Abstract

Most fluorescence microscopes are inefficient, collecting only a small fraction of the emitted light at any instant. Besides wasting valuable signal, this inefficiency also reduces spatial resolution and causes imaging volumes to exhibit significant resolution anisotropy. We describe microscopic and computational techniques that address these problems by simultaneously capturing and subsequently fusing and deconvolving multiple specimen views. Unlike previous methods that serially capture multiple views, our approach improves spatial resolution without introducing any additional illumination dose or compromising temporal resolution relative to conventional imaging. When applying our methods to single-view wide-field or dual-view light-sheet microscopy, we achieve a twofold improvement in volumetric resolution (235  nm×235  nm×340  nm) as demonstrated on a variety of samples including microtubules in Toxoplasma gondii, SpoVM in sporulating Bacillus subtilis, and multiple protein distributions and organelles in eukaryotic cells. In every case, spatial resolution is improved with no drawback by harnessing previously unused fluorescence.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2016 (1)

J. Liu, Y. He, I. Benmerzouga, W. J. J. Sullivan, N. S. Morrissette, J. M. Murray, and K. Hu, “An ensemble of specifically targeted proteins stabilizes cortical microtubules in the human parasite Toxoplasma gondii,” Mol. Biol. Cell 27, 549–571 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

R. K. Chhetri, F. Amat, Y. Wan, B. Hockendorf, W. C. lemon, and P. Keller, “Whole-animal functional and developmental imaging with isotropic spatial resolution,” Nat. Methods 12, 1171–1178 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. L. J. Gill, J. P. Castaing, J. Hsin, I. S. Tan, X. Wang, K. C. Huang, F. Tian, and K. S. Ramamurthi, “Structural basis for the geometry-driven localization of a small protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E1908–E1915 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. E. Olarte, J. Andilla, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Decoupled illumination detection in light sheet microscopy for fast volumetric imaging,” Optica 2, 702–705 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

P. W. Winter, A. G. York, D. D. Nogare, M. Ingaramo, R. Christensen, A. B. Chitnis, G. H. Patterson, and H. Shroff, “Two-photon instant structured illumination microscopy improves the depth penetration of super-resolution imaging in thick scattering samples,” Optica 1, 181–191 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Leung, M. A. Rould, C. Konradt, C. A. Hunter, and G. E. Ward, “Disruption of TgPHIL1 alters specific parameters of Toxoplasma gondii motility as measured in a quantitative, three-dimensional live motility assay,” PLoS One 9, e85763 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Preibisch, F. Amat, E. Stamataki, M. Sarov, R. H. Singer, E. W. Myers, and P. Tomancak, “Efficient Bayesian-based multiview deconvolution,” Nat. Methods 11, 645–648 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. W. Winter and H. Shroff, “Faster fluorescence microscopy: advances in high speed biological imaging,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 20, 46–53 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Ingaramo, A. G. York, E. Hoogendoorn, M. Postma, H. Shroff, and G. H. Patterson, “Richardson-Lucy deconvolution as a general tool for combining images with complementary strengths,” ChemPhysChem 15, 794–800 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Kumar, Y. Wu, R. Christensen, P. Chandris, W. Gandler, E. McCreedy, A. Bokinsky, D. Colon-Ramos, Z. Bao, M. McAuliffe, G. Rondeau, and H. Shroff, “Dual-view plane illumination microscopy for rapid and spatially isotropic imaging,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 2555–2573 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Y. Wu, P. Wawrzusin, J. Senseney, R. S. Fischer, R. Christensen, A. Santella, A. G. York, P. W. Winter, C. M. Waterman, Z. Bao, D. A. Colón-Ramos, M. McAuliffe, and H. Shroff, “Spatially isotropic four-dimensional imaging with dual-view plane illumination microscopy,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31, 1032–1038 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. T. McKenney, A. Driks, and P. Eichenberger, “The Bacillus subtilis endospore: assembly and functions of the multilayered coat,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 11, 33–44 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. G. York, P. Chandris, D. D. Nogare, J. Head, P. Wawrzusin, R. S. Fischer, A. B. Chitnis, and H. Shroff, “Instant super-resolution imaging in live cells and embryos via analog image processing,” Nat. Methods 10, 1122–1126 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

