Abstract

Most coherent imaging methods, such as holography, cannot be directly applied to fluorescent light emission, because it is spatially incoherent. We introduce coherent holographic image reconstruction by phase transfer (CHIRPT), an imaging technique that transfers the spatial phase of coherent illumination light to temporal modulations of the emitted fluorescence intensity. The spatial phase information encoded in the temporal modulations is exploited to digitally propagate fluorescent light to render two-dimensional images from a temporal signal obtained from a single-pixel photodetector. The image formation mechanism of CHIRPT provides much larger imaging depths of field than conventional imaging, permitting data far away from the focal plane to be digitally refocused.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2013 (2)

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2009 (1)

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2007 (1)

2005 (2)

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J.-A. Conchello and J. W. Lichtman, Nat. Methods 2, 920 (2005).
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J. Zhang, R. E. Campbell, A. Y. Ting, and R. Y. Tsien, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 3, 906 (2002).
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W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
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P. Davidovits and M. D. Egger, Nature 223, 831 (1969).

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J. J. Field, K. A. Wernsing, S. R. Domingue, A. M. Allende-Motz, K. F. DeLuca, D. H. Levi, J. G. DeLuca, M. D. Young, J. A. Squier, and R. A. Bartels, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 6605 (2016).

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Brooker, G.

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P. Davidovits and M. D. Egger, Nature 223, 831 (1969).

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J. J. Field, K. A. Wernsing, S. R. Domingue, A. M. Allende-Motz, K. F. DeLuca, D. H. Levi, J. G. DeLuca, M. D. Young, J. A. Squier, and R. A. Bartels, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 6605 (2016).

DeLuca, K. F.

J. J. Field, K. A. Wernsing, S. R. Domingue, A. M. Allende-Motz, K. F. DeLuca, D. H. Levi, J. G. DeLuca, M. D. Young, J. A. Squier, and R. A. Bartels, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 6605 (2016).

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F. Helmchen and W. Denk, Nat. Methods 2, 932 (2005).
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E. D. Diebold, B. W. Buckley, D. R. Gossett, and B. Jalali, Nat. Photonics 7, 806 (2013).
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E. E. Hoover, J. J. Field, D. G. Winters, M. D. Young, E. V. Chandler, J. C. Speirs, J. T. Lapenna, S. M. Kim, S.-y. Ding, R. A. Bartels, J. W. Wang, and J. A. Squier, J. Biophoton. 5, 425 (2012).

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J. J. Field, K. A. Wernsing, S. R. Domingue, A. M. Allende-Motz, K. F. DeLuca, D. H. Levi, J. G. DeLuca, M. D. Young, J. A. Squier, and R. A. Bartels, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 6605 (2016).

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J. J. Field, K. A. Wernsing, S. R. Domingue, A. M. Allende-Motz, K. F. DeLuca, D. H. Levi, J. G. DeLuca, M. D. Young, J. A. Squier, and R. A. Bartels, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 6605 (2016).

J. J. Field and R. A. Bartels, Proc. SPIE 9713, 97130B (2016).
[Crossref]

J. J. Field, D. G. Winters, and R. A. Bartels, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 32, 2156 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. E. Hoover, J. J. Field, D. G. Winters, M. D. Young, E. V. Chandler, J. C. Speirs, J. T. Lapenna, S. M. Kim, S.-y. Ding, R. A. Bartels, J. W. Wang, and J. A. Squier, J. Biophoton. 5, 425 (2012).

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P. Schlup, G. Futia, and R. A. Bartels, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211115 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Futia, P. Schlup, D. G. Winters, and R. A. Bartels, Opt. Express 19, 1626 (2011).
[Crossref]

Futia, G. L.

Gossett, D. R.

E. D. Diebold, B. W. Buckley, D. R. Gossett, and B. Jalali, Nat. Photonics 7, 806 (2013).
[Crossref]

Helmchen, F.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, Nat. Methods 2, 932 (2005).
[Crossref]

Higley, D. J.

Hoover, E. E.

E. E. Hoover, J. J. Field, D. G. Winters, M. D. Young, E. V. Chandler, J. C. Speirs, J. T. Lapenna, S. M. Kim, S.-y. Ding, R. A. Bartels, J. W. Wang, and J. A. Squier, J. Biophoton. 5, 425 (2012).

Horton, N. G.

S. S. Howard, A. Straub, N. G. Horton, D. Kobat, and C. Xu, Nat. Photonics 7, 33 (2012).
[Crossref]

Howard, S. S.

S. S. Howard, A. Straub, N. G. Horton, D. Kobat, and C. Xu, Nat. Photonics 7, 33 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huisken, J.

J. Huisken and D. Y. R. Stainier, Development 136, 1963 (2009).

Indebetouw, G.

Jalali, B.

E. D. Diebold, B. W. Buckley, D. R. Gossett, and B. Jalali, Nat. Photonics 7, 806 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. M.

