Abstract

We demonstrate the transduction of macroscopic quantum entanglement by independent, distant plasmonic structures embedded in separate thin silver films. In particular, we show that the plasmon-mediated transmission through each film conserves spatially dependent, entangled quantum images, opening the door for the implementation of parallel quantum protocols, super-resolution imaging, and quantum plasmonic sensing geometries at the nanoscale level. The conservation of quantum information by the transduction process shows that continuous variable multi-mode entanglement is momentarily transferred from entangled beams of light to the space-like separated, completely independent plasmonic structures, thus providing a first important step toward establishing a multichannel quantum network across separate solid-state substrates.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

R. C. Pooser and B. J. Lawrie, ACS Photon. 3, 8 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

D. Wang, C. Xia, Q. Wang, Y. Wu, F. Liu, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. B 91, 121406 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Li, C.-L. Zou, X.-F. Ren, X. Xiong, Y.-J. Cai, G.-P. Guo, L.-M. Tong, and G.-C. Guo, Nano Lett. 15, 2380 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Fan, B. J. Lawrie, and R. C. Pooser, Phys. Rev. A 92, 053812 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, M. Meinders, H. Müller-Ebhardt, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Nat. Photonics 7, 626 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. J. Lawrie, P. G. Evans, and R. C. Pooser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 156802 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

G. Di Martino, Y. Sonnefraud, S. Kéna-Cohen, M. Tame, S. K. Özdemir, M. S. Kim, and S. A. Maier, Nano Lett. 12, 2504 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, M. Tame, J. Lim, and J. Lee, Phys. Rev. A 85, 063823 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

X. Wang, M. Jefferson, P. C. Hobbs, W. P. Risk, B. E. Feller, R. D. Miller, and A. Knoesen, Opt. Express 19, 107 (2011).
[Crossref]

G.-Y. Chen, N. Lambert, C.-H. Chou, Y.-N. Chen, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 84, 045310 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Jacob and V. Shalaev, Science 334, 463 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

A. Huck, S. Smolka, P. Lodahl, A. S. Sørensen, A. Boltasseva, J. Janousek, and U. L. Andersen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 246802 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, Nat. Photonics 3, 388 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Ballester, M. S. Tame, C. Lee, J. Lee, and M. S. Kim, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053845 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kabashin, S. Patskovsky, and A. N. Grigorenko, Opt. Express 17, 21191 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Piliarik and J. Homola, Opt. Express 17, 16505 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, Science 321, 544 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

E. Ozbay, Science 311, 189 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

A. V. Zayats and I. I. Smolyaninov, J. Opt. A 5, S16 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

E. Altewischer, M. van Exter, and J. Woerdman, Nature 418, 304 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

L. M. Duan, G. Giedke, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2722 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. Ebbesen, H. Lezec, H. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[Crossref]

Altewischer, E.

E. Altewischer, M. van Exter, and J. Woerdman, Nature 418, 304 (2002).
[Crossref]

Andersen, U. L.

A. Huck, S. Smolka, P. Lodahl, A. S. Sørensen, A. Boltasseva, J. Janousek, and U. L. Andersen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 246802 (2009).
[Crossref]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arimondo, E.

Atkinson, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baida, F. I.

Ballester, D.

D. Ballester, M. S. Tame, C. Lee, J. Lee, and M. S. Kim, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053845 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bauchrowitz, J.

S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, M. Meinders, H. Müller-Ebhardt, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Nat. Photonics 7, 626 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

A. Huck, S. Smolka, P. Lodahl, A. S. Sørensen, A. Boltasseva, J. Janousek, and U. L. Andersen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 246802 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boyer, V.

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, Science 321, 544 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. F. McCormick, V. Boyer, E. Arimondo, and P. D. Lett, Opt. Lett. 32, 178 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y.-J.

M. Li, C.-L. Zou, X.-F. Ren, X. Xiong, Y.-J. Cai, G.-P. Guo, L.-M. Tong, and G.-C. Guo, Nano Lett. 15, 2380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.-Y.

G.-Y. Chen, N. Lambert, C.-H. Chou, Y.-N. Chen, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 84, 045310 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-N.

G.-Y. Chen, N. Lambert, C.-H. Chou, Y.-N. Chen, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 84, 045310 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chou, C.-H.

G.-Y. Chen, N. Lambert, C.-H. Chou, Y.-N. Chen, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 84, 045310 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cirac, J. I.

L. M. Duan, G. Giedke, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2722 (2000).
[Crossref]

Danzmann, K.

S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, M. Meinders, H. Müller-Ebhardt, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Nat. Photonics 7, 626 (2013).
[Crossref]

Di Martino, G.