E. Baumgart and U. Kubitscheck, “Scanned light sheet microscopy with confocal slit detection,” Opt. Express 20, 21805–21814 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Temerinac-Ott, O. Ronneberger, P. Ochs, W. Driever, T. Brox, and H. Burkhardt, “Multiview deblurring for 3-D images from light-sheet-based fluorescence microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 1863–1873 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Abrahamsson, J. Chen, B. Hajj, S. Stallinga, A. Y. Katsov, J. Wisniewski, G. Mizuguchi, P. Soule, F. Mueller, C. Dugast Darzacq, X. Darzacq, C. Wu, C. I. Bargmann, D. A. Agard, M. Dahan, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Fast multicolor 3D imaging using aberration-corrected multifocus microscopy,” Nat. Methods 10, 60–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Y. Wu, A. Ghitani, R. Christensen, A. Santella, Z. Du, G. Rondeau, Z. Bao, D. Colon-Ramos, and H. Shroff, “Inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (iSPIM) enables coupled cell identity lineaging and neurodevelopmental imaging in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 17708–17713 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. S. Fischer, Y. Wu, P. S. Kanchanawong, H. Shroff, and C. M. Waterman, “Microscopy in 3D: a biologist’s toolbox,” Trends Cell Biol. 21, 682–691 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

G. Twig, A. Elorza, A. J. Molina, H. Mohamed, J. D. Wikstrom, G. Walzer, L. Stiles, S. E. Haigh, S. Katz, G. Las, J. Alroy, M. Wu, B. F. Py, J. Yuan, J. T. Deeney, B. E. Corkey, and O. S. Shirihai, “Fission and selective fusion govern mitochondrial segregation and elimination by autophagy,” EMBO J. 27, 433–446 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. Oliphant, “Python for scientific computing,” Comput. Sci. Eng. 9, 10–20 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. Abrahamsson, S. Usawa, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “A new approach to extended focus for high-speed high-resolution biological microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6090, 60900N (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

C. van Ooij and R. Losick, “Subcellular localization of a small sporulation protein in Bacillus subtilis,” J. Bacteriol. 185, 1391–1398 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Swoger, J. Huisken, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Multiple imaging axis microscopy improves resolution for thick-sample applications,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1654–1656 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

K. Hu, D. S. Roos, and J. M. Murray, “A novel polymer of tubulin forms the conoid of Toxoplasma gondii,” J. Cell Biol. 156, 1039–1050 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. J. Schell, C. Erneux, and R. F. Irvine, “Inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate 3-kinase A associates with F-actin and dendritic spines via its N-terminus,” J. Biol. Chem. 276, 37537–37546 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

J. G. McNally, T. Karpova, J. Cooper, and J. A. Conchello, “Three-dimensional imaging by deconvolution microscopy,” Methods 19, 373–385 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. G. L. Gustafsson, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “I5M: 3D widefield light microscopy with better than 100 nm axial resolution,” J. Microsc. 195, 10–16 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Extended resolution fluorescence microscopy,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 9, 627–628 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

H. M. Hudson and R. S. Larkin, “Accelerated image reconstruction using ordered subsets of projection data,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 13, 601–609 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1987 (1)

B. A. Nichols and M. L. Chiappino, “Cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma gondii,” J. Protozool. 34, 217–226 (1987).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

P. Youngman, J. B. Perkins, and R. Losick, “Construction of a cloning site near one end of Tn917 into which foreign DNA may be inserted without affecting transposition in Bacillus subtilis or expression of the transposon-borne erm gene,” Plasmid 12, 1–9 (1984).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

L. B. Lucy, “An iterative technique for the rectification of observed distributions,” Astron. J. 79, 745–754 (1974).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

1969 (1)

J. M. Sterlini and J. Mandelstam, “Commitment to sporulation in Bacillus subtilis and its relationship to development of actinomycin resistance,” Biochem. J. 113, 29–37 (1969).
[Crossref]

Abrahamsson, S.

