waveguides such as Si-wire waveguides. Here, we describe 3D mode conversion from a Si-wire waveguide (the core size is 400  nm×200  nm) to a plasmonic slot waveguide (the air core size is 50  nm×20  nm) with a coupling loss of 1.7 dB. Our mode converter has only a two-dimensional laterally tapered structure even with the presence of a large discontinuity in the thickness, and can still produce efficient full 3D mode conversion with a very short taper length (600 nm). Calculation results obtained with the finite element method agreed well with the experimental results. We believe our mode converter will provide a new deep-subwavelength photonic platform.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

M. P. Nielsen, L. Lafone, A. Rakovich, T. P. Sidiropoulos, M. Rahmani, S. A. Maier, and R. F. Oulton, “Adiabatic nanofocusing in hybrid gap plasmon waveguides on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Nano Lett. 16, 1410–1414 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40  Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23, 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct conversion of free space millimeter waves to optical domain by plasmonic modulator antenna,” Nano Lett. 15, 8342–8346 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Han, I. P. Radko, N. Mazurski, B. Desiatov, J. Beermann, O. Albrektsen, U. Levy, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “On-chip detection of radiation guided by dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 15, 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

K. C. Y. Huang, M. K. Seo, T. Sarmiento, Y. J. Huo, J. S. Harris, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically driven subwavelength optical nanocircuits,” Nat. Photonics 8, 244–249 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Y. S. No, J. H. Choi, H. S. Ee, M. S. Hwang, K. Y. Jeong, E. K. Lee, M. K. Seo, S. H. Kwon, and H. G. Park, “A double-strip plasmonic waveguide coupled to an electrically driven nanowire LED,” Nano Lett. 13, 772–776 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

H. Choo, M. K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal-insulator-metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6, 838–844 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express 19, 8888–8902 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5, 283–287 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, “Experimental realization of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides on a silicon platform,” Opt. Lett. 35, 502–504 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. X. Yang, R. A. Wahsheh, Z. L. Lu, and M. A. G. Abushagur, “Efficient light coupling between dielectric slot waveguide and plasmonic slot waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 35, 649–651 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Electrical excitation of confined surface plasmon polaritons in metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10, 1429–1432 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4, 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 283–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Vedantam, H. Lee, J. Tang, J. Conway, M. Staffaroni, and E. Yablonovitch, “A plasmonic dimple lens for nanoscale focusing of light,” Nano Lett. 9, 3447–3452 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 013504 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys. 10, 105018 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Veronis and S. H. Fan, “Modes of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2511–2521 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

L. Chen, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Subwavelength confinement in an integrated metal slot waveguide on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2133–2135 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Abushagur, M. A. G.

Albrektsen, O.

Z. Han, I. P. Radko, N. Mazurski, B. Desiatov, J. Beermann, O. Albrektsen, U. Levy, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “On-chip detection of radiation guided by dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 15, 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alonso-González, P.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5, 283–287 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arzubiaga, L.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5, 283–287 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baeuerle, B.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys. 10, 105018 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beermann, J.

Z. Han, I. P. Radko, N. Mazurski, B. Desiatov, J. Beermann, O. Albrektsen, U. Levy, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “On-chip detection of radiation guided by dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 15, 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bokor, J.

H. Choo, M. K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal-insulator-metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6, 838–844 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bonjour, R.

Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct conversion of free space millimeter waves to optical domain by plasmonic modulator antenna,” Nano Lett. 15, 8342–8346 (2015).
[Crossref]

Borghs, G.

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Electrical excitation of confined surface plasmon polaritons in metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10, 1429–1432 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 283–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Z. Han, I. P. Radko, N. Mazurski, B. Desiatov, J. Beermann, O. Albrektsen, U. Levy, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “On-chip detection of radiation guided by dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 15, 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4, 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

K. C. Y. Huang, M. K. Seo, T. Sarmiento, Y. J. Huo, J. S. Harris, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically driven subwavelength optical nanocircuits,” Nat. Photonics 8, 244–249 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cabrini, S.

