Abstract

Low-noise, high-repetition-rate mode-locked solid-state lasers are attractive for precision measurement and microwave generation, but the best lasers in terms of noise performance still consist of complex, bulky optical setups, which limits their range of applications. In this Letter, we present an approach for producing highly stable pulse trains with a record-low residual integrated offset frequency phase noise of 14 mrad at 1 GHz fundamental repetition rate using a monolithic mode-locked solid-state laser. The compact monolithic design simplifies implementation of the laser by fixing the cavity parameters and operates using just 265 mW of 980 nm pump light.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

2015 (4)

2014 (4)

C.-C. Lee and T. R. Schibli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 223903 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, J. D. Deschenes, Y. Fu, S. A. Diddams, and J. C. Campbell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 203901 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, P. Qin, Y. Song, H. Yang, J. Shin, C. Kim, K. Jung, C. Wang, and J. Kim, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 901108 (2014).

F. Quinlan, F. N. Baynes, T. M. Fortier, Q. Zhou, A. Cross, J. C. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 39, 1581 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

2011 (3)

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 063901 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Sanatarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Byun, D. Pudo, S. Frolov, A. Hanjani, J. Shmulovich, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 763 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. G. Thompson, A. R. Rae, M. Xia, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 661 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 30, 667 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, Electron. Lett. 41, 650 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

R. Paschotta, Appl. Phys. B 79, 163 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

1964 (1)

F. Gires and P. Tournois, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 258, 6112 (1964).

Abgrall, M.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Acedo, P.

Bartels, A.

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 30, 667 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, Electron. Lett. 41, 650 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baynes, F. N.

Beecher, S. J.

Beha, K.

W. Hänsel, M. Giunta, K. Beha, M. Lezius, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper ATh4A.2.

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 30, 667 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bize, S.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boudot, R.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Sanatarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brasch, V.

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[Crossref]

Brown, C. T. A.

Brown, G.

Byer, R. L.

Byun, H.

H. Byun, D. Pudo, S. Frolov, A. Hanjani, J. Shmulovich, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 763 (2009).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. C.

W. Sun, F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, J. D. Deschenes, Y. Fu, S. A. Diddams, and J. C. Campbell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 203901 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Quinlan, F. N. Baynes, T. M. Fortier, Q. Zhou, A. Cross, J. C. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 39, 1581 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carpintero, G.

Chann, B.

Choudhary, A.

Clairon, A.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Criado, A. R.

Cross, A.

de Dios, C.

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 063901 (2011).
[Crossref]

der Au, J. A.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[Crossref]

Deschenes, J. D.

W. Sun, F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, J. D. Deschenes, Y. Fu, S. A. Diddams, and J. C. Campbell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 203901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

W. Sun, F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, J. D. Deschenes, Y. Fu, S. A. Diddams, and J. C. Campbell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 203901 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Quinlan, F. N. Baynes, T. M. Fortier, Q. Zhou, A. Cross, J. C. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 39, 1581 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 30, 667 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, Electron. Lett. 41, 650 (2005).
[Crossref]

Eliyahu, D.

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

English, E. M. L.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feldman, A.

Fermann, M. E.

Ferrari, A. C.

Fischer, M.

W. Hänsel, M. Giunta, K. Beha, M. Lezius, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper ATh4A.2.

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fortier, T. M.

W. Sun, F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, J. D. Deschenes, Y. Fu, S. A. Diddams, and J. C. Campbell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 203901 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Quinlan, F. N. Baynes, T. M. Fortier, Q. Zhou, A. Cross, J. C. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 39, 1581 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
[Crossref]

Frolov, S.

H. Byun, D. Pudo, S. Frolov, A. Hanjani, J. Shmulovich, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 763 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fu, Y.

W. Sun, F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, J. D. Deschenes, Y. Fu, S. A. Diddams, and J. C. Campbell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 203901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gavartin, E.

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 063901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gires, F.

F. Gires and P. Tournois, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 258, 6112 (1964).

Giunta, M.

W. Hänsel, M. Giunta, K. Beha, M. Lezius, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper ATh4A.2.

Gopinath, J. T.

Grein, M. E.

Guéna, J.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hanjani, A.

H. Byun, D. Pudo, S. Frolov, A. Hanjani, J. Shmulovich, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 763 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hänsel, W.

W. Hänsel, M. Giunta, K. Beha, M. Lezius, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper ATh4A.2.

Harvey, T.

Hasan, T.

Hayashi, Y.

Herr, T.

J. D. Jost, T. Herr, C. Lecaplain, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, and T. J. Kippenberg, Optica 2, 706 (2015).

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 063901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hollberg, L.

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 30, 667 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, Electron. Lett. 41, 650 (2005).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 063901 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Hänsel, M. Giunta, K. Beha, M. Lezius, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper ATh4A.2.

Hönninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[Crossref]

Huang, R. K.

Ilchenko, V. S.

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

H. Byun, D. Pudo, S. Frolov, A. Hanjani, J. Shmulovich, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 763 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, E. P. Ippen, C. McNeilage, J. Searls, and H. Yokoyama, Opt. Lett. 27, 49 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, E. N.

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, Electron. Lett. 41, 650 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jeon, C.

J. Kim, K. Jung, J. Shin, C. Jeon, and D. Kwon, J. Lightwave Technol. (2016, to be published).

Jiang, H.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J.

Jiang, L. A.

Jiang, Y.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jost, J. D.

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jung, K.

H. Kim, P. Qin, Y. Song, H. Yang, J. Shin, C. Kim, K. Jung, C. Wang, and J. Kim, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 901108 (2014).

J. Kim, K. Jung, J. Shin, C. Jeon, and D. Kwon, J. Lightwave Technol. (2016, to be published).

Juodawlkis, P. W.

Kane, T. J.

Kannan, P.

Kar, A. K.

Kärtner, F. X.

H. Byun, D. Pudo, S. Frolov, A. Hanjani, J. Shmulovich, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 763 (2009).
[Crossref]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kersale, Y.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Sanatarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, C.

H. Kim, P. Qin, Y. Song, H. Yang, J. Shin, C. Kim, K. Jung, C. Wang, and J. Kim, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 901108 (2014).

Kim, H.

H. Kim, P. Qin, Y. Song, H. Yang, J. Shin, C. Kim, K. Jung, C. Wang, and J. Kim, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 901108 (2014).

Kim, J.

H. Kim, P. Qin, Y. Song, H. Yang, J. Shin, C. Kim, K. Jung, C. Wang, and J. Kim, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 901108 (2014).

J. Kim, K. Jung, J. Shin, C. Jeon, and D. Kwon, J. Lightwave Technol. (2016, to be published).

Kippenberg, T. J.

J. D. Jost, T. Herr, C. Lecaplain, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, and T. J. Kippenberg, Optica 2, 706 (2015).

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 063901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kirchner, M. S.

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J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
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T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
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T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
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W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Sanatarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105 (2010).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
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Science (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
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Other (2)

J. Kim, K. Jung, J. Shin, C. Jeon, and D. Kwon, J. Lightwave Technol. (2016, to be published).

W. Hänsel, M. Giunta, K. Beha, M. Lezius, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper ATh4A.2.

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1: PDF (1250 KB)      Theoretical Phase Noise Estimates

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Assembled cavity for size (top). The two CaF2 pieces and the laser glass are joined permanently by chemically activated bonding or temporarily by an appropriate index-matching oil. The SESAM (semiconductor saturable absorber mirror) was attached via index-matching oil but could also be affixed via more permanent bonding techniques. The mirror coatings, including a third-order dispersion compensating mirror, were directly deposited on the CaF2 spacer. The angle between the glass and the CaF2 ensured linear polarization of the laser light.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated temperature distribution in the laser glass under 500 mW pumping at 977 nm. (a) Traditional method: side-cooled laser glass. (b) Laser glass heat-sunk through the CaF2 cavity spacer. The CaF2 heat sink dramatically lowers the laser glass surface temperature from 117 K above ambient for side-cooled glass to only 32 K above ambient when cooled through the CaF2 spacer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Top) Experimental setup of the fiber amplifier. ISO, isolator; LD, laser diode; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; PM-SMF, polarization maintaining single-mode fiber; PM-EDF, polarization maintaining erbium-doped fiber. (a) Optical spectrum directly from the monolithic laser, showing a 24 nm FWHM bandwidth (107  fs Fourier limit) at 65 mW average power. (b) RF spectrum around the fundamental repetition rate measured at 100 Hz resolution bandwidth (RBW), showing no relaxation oscillation-related noise peaks. Inset: measured RIN spectrum of the unstabilized laser (cyan) with an integrated (10 Hz–100 kHz) RMS RIN noise of <23  ppm, electronics noise floor (gray), and calculated shot-noise floor (purple). (c) Optical spectrum after parabolic amplification to 630 mW average power. Inset: measured intensity autocorrelation (red) and Fourier transform limit calculated from the optical spectrum (blue).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Free-running fceo beat note at 100 kHz RBW and averaged over 100 traces. The pronounced sidebands are due to soliton-continuum interaction [30], showing a <9  mrad nonlinear phase shift per round-trip. (b) Free-running fceo jitter of the monolithic laser over 7 h of continuous operation. (c) Residual single-sided phase-noise power spectral density (PSD) of fceo when locked to an electronic synthesizer at 465 MHz. Below 1 kHz, the residual PSD, including spurs, was limited by the synthesizer.

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