G. Di Martino, Y. Sonnefraud, S. Kéna-Cohen, M. Tame, S. K. Özdemir, M. S. Kim, and S. A. Maier, Nano Lett. 12, 2504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Duan, L. M.

L. M. Duan, G. Giedke, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2722 (2000).
[Crossref]

Duyne, R. P. V.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ebbesen, T.

T. Ebbesen, H. Lezec, H. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[Crossref]

Evans, P.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[Crossref]

Evans, P. G.

B. J. Lawrie, P. G. Evans, and R. C. Pooser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 156802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, W.

W. Fan, B. J. Lawrie, and R. C. Pooser, Phys. Rev. A 92, 053812 (2015).
[Crossref]

Feller, B. E.

Ghaemi, H.

T. Ebbesen, H. Lezec, H. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[Crossref]

Giedke, G.

L. M. Duan, G. Giedke, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2722 (2000).
[Crossref]

Grigorenko, A. N.

Guo, G.-C.

M. Li, C.-L. Zou, X.-F. Ren, X. Xiong, Y.-J. Cai, G.-P. Guo, L.-M. Tong, and G.-C. Guo, Nano Lett. 15, 2380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guo, G.-P.

M. Li, C.-L. Zou, X.-F. Ren, X. Xiong, Y.-J. Cai, G.-P. Guo, L.-M. Tong, and G.-C. Guo, Nano Lett. 15, 2380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hendren, W.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ho, H. P.

Hobbs, P. C.

Homola, J.

Huck, A.

A. Huck, S. Smolka, P. Lodahl, A. S. Sørensen, A. Boltasseva, J. Janousek, and U. L. Andersen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 246802 (2009).
[Crossref]

Inouye, Y.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, Nat. Photonics 3, 388 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jacob, Z.

Z. Jacob and V. Shalaev, Science 334, 463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Janousek, J.

A. Huck, S. Smolka, P. Lodahl, A. S. Sørensen, A. Boltasseva, J. Janousek, and U. L. Andersen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 246802 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jefferson, M.

Kabashin, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, S. Patskovsky, and A. N. Grigorenko, Opt. Express 17, 21191 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kawata, S.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, Nat. Photonics 3, 388 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kéna-Cohen, S.

G. Di Martino, Y. Sonnefraud, S. Kéna-Cohen, M. Tame, S. K. Özdemir, M. S. Kim, and S. A. Maier, Nano Lett. 12, 2504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. S.

G. Di Martino, Y. Sonnefraud, S. Kéna-Cohen, M. Tame, S. K. Özdemir, M. S. Kim, and S. A. Maier, Nano Lett. 12, 2504 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Ballester, M. S. Tame, C. Lee, J. Lee, and M. S. Kim, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053845 (2009).
[Crossref]

Knoesen, A.

Kong, S. K.

Lambert, N.

G.-Y. Chen, N. Lambert, C.-H. Chou, Y.-N. Chen, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 84, 045310 (2011).
[Crossref]

Law, W. C.

Lawrie, B. J.

R. C. Pooser and B. J. Lawrie, ACS Photon. 3, 8 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Fan, B. J. Lawrie, and R. C. Pooser, Phys. Rev. A 92, 053812 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. J. Lawrie, P. G. Evans, and R. C. Pooser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 156802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

C. Lee, M. Tame, J. Lim, and J. Lee, Phys. Rev. A 85, 063823 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Ballester, M. S. Tame, C. Lee, J. Lee, and M. S. Kim, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053845 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

C. Lee, M. Tame, J. Lim, and J. Lee, Phys. Rev. A 85, 063823 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Ballester, M. S. Tame, C. Lee, J. Lee, and M. S. Kim, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053845 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lett, P. D.

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, Science 321, 544 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. F. McCormick, V. Boyer, E. Arimondo, and P. D. Lett, Opt. Lett. 32, 178 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lezec, H.

T. Ebbesen, H. Lezec, H. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

M. Li, C.-L. Zou, X.-F. Ren, X. Xiong, Y.-J. Cai, G.-P. Guo, L.-M. Tong, and G.-C. Guo, Nano Lett. 15, 2380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lim, J.

C. Lee, M. Tame, J. Lim, and J. Lee, Phys. Rev. A 85, 063823 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

Liu, F.

D. Wang, C. Xia, Q. Wang, Y. Wu, F. Liu, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. B 91, 121406 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lodahl, P.

A. Huck, S. Smolka, P. Lodahl, A. S. Sørensen, A. Boltasseva, J. Janousek, and U. L. Andersen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 246802 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[Crossref]

Maier, S. A.