H. Choo, M. K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal-insulator-metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6, 838–844 (2012).
[Crossref]

Casanova, F.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5, 283–287 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, D. E.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Choi, J. H.

Y. S. No, J. H. Choi, H. S. Ee, M. S. Hwang, K. Y. Jeong, E. K. Lee, M. K. Seo, S. H. Kwon, and H. G. Park, “A double-strip plasmonic waveguide coupled to an electrically driven nanowire LED,” Nano Lett. 13, 772–776 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choo, H.

H. Choo, M. K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal-insulator-metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6, 838–844 (2012).
[Crossref]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Chuvilin, A.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5, 283–287 (2011).
[Crossref]

Conway, J.

S. Vedantam, H. Lee, J. Tang, J. Conway, M. Staffaroni, and E. Yablonovitch, “A plasmonic dimple lens for nanoscale focusing of light,” Nano Lett. 9, 3447–3452 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L. R.

Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct conversion of free space millimeter waves to optical domain by plasmonic modulator antenna,” Nano Lett. 15, 8342–8346 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40  Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23, 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref]

De Vlaminck, I.

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 283–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Demler, E. A.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007).
[Crossref]

Desiatov, B.

Z. Han, I. P. Radko, N. Mazurski, B. Desiatov, J. Beermann, O. Albrektsen, U. Levy, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “On-chip detection of radiation guided by dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 15, 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dinu, R.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ducry, F.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ee, H. S.

Y. S. No, J. H. Choi, H. S. Ee, M. S. Hwang, K. Y. Jeong, E. K. Lee, M. K. Seo, S. H. Kwon, and H. G. Park, “A double-strip plasmonic waveguide coupled to an electrically driven nanowire LED,” Nano Lett. 13, 772–776 (2013).
[Crossref]

Elder, D. L.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40  Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23, 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Muehlbrandt, S.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40  Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23, 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Muslija, A.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Neutens, P.

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Electrical excitation of confined surface plasmon polaritons in metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10, 1429–1432 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 283–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Niegemann, J.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, M. P.

M. P. Nielsen, L. Lafone, A. Rakovich, T. P. Sidiropoulos, M. Rahmani, S. A. Maier, and R. F. Oulton, “Adiabatic nanofocusing in hybrid gap plasmon waveguides on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Nano Lett. 16, 1410–1414 (2016).
[Crossref]

No, Y. S.

Y. S. No, J. H. Choi, H. S. Ee, M. S. Hwang, K. Y. Jeong, E. K. Lee, M. K. Seo, S. H. Kwon, and H. G. Park, “A double-strip plasmonic waveguide coupled to an electrically driven nanowire LED,” Nano Lett. 13, 772–776 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oulton, R. F.

M. P. Nielsen, L. Lafone, A. Rakovich, T. P. Sidiropoulos, M. Rahmani, S. A. Maier, and R. F. Oulton, “Adiabatic nanofocusing in hybrid gap plasmon waveguides on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Nano Lett. 16, 1410–1414 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys. 10, 105018 (2008).
[Crossref]

Palmer, R.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40  Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23, 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, H. G.

Y. S. No, J. H. Choi, H. S. Ee, M. S. Hwang, K. Y. Jeong, E. K. Lee, M. K. Seo, S. H. Kwon, and H. G. Park, “A double-strip plasmonic waveguide coupled to an electrically driven nanowire LED,” Nano Lett. 13, 772–776 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys. 10, 105018 (2008).
[Crossref]

Qiu, M.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 013504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Radko, I. P.

Z. Han, I. P. Radko, N. Mazurski, B. Desiatov, J. Beermann, O. Albrektsen, U. Levy, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “On-chip detection of radiation guided by dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 15, 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rahmani, M.