S. Abrahamsson, J. Chen, B. Hajj, S. Stallinga, A. Y. Katsov, J. Wisniewski, G. Mizuguchi, P. Soule, F. Mueller, C. Dugast Darzacq, X. Darzacq, C. Wu, C. I. Bargmann, D. A. Agard, M. Dahan, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Fast multicolor 3D imaging using aberration-corrected multifocus microscopy,” Nat. Methods 10, 60–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Abrahamsson, S. Usawa, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “A new approach to extended focus for high-speed high-resolution biological microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6090, 60900N (2006).
[Crossref]

Agard, D. A.

S. Abrahamsson, J. Chen, B. Hajj, S. Stallinga, A. Y. Katsov, J. Wisniewski, G. Mizuguchi, P. Soule, F. Mueller, C. Dugast Darzacq, X. Darzacq, C. Wu, C. I. Bargmann, D. A. Agard, M. Dahan, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Fast multicolor 3D imaging using aberration-corrected multifocus microscopy,” Nat. Methods 10, 60–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. G. L. Gustafsson, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “I5M: 3D widefield light microscopy with better than 100 nm axial resolution,” J. Microsc. 195, 10–16 (1999).
[Crossref]

Alroy, J.

G. Twig, A. Elorza, A. J. Molina, H. Mohamed, J. D. Wikstrom, G. Walzer, L. Stiles, S. E. Haigh, S. Katz, G. Las, J. Alroy, M. Wu, B. F. Py, J. Yuan, J. T. Deeney, B. E. Corkey, and O. S. Shirihai, “Fission and selective fusion govern mitochondrial segregation and elimination by autophagy,” EMBO J. 27, 433–446 (2008).
[Crossref]

Amat, F.

R. K. Chhetri, F. Amat, Y. Wan, B. Hockendorf, W. C. lemon, and P. Keller, “Whole-animal functional and developmental imaging with isotropic spatial resolution,” Nat. Methods 12, 1171–1178 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Preibisch, F. Amat, E. Stamataki, M. Sarov, R. H. Singer, E. W. Myers, and P. Tomancak, “Efficient Bayesian-based multiview deconvolution,” Nat. Methods 11, 645–648 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andilla, J.

Artigas, D.

Bao, Z.

A. Kumar, Y. Wu, R. Christensen, P. Chandris, W. Gandler, E. McCreedy, A. Bokinsky, D. Colon-Ramos, Z. Bao, M. McAuliffe, G. Rondeau, and H. Shroff, “Dual-view plane illumination microscopy for rapid and spatially isotropic imaging,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 2555–2573 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, P. Wawrzusin, J. Senseney, R. S. Fischer, R. Christensen, A. Santella, A. G. York, P. W. Winter, C. M. Waterman, Z. Bao, D. A. Colón-Ramos, M. McAuliffe, and H. Shroff, “Spatially isotropic four-dimensional imaging with dual-view plane illumination microscopy,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31, 1032–1038 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, A. Ghitani, R. Christensen, A. Santella, Z. Du, G. Rondeau, Z. Bao, D. Colon-Ramos, and H. Shroff, “Inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (iSPIM) enables coupled cell identity lineaging and neurodevelopmental imaging in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 17708–17713 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Kumar, R. Christensen, M. Guo, P. Chandris, W. Duncan, Y. Wu, A. Santella, M. Moyle, P. W. Winter, D. Colon-Ramos, Z. Bao, and H. Shroff, “Using stage- and slit-scanning to improve contrast and optical sectioning in dual-view inverted light-sheet microscopy (diSPIM),” Biol. Bull. (to be published).

Bargmann, C. I.

