Abstract

Future ground-based quantum information networks will likely use single photons transmitted through optical fibers to entangle individual network nodes. To extend communication distances and overcome limitations due to photon absorption in fibers, the concept of quantum repeaters has been proposed. For that purpose, it is required to achieve quantum correlations between the material nodes and photons at telecom wavelengths, which can be sent over long distances in optical fibers. Here, we demonstrate nonclassical correlation between a frequency-converted telecom C-band photon and a spin-wave stored in an atomic ensemble quantum memory. The photons emitted from the ensemble and heralding the spin-waves are converted from 780 to 1552 nm by means of an all-solid-state integrated-waveguide nonlinear device. We show ultra-low-noise operation of the device, enabling a high signal-to-noise ratio for the converted single photon, leading to a high spin-wave heralding efficiency. The presented work is an enabling step toward the practical entanglement of remote quantum memories and the entanglement of quantum systems operating at different wavelengths.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (3)

W. Zhang, D.-S. Ding, S. Shi, Y. Li, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Storing a single photon as a spin wave entangled with a flying photon in the telecommunication bandwidth,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 022316 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-J. Yang, X.-J. Wang, X.-H. Bao, and J.-W. Pan, “An efficient quantum light-matter interface with sub-second lifetime,” Nat. Photonics 10, 381–384 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, J. Rui, X.-H. Bao, and J.-W. Pan, “Dynamical zeroing of spin-wave momentum to suppress motional dephasing in an atomic-ensemble quantum memory,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 063819 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

F. Kaiser, A. Issautier, L. A. Ngah, D. Aktas, T. Delord, and S. Tanzilli, “Toward continuous-wave regime teleportation for light matter quantum relay stations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 69–77 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Albrecht, P. Farrera, G. Heinze, M. Cristiani, and H. de Riedmatten, “Controlled rephasing of single collective spin excitations in a cold atomic quantum memory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 160501 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Lenhard, M. Bock, C. Becher, S. Kucera, J. Brito, P. Eich, P. Müller, and J. Eschner, “Telecom-heralded single-photon absorption by a single atom,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 063827 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Schunk, U. Vogl, D. V. Strekalov, M. Förtsch, F. Sedlmeir, H. G. L. Schwefel, M. Göbelt, S. Christiansen, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “Interfacing transitions of different alkali atoms and telecom bands using one narrowband photon pair source,” Optica 2, 773–778 (2015).

B. Korzh, C. C. W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307  km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9, 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Afzelius, N. Gisin, and H. de Riedmatten, “Quantum memory for photons,” Phys. Today 68(12), 42–47 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).

E. Saglamyurek, J. Jin, V. B. Verma, M. D. Shaw, F. Marsili, S. W. Nam, D. Oblak, and W. Tittel, “Quantum storage of entangled telecom-wavelength photons in an erbium-doped optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9, 83–87 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

D. Rieländer, K. Kutluer, P. M. Ledingham, M. Gündoğan, J. Fekete, M. Mazzera, and H. de Riedmatten, “Quantum storage of heralded single photons in a praseodymium-doped crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 040504 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Bussières, C. Clausen, A. Tiranov, B. Korzh, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, F. Marsili, A. Ferrier, P. Goldner, H. Herrmann, C. Silberhorn, W. Sohler, M. Afzelius, and N. Gisin, “Quantum teleportation from a telecom-wavelength photon to a solid-state quantum memory,” Nat. Photonics 8, 775–778 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Dajczgewand, J.-L. Le Gouët, A. Louchet-Chauvet, and T. Chanelière, “Large efficiency at telecom wavelength for optical quantum memories,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2711–2714 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Albrecht, P. Farrera, X. Fernandez-Gonzalvo, M. Cristiani, and H. de Riedmatten, “A waveguide frequency converter connecting rubidium-based quantum memories to the telecom C-band,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3376 (2014).