M. P. Nielsen, L. Lafone, A. Rakovich, T. P. Sidiropoulos, M. Rahmani, S. A. Maier, and R. F. Oulton, “Adiabatic nanofocusing in hybrid gap plasmon waveguides on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Nano Lett. 16, 1410–1414 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rakovich, A.

M. P. Nielsen, L. Lafone, A. Rakovich, T. P. Sidiropoulos, M. Rahmani, S. A. Maier, and R. F. Oulton, “Adiabatic nanofocusing in hybrid gap plasmon waveguides on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Nano Lett. 16, 1410–1414 (2016).
[Crossref]

Salamin, Y.

Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct conversion of free space millimeter waves to optical domain by plasmonic modulator antenna,” Nano Lett. 15, 8342–8346 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sarmiento, T.

K. C. Y. Huang, M. K. Seo, T. Sarmiento, Y. J. Huo, J. S. Harris, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically driven subwavelength optical nanocircuits,” Nat. Photonics 8, 244–249 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schindler, P. C.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40  Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23, 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schnell, M.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5, 283–287 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schuck, P. J.

H. Choo, M. K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal-insulator-metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6, 838–844 (2012).
[Crossref]

Seo, M. K.

K. C. Y. Huang, M. K. Seo, T. Sarmiento, Y. J. Huo, J. S. Harris, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically driven subwavelength optical nanocircuits,” Nat. Photonics 8, 244–249 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. S. No, J. H. Choi, H. S. Ee, M. S. Hwang, K. Y. Jeong, E. K. Lee, M. K. Seo, S. H. Kwon, and H. G. Park, “A double-strip plasmonic waveguide coupled to an electrically driven nanowire LED,” Nano Lett. 13, 772–776 (2013).
[Crossref]

Seok, T. J.

H. Choo, M. K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal-insulator-metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6, 838–844 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shakya, J.

Sidiropoulos, T. P.

M. P. Nielsen, L. Lafone, A. Rakovich, T. P. Sidiropoulos, M. Rahmani, S. A. Maier, and R. F. Oulton, “Adiabatic nanofocusing in hybrid gap plasmon waveguides on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Nano Lett. 16, 1410–1414 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sommer, M.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40  Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23, 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sørensen, A. S.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006).
[Crossref]

Staffaroni, M.

H. Choo, M. K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal-insulator-metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6, 838–844 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Vedantam, H. Lee, J. Tang, J. Conway, M. Staffaroni, and E. Yablonovitch, “A plasmonic dimple lens for nanoscale focusing of light,” Nano Lett. 9, 3447–3452 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tang, J.

S. Vedantam, H. Lee, J. Tang, J. Conway, M. Staffaroni, and E. Yablonovitch, “A plasmonic dimple lens for nanoscale focusing of light,” Nano Lett. 9, 3447–3452 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 013504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van, V.

Van Dorpe, P.

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Electrical excitation of confined surface plasmon polaritons in metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10, 1429–1432 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 283–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40  Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23, 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vedantam, S.

S. Vedantam, H. Lee, J. Tang, J. Conway, M. Staffaroni, and E. Yablonovitch, “A plasmonic dimple lens for nanoscale focusing of light,” Nano Lett. 9, 3447–3452 (2009).
[Crossref]

Veronis, G.

Wahsheh, R. A.

Wolf, S.

Wu, M. C.

H. Choo, M. K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal-insulator-metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6, 838–844 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yablonovitch, E.

H. Choo, M. K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal-insulator-metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6, 838–844 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Vedantam, H. Lee, J. Tang, J. Conway, M. Staffaroni, and E. Yablonovitch, “A plasmonic dimple lens for nanoscale focusing of light,” Nano Lett. 9, 3447–3452 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yan, W.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 013504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, R. X.

Yu, S.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 013504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zahner, M.

Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct conversion of free space millimeter waves to optical domain by plasmonic modulator antenna,” Nano Lett. 15, 8342–8346 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys. 10, 105018 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 013504 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nano Lett. (6)

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Electrical excitation of confined surface plasmon polaritons in metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10, 1429–1432 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. S. No, J. H. Choi, H. S. Ee, M. S. Hwang, K. Y. Jeong, E. K. Lee, M. K. Seo, S. H. Kwon, and H. G. Park, “A double-strip plasmonic waveguide coupled to an electrically driven nanowire LED,” Nano Lett. 13, 772–776 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Han, I. P. Radko, N. Mazurski, B. Desiatov, J. Beermann, O. Albrektsen, U. Levy, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “On-chip detection of radiation guided by dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 15, 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. P. Nielsen, L. Lafone, A. Rakovich, T. P. Sidiropoulos, M. Rahmani, S. A. Maier, and R. F. Oulton, “Adiabatic nanofocusing in hybrid gap plasmon waveguides on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Nano Lett. 16, 1410–1414 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct conversion of free space millimeter waves to optical domain by plasmonic modulator antenna,” Nano Lett. 15, 8342–8346 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Vedantam, H. Lee, J. Tang, J. Conway, M. Staffaroni, and E. Yablonovitch, “A plasmonic dimple lens for nanoscale focusing of light,” Nano Lett. 9, 3447–3452 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (7)

H. Choo, M. K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal-insulator-metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6, 838–844 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 283–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. C. Y. Huang, M. K. Seo, T. Sarmiento, Y. J. Huo, J. S. Harris, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically driven subwavelength optical nanocircuits,” Nat. Photonics 8, 244–249 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5, 283–287 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4, 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys. 10, 105018 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Supplementary Material (1)

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» Supplement 1: PDF (1440 KB)      Supplemental document

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic structure of the mode converter. The width and height of the Si-wire waveguide are 400 and 200 nm, respectively. (b) Cross-sectional top view of the structure. (c) Cross-sectional side view of the MIM waveguide at the red broken line shown in (a).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Cross-sectional top view of the calculated field profile at y=10  nm. Scale bar, 500 nm. (b) Cross-sectional side views of the calculated field profile in the tapered region. Scale bar, 200 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated coupling loss. Taper length dependence of the coupling loss for (a) Au thickness of 20 nm and slot widths of 50–70 nm and (b) Au thicknesses of 20–40 nm and slot width of 70 nm. (c) Gap width dependence of the calculated coupling loss for a taper length of 600 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) SEM image of the fabricated mode converter with a taper length of 400 nm, 70  nm×20  nm slot, and 40 nm gap between the Si taper and metal. Scale bar, 1 μm. (b)–(d) Top-view SEM images for slot widths of (b) 50, (c) 60, and (d) 70 nm. Scale bar, 100 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Transmission spectra of the mode converter (sample A) and reference structures (reference, reference Si-wire waveguide; sample B, structure without metal parts; sample C, structure without a slot in the metal). The Fabry–Perot (FP) oscillation is caused by large reflectance at the cleaved sample edges and finite reflectance at the central element. This FP oscillation is consistent with the reflectance estimated in Fig. S2 (see Supplement 1). (b) Slot length dependence of the transmittance T, which is the average relative transmittance in the measured wavelength range, in sample A.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Coupling and propagation losses obtained with a transmission measurement. Taper length dependence of the coupling loss for (a) Au thickness of 20 nm and slot widths of 50–70 nm and (b) Au thicknesses of 20–40 nm and slot width of 70 nm. Taper length dependence of the propagation loss for (c) Au thickness of 20 nm and slot widths of 50–70 nm and (d) Au thicknesses of 20–40 nm and slot width of 70 nm. (e) Gap width dependence of the coupling loss for taper lengths of 300–600 nm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Field enhancement factor η, which is the ratio of the electric field intensity averaged over a cross-section of the MIM waveguide slot to that of the Si-wire waveguide core, at the entrance of the MIM waveguide for a taper length of 600 nm.

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