Abstract

The trapping of photons in low-refraction-index materials is thought to be prohibited in conventional photonic structures that employ total internal reflection. Specifically, the whispering gallery mode (WGM) microcavity, which is an important optical component, has to rely on a high contrast of the refraction index with the surrounding environment to manifest excellent light confinement. Here, we propose and demonstrate experimentally an optical microcavity structure consisting of a low-refraction-index silica microtoroid directly bonded on a high-refraction-index silicon substrate. The resonant structure supports high-Q fundamental WGMs in both visible and communication bands, while higher-order modes are suppressed significantly due to the strong leakage into the silicon substrate at long wavelengths. The highest measured quality factor exceeds ten million and low-threshold microcavity Raman lasing is also realized.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (5)

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 168 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Zou, J.-M. Cui, F.-W. Sun, X. Xiong, X.-B. Zou, Z.-F. Han, and G.-C. Guo, Laser Photonics Rev. 9, 114 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, Z. Gu, W. Sun, J. Li, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, ACS Photonics 2, 1278 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, Adv. Mater. 27, 8075 (2015).

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, X.-C. Yu, K. Shi, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 14657 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. C. Jiang, J. Zhang, and Q. Lin, Opt. Express 22, 1187 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

L. Shao, X.-F. Jiang, X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 25, 5616 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, X. Zhang, and T. Zhai, Opt. Express 21, 15314 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. Biberman and K. Bergman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 046402 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-F. Jiang, Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, L. He, C.-H. Dong, B.-B. Li, Y. Li, F.-W. Sun, L. Yang, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 24, OP260 (2012).

2011 (2)

Y.-C. Liu, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, Phys. Rev. A 84, 011805(R) (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Song, L. Ge, J. Wiersig, J.-B. Shim, J. Unterhinninghofen, A. Eberspächer, W. Fang, G. S. Solomon, and H. Cao, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063843 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

Z. P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photonics 4, 46 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 20701 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

M. Hossein-Zadeh and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Express 15, 166 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Soltani, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, Opt. Express 15, 4694 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[Crossref]

Adibi, A.

Aoki, T.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[Crossref]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[Crossref]

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[Crossref]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 20701 (2008).
[Crossref]

Aspelmeyer, M.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

A. Biberman and K. Bergman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 046402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Biberman, A.

A. Biberman and K. Bergman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 046402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bo, F.

F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, Adv. Mater. 27, 8075 (2015).

Bowen, W. P.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

Q. H. Song, L. Ge, J. Wiersig, J.-B. Shim, J. Unterhinninghofen, A. Eberspächer, W. Fang, G. S. Solomon, and H. Cao, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063843 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.-R.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photonics 4, 46 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref]

Clements, W. R.

B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, X.-C. Yu, K. Shi, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 14657 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Shao, X.-F. Jiang, X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 25, 5616 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cui, J.

F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, Adv. Mater. 27, 8075 (2015).

Cui, J.-M.

C.-L. Zou, J.-M. Cui, F.-W. Sun, X. Xiong, X.-B. Zou, Z.-F. Han, and G.-C. Guo, Laser Photonics Rev. 9, 114 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dayan, B.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[Crossref]

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dong, C.-H.

X.-F. Jiang, Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, L. He, C.-H. Dong, B.-B. Li, Y. Li, F.-W. Sun, L. Yang, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 24, OP260 (2012).

Eberspächer, A.

Q. H. Song, L. Ge, J. Wiersig, J.-B. Shim, J. Unterhinninghofen, A. Eberspächer, W. Fang, G. S. Solomon, and H. Cao, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063843 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fang, W.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Song, L. Ge, J. Wiersig, J.-B. Shim, J. Unterhinninghofen, A. Eberspächer, W. Fang, G. S. Solomon, and H. Cao, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063843 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fang, Z.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.-B.

Z. P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Foreman, M. R.

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ge, L.

Q. H. Song, L. Ge, J. Wiersig, J.-B. Shim, J. Unterhinninghofen, A. Eberspächer, W. Fang, G. S. Solomon, and H. Cao, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063843 (2011).
[Crossref]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, X.-C. Yu, K. Shi, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 14657 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Shao, X.-F. Jiang, X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 25, 5616 (2013).
[Crossref]

X.-F. Jiang, Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, L. He, C.-H. Dong, B.-B. Li, Y. Li, F.-W. Sun, L. Yang, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 24, OP260 (2012).

Y.-C. Liu, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, Phys. Rev. A 84, 011805(R) (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gu, Z.

K. Wang, Z. Gu, W. Sun, J. Li, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, ACS Photonics 2, 1278 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guo, G.-C.

C.-L. Zou, J.-M. Cui, F.-W. Sun, X. Xiong, X.-B. Zou, Z.-F. Han, and G.-C. Guo, Laser Photonics Rev. 9, 114 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, Z.-F.

C.-L. Zou, J.-M. Cui, F.-W. Sun, X. Xiong, X.-B. Zou, Z.-F. Han, and G.-C. Guo, Laser Photonics Rev. 9, 114 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, L.