N. Maring, K. Kutluer, J. Cohen, M. Cristiani, M. Mazzera, P. M. Ledingham, and H. de Riedmatten, “Storage of up-converted telecom photons in a doped crystal,” New J. Phys. 16, 113021 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

F. Bussières, N. Sangouard, M. Afzelius, H. de Riedmatten, C. Simon, and W. Tittel, “Prospective applications of optical quantum memories,” J. Mod. Opt. 60, 1519–1537 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Ikuta, H. Kato, Y. Kusaka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, M. Fujiwara, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, and N. Imoto, “High-fidelity conversion of photonic quantum information to telecommunication wavelength with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 010301 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Fernandez-Gonzalvo, G. Corrielli, B. Albrecht, M. Grimau, M. Cristiani, and H. de Riedmatten, “Quantum frequency conversion of quantum memory compatible photons to telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21, 19473–19487 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

P. Sekatski, N. Sangouard, F. Bussières, C. Clausen, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Detector imperfections in photon-pair source characterization,” J. Phys. B 45, 124016 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-H. Bao, A. Reingruber, P. Dietrich, J. Rui, A. Dück, T. Strassel, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, B. Zhao, and J.-W. Pan, “Efficient and long-lived quantum memory with cold atoms inside a ring cavity,” Nat. Phys. 8, 517–521 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. S. Pelc, L. Yu, K. De Greve, P. L. McMahon, C. M. Natarajan, V. Esfandyarpour, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and M. M. Fejer, “Downconversion quantum interface for a single quantum dot spin and 1550-nm single-photon channel,” Opt. Express 20, 27510–27519 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Zaske, A. Lenhard, C. A. Keßler, J. Kettler, C. Hepp, C. Arend, R. Albrecht, W.-M. Schulz, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and C. Becher, “Visible-to-telecom quantum frequency conversion of light from a single quantum emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 147404 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Ates, I. Agha, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, M. T. Rakher, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, “Two-photon interference using background-free quantum frequency conversion of single photons emitted by an InAs quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 147405 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

R. Ikuta, Y. Kusaka, T. Kitano, H. Kato, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Wide-band quantum interface for visible-to-telecommunication wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 1544 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Clausen, I. Usmani, F. Bussières, N. Sangouard, M. Afzelius, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Quantum storage of photonic entanglement in a crystal,” Nature 469, 508–511 (2011).

E. Saglamyurek, N. Sinclair, J. Jin, J. A. Slater, D. Oblak, F. Bussières, M. George, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and W. Tittel, “Broadband waveguide quantum memory for entangled photons,” Nature 469, 512–515 (2011).

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 33–80 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Zaske, A. Lenhard, and C. Becher, “Efficient frequency downconversion at the single photon level from the red spectral range to the telecommunications C-band,” Opt. Express 19, 12825–12836 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

B. Lauritzen, J. Minář, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “Telecommunication-wavelength solid-state memory at the single photon level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 080502 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Hammerer, A. S. Sørensen, and E. S. Polzik, “Quantum interface between light and atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1041–1093 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Simon, M. Afzelius, J. Appel, A. Boyer de la Giroday, S. J. Dewhurst, N. Gisin, C. Y. Hu, F. Jelezko, S. Kröll, J. H. Müller, J. Nunn, E. S. Polzik, J. G. Rarity, H. De Riedmatten, W. Rosenfeld, A. J. Shields, N. Sköld, R. M. Stevenson, R. Thew, I. A. Walmsley, M. C. Weber, H. Weinfurter, J. Wrachtrup, and R. J. Young, “Quantum memories,” Eur. Phys. J. D 58, 1–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. G. Radnaev, Y. O. Dudin, R. Zhao, H. H. Jen, S. D. Jenkins, A. Kuzmich, and T. A. B. Kennedy, “A quantum memory with telecom-wavelength conversion,” Nat. Phys. 6, 894–899 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. O. Dudin, A. G. Radnaev, R. Zhao, J. Z. Blumoff, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, “Entanglement of light-shift compensated atomic spin waves with telecom light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 260502 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, “Optical quantum memory,” Nat. Photonics 3, 706–714 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Z.-S. Yuan, Y.-A. Chen, B. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Schmiedmayer, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental demonstration of a BDCZ quantum repeater node,” Nature 454, 1098–1101 (2008).

2007 (4)

D. L. Moehring, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, K. C. Younge, D. N. Matsukevich, L.-M. Duan, and C. Monroe, “Entanglement of single-atom quantum bits at a distance,” Nature 449, 68–71 (2007).