S. Abrahamsson, J. Chen, B. Hajj, S. Stallinga, A. Y. Katsov, J. Wisniewski, G. Mizuguchi, P. Soule, F. Mueller, C. Dugast Darzacq, X. Darzacq, C. Wu, C. I. Bargmann, D. A. Agard, M. Dahan, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Fast multicolor 3D imaging using aberration-corrected multifocus microscopy,” Nat. Methods 10, 60–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baumgart, E.

Benmerzouga, I.

J. Liu, Y. He, I. Benmerzouga, W. J. J. Sullivan, N. S. Morrissette, J. M. Murray, and K. Hu, “An ensemble of specifically targeted proteins stabilizes cortical microtubules in the human parasite Toxoplasma gondii,” Mol. Biol. Cell 27, 549–571 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bokinsky, A.

A. Kumar, Y. Wu, R. Christensen, P. Chandris, W. Gandler, E. McCreedy, A. Bokinsky, D. Colon-Ramos, Z. Bao, M. McAuliffe, G. Rondeau, and H. Shroff, “Dual-view plane illumination microscopy for rapid and spatially isotropic imaging,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 2555–2573 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brox, T.

M. Temerinac-Ott, O. Ronneberger, P. Ochs, W. Driever, T. Brox, and H. Burkhardt, “Multiview deblurring for 3-D images from light-sheet-based fluorescence microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 1863–1873 (2012).
[Crossref]

Burkhardt, H.

M. Temerinac-Ott, O. Ronneberger, P. Ochs, W. Driever, T. Brox, and H. Burkhardt, “Multiview deblurring for 3-D images from light-sheet-based fluorescence microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 1863–1873 (2012).
[Crossref]

Castaing, J. P.

R. L. J. Gill, J. P. Castaing, J. Hsin, I. S. Tan, X. Wang, K. C. Huang, F. Tian, and K. S. Ramamurthi, “Structural basis for the geometry-driven localization of a small protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E1908–E1915 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chandris, P.

A. Kumar, Y. Wu, R. Christensen, P. Chandris, W. Gandler, E. McCreedy, A. Bokinsky, D. Colon-Ramos, Z. Bao, M. McAuliffe, G. Rondeau, and H. Shroff, “Dual-view plane illumination microscopy for rapid and spatially isotropic imaging,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 2555–2573 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. G. York, P. Chandris, D. D. Nogare, J. Head, P. Wawrzusin, R. S. Fischer, A. B. Chitnis, and H. Shroff, “Instant super-resolution imaging in live cells and embryos via analog image processing,” Nat. Methods 10, 1122–1126 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Kumar, R. Christensen, M. Guo, P. Chandris, W. Duncan, Y. Wu, A. Santella, M. Moyle, P. W. Winter, D. Colon-Ramos, Z. Bao, and H. Shroff, “Using stage- and slit-scanning to improve contrast and optical sectioning in dual-view inverted light-sheet microscopy (diSPIM),” Biol. Bull. (to be published).

Chen, J.