E. E. Hoover, J. J. Field, D. G. Winters, M. D. Young, E. V. Chandler, J. C. Speirs, J. T. Lapenna, S. M. Kim, S.-y. Ding, R. A. Bartels, J. W. Wang, and J. A. Squier, J. Biophoton. 5, 425 (2012).

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S. S. Howard, A. Straub, N. G. Horton, D. Kobat, and C. Xu, Nat. Photonics 7, 33 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lapenna, J. T.

E. E. Hoover, J. J. Field, D. G. Winters, M. D. Young, E. V. Chandler, J. C. Speirs, J. T. Lapenna, S. M. Kim, S.-y. Ding, R. A. Bartels, J. W. Wang, and J. A. Squier, J. Biophoton. 5, 425 (2012).

Leith, E. N.

Levi, D. H.

J. J. Field, K. A. Wernsing, S. R. Domingue, A. M. Allende-Motz, K. F. DeLuca, D. H. Levi, J. G. DeLuca, M. D. Young, J. A. Squier, and R. A. Bartels, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 6605 (2016).

Lichtman, J. W.

J.-A. Conchello and J. W. Lichtman, Nat. Methods 2, 920 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. L.

X. A. Xu, H. L. Liu, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 5, 154 (2011).
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Lohmann, A.

Lohmann, A. W.

Miao, J.

J. Miao, R. L. Sandberg, and C. Song, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 399 (2012).
[Crossref]

Muller, M.

M. Muller, Introduction to Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).

Peters, P. J.

P. J. Peters, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 209 (1966).
[Crossref]

Poon, T.-C.

Rosen, J.

Sandberg, R. L.

J. Miao, R. L. Sandberg, and C. Song, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 399 (2012).
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Schilling, B. W.

Schlup, P.

P. Schlup, G. Futia, and R. A. Bartels, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211115 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Futia, P. Schlup, D. G. Winters, and R. A. Bartels, Opt. Express 19, 1626 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shinoda, K.

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, D. G. Winters, and R. A. Bartels, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 18391 (2013).

Song, C.

J. Miao, R. L. Sandberg, and C. Song, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 399 (2012).
[Crossref]

Speirs, J. C.

E. E. Hoover, J. J. Field, D. G. Winters, M. D. Young, E. V. Chandler, J. C. Speirs, J. T. Lapenna, S. M. Kim, S.-y. Ding, R. A. Bartels, J. W. Wang, and J. A. Squier, J. Biophoton. 5, 425 (2012).

Squier, J. A.

J. J. Field, K. A. Wernsing, S. R. Domingue, A. M. Allende-Motz, K. F. DeLuca, D. H. Levi, J. G. DeLuca, M. D. Young, J. A. Squier, and R. A. Bartels, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 6605 (2016).

E. E. Hoover, J. J. Field, D. G. Winters, M. D. Young, E. V. Chandler, J. C. Speirs, J. T. Lapenna, S. M. Kim, S.-y. Ding, R. A. Bartels, J. W. Wang, and J. A. Squier, J. Biophoton. 5, 425 (2012).

Stainier, D. Y. R.

J. Huisken and D. Y. R. Stainier, Development 136, 1963 (2009).

Storrie, B.

Straub, A.

S. S. Howard, A. Straub, N. G. Horton, D. Kobat, and C. Xu, Nat. Photonics 7, 33 (2012).
[Crossref]

Strickler, J.

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, Y.

Ting, A. Y.

J. Zhang, R. E. Campbell, A. Y. Ting, and R. Y. Tsien, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 3, 906 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tsien, R. Y.

J. Zhang, R. E. Campbell, A. Y. Ting, and R. Y. Tsien, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 3, 906 (2002).
[Crossref]

Upatnieks, J.

Wagner, K. H.

Wang, J. W.

E. E. Hoover, J. J. Field, D. G. Winters, M. D. Young, E. V. Chandler, J. C. Speirs, J. T. Lapenna, S. M. Kim, S.-y. Ding, R. A. Bartels, J. W. Wang, and J. A. Squier, J. Biophoton. 5, 425 (2012).

Wang, L. V.

X. A. Xu, H. L. Liu, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 5, 154 (2011).
[Crossref]

Webb, W.

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wernsing, K. A.

J. J. Field, K. A. Wernsing, S. R. Domingue, A. M. Allende-Motz, K. F. DeLuca, D. H. Levi, J. G. DeLuca, M. D. Young, J. A. Squier, and R. A. Bartels, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 6605 (2016).

Winters, D. G.

D. G. Winters and R. A. Bartels, Opt. Lett. 40, 2774 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. J. Field, D. G. Winters, and R. A. Bartels, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 32, 2156 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. R. Smith, D. G. Winters, and R. A. Bartels, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 18391 (2013).