G. Di Martino, Y. Sonnefraud, S. Kéna-Cohen, M. Tame, S. K. Özdemir, M. S. Kim, and S. A. Maier, Nano Lett. 12, 2504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Marino, A. M.

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, Science 321, 544 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[Crossref]

McCormick, C. F.

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. F. McCormick, V. Boyer, E. Arimondo, and P. D. Lett, Opt. Lett. 32, 178 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meinders, M.

S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, M. Meinders, H. Müller-Ebhardt, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Nat. Photonics 7, 626 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miller, R. D.

Müller-Ebhardt, H.

S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, M. Meinders, H. Müller-Ebhardt, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Nat. Photonics 7, 626 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nori, F.

G.-Y. Chen, N. Lambert, C.-H. Chou, Y.-N. Chen, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 84, 045310 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, Science 311, 189 (2006).
[Crossref]

Özdemir, S. K.

G. Di Martino, Y. Sonnefraud, S. Kéna-Cohen, M. Tame, S. K. Özdemir, M. S. Kim, and S. A. Maier, Nano Lett. 12, 2504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pastkovsky, S.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[Crossref]

Patskovsky, S.

Piliarik, M.

Podolskiy, V. A.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pollard, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pooser, R. C.

R. C. Pooser and B. J. Lawrie, ACS Photon. 3, 8 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Fan, B. J. Lawrie, and R. C. Pooser, Phys. Rev. A 92, 053812 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. J. Lawrie, P. G. Evans, and R. C. Pooser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 156802 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, Science 321, 544 (2008).
[Crossref]

Poujet, Y.

Ren, X.-F.

M. Li, C.-L. Zou, X.-F. Ren, X. Xiong, Y.-J. Cai, G.-P. Guo, L.-M. Tong, and G.-C. Guo, Nano Lett. 15, 2380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Risk, W. P.

Salvi, J.

Schnabel, R.

S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, M. Meinders, H. Müller-Ebhardt, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Nat. Photonics 7, 626 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V.

Z. Jacob and V. Shalaev, Science 334, 463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Smolka, S.

A. Huck, S. Smolka, P. Lodahl, A. S. Sørensen, A. Boltasseva, J. Janousek, and U. L. Andersen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 246802 (2009).
[Crossref]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

A. V. Zayats and I. I. Smolyaninov, J. Opt. A 5, S16 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sonnefraud, Y.

G. Di Martino, Y. Sonnefraud, S. Kéna-Cohen, M. Tame, S. K. Özdemir, M. S. Kim, and S. A. Maier, Nano Lett. 12, 2504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sørensen, A. S.

A. Huck, S. Smolka, P. Lodahl, A. S. Sørensen, A. Boltasseva, J. Janousek, and U. L. Andersen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 246802 (2009).
[Crossref]

Steinlechner, S.

S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, M. Meinders, H. Müller-Ebhardt, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Nat. Photonics 7, 626 (2013).
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Tame, M.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of experimental setup. FWM in a rubidium atomic vapor cell is used to generate entangled images. The images are sent through two independent plasmonic structures to study the effect of the EOT process on the spatial and entanglement properties. Double balanced homodyne detection is used to characterize the entanglement. A second FWM process is implemented in parallel to generate the local oscillators required for the homodyne detection. The inset shows the double-Λ energy level structure on which the FWM is based. AOM, acousto-optic modulator; BS, beam splitter; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; HD, homodyne detector; DLP, digital light processor; SA, spectrum analyzer; HJ, hybrid junction.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Plasmon-mediated EOT. (a) Transmission spectra for the probe (blue) and conjugate (red) plasmonic structures. More than 60% and 50% transmission is observed at the operating wavelength of 795 nm for the conjugate and probe, respectively. The dotted line shows the transmission spectrum obtained from COMSOL finite element modeling. (b) SEM image of the triangular nanohole arrays. (c) Electric field distribution at the air–silver interface. The input electric field is polarized along the base of the triangle.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Effect of EOT on spatial information. The central figure shows the input probe beam generated with the DLP before the FWM. The top row shows the entangled images generated by the FWM process before the plasmonic structures, while the lower row shows the entangled images after transduction through the plasmonic structures.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Normalized noise as a function of the linear phase scan in time of the LOs (a) before and (c) after the plasmonic films measured at 1 MHz RF sideband with a resolution bandwidth of 30 kHz and a video bandwidth of 100 Hz. The blue (red) trace corresponds to the sum (difference) signal between the two homodyne detectors. The minimum levels correspond to the normalized noise of the joint quadratures required to characterize the inseparability parameter. The dotted line at zero corresponds to the SQL. (b) Spatial profile of the LOs used for the probe and conjugate homodyne detectors.

Equations (1)

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I=(ΔX^)2+(ΔY^+)2<2,

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