X.-F. Jiang, Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, L. He, C.-H. Dong, B.-B. Li, Y. Li, F.-W. Sun, L. Yang, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 24, OP260 (2012).

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photonics 4, 46 (2010).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hossein-Zadeh, M.

Jiang, W. C.

Jiang, X.-F.

L. Shao, X.-F. Jiang, X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 25, 5616 (2013).
[Crossref]

X.-F. Jiang, Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, L. He, C.-H. Dong, B.-B. Li, Y. Li, F.-W. Sun, L. Yang, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 24, OP260 (2012).

Y.-C. Liu, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, Phys. Rev. A 84, 011805(R) (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Keng, D.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 20701 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kimble, H. J.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kong, Y.

F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, Adv. Mater. 27, 8075 (2015).

Levi, A. F. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[Crossref]

Li, B.-B.

B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, X.-C. Yu, K. Shi, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 14657 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Shao, X.-F. Jiang, X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 25, 5616 (2013).
[Crossref]

X.-F. Jiang, Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, L. He, C.-H. Dong, B.-B. Li, Y. Li, F.-W. Sun, L. Yang, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 24, OP260 (2012).

Y.-C. Liu, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, Phys. Rev. A 84, 011805(R) (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

K. Wang, Z. Gu, W. Sun, J. Li, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, ACS Photonics 2, 1278 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photonics 4, 46 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

X.-F. Jiang, Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, L. He, C.-H. Dong, B.-B. Li, Y. Li, F.-W. Sun, L. Yang, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 24, OP260 (2012).

Y.-C. Liu, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, Phys. Rev. A 84, 011805(R) (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, Q.

Liu, H.

Liu, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Liu, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, Phys. Rev. A 84, 011805(R) (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. P.

Z. P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Logan, R. A.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[Crossref]

Marquardt, F.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391 (2014).
[Crossref]

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[Crossref]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ozdemir, S. K.

F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, Adv. Mater. 27, 8075 (2015).

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photonics 4, 46 (2010).
[Crossref]

Parkins, A. S.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pearton, S. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[Crossref]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[Crossref]

Qiao, L.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qin, Y.

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F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, Adv. Mater. 27, 8075 (2015).

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C.-L. Zou, J.-M. Cui, F.-W. Sun, X. Xiong, X.-B. Zou, Z.-F. Han, and G.-C. Guo, Laser Photonics Rev. 9, 114 (2015).
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ACS Photonics (1)

K. Wang, Z. Gu, W. Sun, J. Li, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, ACS Photonics 2, 1278 (2015).
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F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, Adv. Mater. 27, 8075 (2015).

L. Shao, X.-F. Jiang, X.-C. Yu, B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, Adv. Mater. 25, 5616 (2013).
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Z. P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
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Nature (5)

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Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

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F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 20701 (2008).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic representation of the donut-shaped silica microcavity bonded to the silicon substrate. One fourth of the device is cut off to show the cross-sectional geometry of the microcavity. The false-color diagrams mapped on the cross section show the electric distribution of the fundamental cavity mode. (b,c) The imaginary part and real part of the effective indices of transverse magnetic-polarized modes, respectively, versus the substrate refraction index nsub. The refraction index of silica is 1.44 at a 1550 nm wavelength and the principal (minor) diameter is 80 (6) μm. The values of Re(neff) are subtracted a constant number of 1.36180. The insets in (c) show the cross-sectional field distributions at nsub=1.5 and 3.5.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a,b) Normalized transmission spectra excited by TE- and TM-polarized probe light, respectively. The scanning probe wavelength range is 20 nm. Modes TE220,2181, TE230,2301, TE225,2241, TE219,2171, TE229,2291, and TE224,2231 in (a) and modes TM221,2191, TM224,2242, TM230,2301, TM225,2241, TM220,2181, TM223,2232, TM229,2291, and TM224,2231 in (b) can be clearly seen. The modes labeled by the same color in each spectrum belong to the same mode family. The minor (principal) diameter of the microtoroid is about 6.9 (83.2) μm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Measured (points) and simulated (red curve) Q factors of the fundamental modes depending on different minor diameter d. The probe light wavelength is in (a) 1550 nm and (b) 635 nm bands, respectively. Data with the same d in (a) and (b) are measured in the same microcavity. Numerical simulated Q factor exceeds the range of vertical axis in the 635 nm wavelength band, which is not shown in (b). Inset: scanning electron microscope image of the photonic microstructure and its zoom-in showing the scattering particle. It is an oblique view taken by an angle of 56° with the horizontal substrate. Scale bar: 20 μm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Optical spectrum of Raman lasing at 1654.3 nm from the microcavity pumped at 1550.8 nm. The wide spectrum peak between 1555 and 1570 nm comes from the noise of the erbium-doped fiber amplifier. (b) The measured Raman lasing power as a function of loading pump power. Left inset: attached tapered fiber coupling to the microcavity. Right inset: Raman power in a logarithmic scale.

Equations (2)

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ψ±(d)=a±(d)ψWGM(d)+b±(d)ψlea(d),
|a+(d)|2=neff(d)nlea(d)(neff(d)nWGM(d))+(neff(d)nlea(d)).

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