E. E. Hoover, J. J. Field, D. G. Winters, M. D. Young, E. V. Chandler, J. C. Speirs, J. T. Lapenna, S. M. Kim, S.-y. Ding, R. A. Bartels, J. W. Wang, and J. A. Squier, J. Biophoton. 5, 425 (2012).

D. J. Higley, D. G. Winters, G. L. Futia, and R. A. Bartels, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 2579 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Futia, P. Schlup, D. G. Winters, and R. A. Bartels, Opt. Express 19, 1626 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, M. H.

Xu, C.

S. S. Howard, A. Straub, N. G. Horton, D. Kobat, and C. Xu, Nat. Photonics 7, 33 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, X. A.

X. A. Xu, H. L. Liu, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 5, 154 (2011).
[Crossref]

Young, M. D.

J. J. Field, K. A. Wernsing, S. R. Domingue, A. M. Allende-Motz, K. F. DeLuca, D. H. Levi, J. G. DeLuca, M. D. Young, J. A. Squier, and R. A. Bartels, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 6605 (2016).

E. E. Hoover, J. J. Field, D. G. Winters, M. D. Young, E. V. Chandler, J. C. Speirs, J. T. Lapenna, S. M. Kim, S.-y. Ding, R. A. Bartels, J. W. Wang, and J. A. Squier, J. Biophoton. 5, 425 (2012).

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, R. E. Campbell, A. Y. Ting, and R. Y. Tsien, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 3, 906 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. J. Peters, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 209 (1966).
[Crossref]

P. Schlup, G. Futia, and R. A. Bartels, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Development (1)

J. Huisken and D. Y. R. Stainier, Development 136, 1963 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Miao, R. L. Sandberg, and C. Song, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 399 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Biophoton. (1)

E. E. Hoover, J. J. Field, D. G. Winters, M. D. Young, E. V. Chandler, J. C. Speirs, J. T. Lapenna, S. M. Kim, S.-y. Ding, R. A. Bartels, J. W. Wang, and J. A. Squier, J. Biophoton. 5, 425 (2012).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Nat. Methods (2)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, Nat. Methods 2, 932 (2005).
[Crossref]

J.-A. Conchello and J. W. Lichtman, Nat. Methods 2, 920 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

E. D. Diebold, B. W. Buckley, D. R. Gossett, and B. Jalali, Nat. Photonics 7, 806 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. S. Howard, A. Straub, N. G. Horton, D. Kobat, and C. Xu, Nat. Photonics 7, 33 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. A. Xu, H. L. Liu, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 5, 154 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (1)

J. Zhang, R. E. Campbell, A. Y. Ting, and R. Y. Tsien, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 3, 906 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

P. Davidovits and M. D. Egger, Nature 223, 831 (1969).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

J. J. Field, K. A. Wernsing, S. R. Domingue, A. M. Allende-Motz, K. F. DeLuca, D. H. Levi, J. G. DeLuca, M. D. Young, J. A. Squier, and R. A. Bartels, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 6605 (2016).

D. R. Smith, D. G. Winters, and R. A. Bartels, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 18391 (2013).

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. J. Field and R. A. Bartels, Proc. SPIE 9713, 97130B (2016).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. Muller, Introduction to Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).

Supplementary Material (1)

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» Supplement 1: PDF (7401 KB)      Supplementary Information

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Three illumination beams interfere in the object region to form the SPIFI illumination intensity, shown here at a snapshot in time, t1. (b) The CHIRPT illumination intensity pattern uses only two beams to form the illumination. (c) The SPIFI illumination intensity is symmetrical about the focal plane, z=0, at all times. (d) The CHIRPT illumination intensity is not symmetrical about the focal plane. (e) The lateral location of an emitter is distinctly labeled in SPIFI, but the axial location cannot be uniquely determined. (f) CHIRPT labels the 2D position of an emitter in the (x,z) plane with a distinct pattern.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Phase measured from an FND as a function of physical defocus, where Δfx(t)=Δkx(t)/(2π)=κt. (b) Phase differences ΔΦ+ and ΔΦ (blue and red solid lines, respectively). The shaded areas denote the standard deviation obtained by measuring 20 consecutive scans. Large standard deviations appear in bursts due to phase wrapping differences in the successive measurements. The dashed lines correspond to the predicted phase for the defocus values read from the axial translation stage encoder.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Fluorescence image of an in-focus 15 μm shell-stained fluorescent bead. (b) Image of the same bead with Δz=10.17  μm. (c) Image formed by numerically propagating the defocused image to the focal plane. Scale bar: 5 μm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Large DOF imaging of a 20 line/mm Ronchi ruling with CHIRPT. (a) Transmissive image as a function of depth, where a depth of 0 mm corresponds to physical contact of the ruling with the objective lens. (b) The 1D FFT of the image in (a) with respect to x, showing the decay of harmonics of the Ronchi ruling’s fundamental spatial frequency with defocus.

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