C.-W. Chou, J. Laurat, H. Deng, K. S. Choi, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, and H. J. Kimble, “Functional quantum nodes for entanglement distribution over scalable quantum networks,” Science 316, 1316–1320 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum repeaters with photon pair sources and multimode memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 190503 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Laurat, K. S. Choi, H. Deng, C. W. Chou, and H. J. Kimble, “Heralded entanglement between atomic ensembles: preparation, decoherence, and scaling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 180504 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. de Riedmatten, J. Laurat, C. W. Chou, E. W. Schomburg, D. Felinto, and H. J. Kimble, “Direct measurement of decoherence for entanglement between a photon and stored atomic excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113603 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

C. W. Chou, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, S. V. Polyakov, S. J. van Enk, and H. J. Kimble, “Measurement-induced entanglement for excitation stored in remote atomic ensembles,” Nature 438, 828–832 (2005).

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature 437, 116–120 (2005).

2001 (1)

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414, 413–418 (2001).

1998 (1)

H.-J. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932–5935 (1998).
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Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

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J. Mod. Opt. (1)

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Nat. Commun. (2)

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Nat. Photonics (5)

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Nat. Phys. (2)

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Nature (8)

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E. Saglamyurek, N. Sinclair, J. Jin, J. A. Slater, D. Oblak, F. Bussières, M. George, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and W. Tittel, “Broadband waveguide quantum memory for entangled photons,” Nature 469, 512–515 (2011).

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature 437, 116–120 (2005).

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414, 413–418 (2001).

Z.-S. Yuan, Y.-A. Chen, B. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Schmiedmayer, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental demonstration of a BDCZ quantum repeater node,” Nature 454, 1098–1101 (2008).

D. L. Moehring, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, K. C. Younge, D. N. Matsukevich, L.-M. Duan, and C. Monroe, “Entanglement of single-atom quantum bits at a distance,” Nature 449, 68–71 (2007).

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).

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New J. Phys. (1)

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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

W. Zhang, D.-S. Ding, S. Shi, Y. Li, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Storing a single photon as a spin wave entangled with a flying photon in the telecommunication bandwidth,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 022316 (2016).
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Y. Jiang, J. Rui, X.-H. Bao, and J.-W. Pan, “Dynamical zeroing of spin-wave momentum to suppress motional dephasing in an atomic-ensemble quantum memory,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 063819 (2016).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (10)

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Supplementary Material (1)

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» Supplement 1: PDF (455 KB)      This document provides supplementary information to “Nonclassical correlations between a C-band telecom photon and a stored spin-wave”

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental setup. The write pulse (W) and read pulse (R) are sent counter-propagating into the atomic cloud. Write and read photonic modes are denoted by w and r. The QFCD consists of the PPLN waveguide, a bandpass filter (BF), a narrowband etalon (Et), and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG). (b) Energy levels and coupling scheme for the DLCZ experiment.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR; left axis, blue dots for full filtering, gray squares without etalon), measured with a mean input photon number per pulse of μin=0.16, and internal efficiency ηint of the QFCD (right axis, green circles), measured with classical input light, versus pump power measured after the waveguide. The data are fitted by functions, modeling the expected behavior (solid lines). The inset shows the SNR versus μin for a fixed pump power of Ppump=287  mW.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Normalized cross-correlation of the unconverted write photons (left axis, blue circles) and the converted ones (blue dots) with the read photons and SNR of the converted write photons (right axis, green diamonds, error bars smaller than symbol size) versus peak power of the write pulse. The blue shaded area corresponds to the expected gcw,r(2), as inferred from Eq. (1), and the SNR is fitted with a linear regression (green line). The inset shows, as an example, the detected shape of the converted write photon for PW=333  μW. The pump power was fixed at Ppump=290  mW. (b) Dependence of extrapolated maximal visibility Vmax in a two atomic ensemble entanglement experiment on the maximal heralding efficiency ηhmax (blue dots for full filtering, gray squares without etalon).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Retrieval efficiency (left axis, green circles) and normalized cross-correlation of the converted write photons and read photons (right axis, blue dots) versus storage time in the QM. The write and pump powers were fixed at PW=0.18  mW and Ppump=290  mW.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Measured Values of the Coincidence Detection Probability pcw,r, the Cross-Correlation gcw,r(2), and the Unheralded Autocorrelations gcw,cw(2) and gr,r(2) of the Converted Write Photons and Read Photons for Different Write Pulse Powers PWa

Equations (2)

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gcw,r(2)=gw,r(2)+SNR11+SNR1.
R=(gcw,r(2))2gcw,cw(2)·gr,r(2)1,

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