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Supplementary Material (10)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1: PDF (2467 KB)      Supplementary materials
» Visualization 1: AVI (723 KB)      Comparative 3D projections of triple- and bottom-view wide-field imaging of Bacillus subtilis cells expressing SpoVM-GFP.
» Visualization 2: AVI (298 KB)      Higher magnification view of Visualization 1, showing a single Bacillus subtilis cell.
» Visualization 3: AVI (1498 KB)      Comparative YZ slices of triple- and bottom-view wide-field imaging of Toxoplasma gondii expressing EGFP-Tgß1-tubulin.
» Visualization 4: AVI (1826 KB)      Comparison between triple- and bottom-view wide-field time-lapse imaging of a U2OS cell expressing Lck-tGFP (cyan, labeling the plasma membrane) and ERGIC3-mCherry (magenta, labeling dilated and vesiculated ER).
» Visualization 5: AVI (5857 KB)      Comparison between triple- and dual-view light-sheet imaging of F-tractin-EGFP in RAW264.7 macrophage. Maximal intensity XY and ZY projections covering the entire cell (∼12 µm thick) are shown.
» Visualization 6: AVI (7188 KB)      The same sample as Visualization 4, showing two XY planes with an axial separation of 3 µm.
» Visualization 7: AVI (14101 KB)      Comparative dual-color triple-view and dual-view light sheet volumetric time lapse imaging of GFP-Ras and mCherry-Rab8 in a U2OS cell.
» Visualization 8: AVI (4376 KB)      Higher magnification view of sample in Visualization 7, showing a typical XY plane at z = 1 µm above the coverslip.
» Visualization 9: AVI (1648 KB)      Comparative triple- and dual-view time-lapse light-sheet imaging of mitochondria labeled with Mitotracker Red.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic representation of triple-view wide-field and light-sheet microscopy. (a) In triple-view wide-field microscopy, wide-field illumination is introduced to the sample via one of the two upper objectives (A or B), and all three objectives (A, B, C) simultaneously collect fluorescence emissions from the sample volume. (b) In triple-view light-sheet microscopy, planar illumination is alternately introduced by either of the upper objectives (A/B), with concurrent collection from the other upper objective (B/A) and lower objective (C). Note that A/B are stationary, while C is swept vertically to collect fluorescence from the inclined illuminated plane. Inset shows alternating illumination provided by B; lower panel shows perspective view. (c) Optical transfer functions (OTFs) for each objective in wide-field mode, assuming 0.8 NA for A/B and 1.2 NA for C. A cross section along Kx/kz directions is shown to highlight resolution anisotropy between lateral and axial directions. Comparative OTFs are also shown after deconvolution of (d) C alone and (e) all three views. (f) OTFs for each objective in light-sheet mode, assuming the same NAs as in (c). Comparative OTFs are also shown after joint deconvolution of (g) A, B and (h) all three views. In both wide-field and light-sheet microscopy, deconvolution of all three views improves resolution. Blue ellipses and red arrows in (d), (g), (e), and (h) indicate lateral and axial diffraction limits.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simultaneous triple-view wide-field imaging improves axial resolution relative to single-view wide-field microscopy. (a) Single-view (perspective from objective C) lateral slice, showing many Bacillus subtilis cells expressing SpoVM-GFP. Also evident are bright puncta, from 100 nm yellow–green fluorescent beads used in aiding registration of all three views. Higher magnification views (all from the perspective of objective C) of the yellow rectangular region in (a) are shown in (b) (captured via objective C), (c) (captured via objective A), (d) (captured via objective B), (e) (deconvolved view captured from objective C), and (f) (triple-view deconvolution). Also shown in (b)–(f) are corresponding axial cuts through the dotted line marked in (b), highlighting the center of the daughter spore. The triple-view deconvolution best captures the circular cross section of the spore. See also Visualization 1 and Visualization 2. (g)–(i) Single lateral slices from imaging volume of fixed Toxoplasma gondii expressing EGFP-Tgβ1-tubulin, as viewed (g) in objective C and after (h) single-view and (i) triple-view deconvolution. Higher magnification views of the red and orange boxed regions at the indicated axial location are shown on the right. The apical ends of the parasites, marked by the conoid (purple arrows), are oriented away from the center of the vacuole. The presence of the mitotic spindle (green arrows) indicates that these parasites are actively replicating, with nascent daughter buds found at the mitotic spindle poles. Red arrows indicate cortical microtubules. (j)–(l) Corresponding axial slices marked as magenta (left), green (middle), and blue (right) dotted lines in (h) (separated by 2.5 and 5.5 μm in the x direction). Triple-view deconvolution (l) preserves the axial shape of the parasites (example indicated by yellow arrows), which is otherwise distorted in single-view imaging (j),(k). See also Visualization 3. (m)–(p) Dual-color, live imaging of U2OS cells expressing Lck-tGFP (cyan), labeling the plasma membrane, and ERGIC3-mCherry (magenta), labeling dilated and vesiculated ER. (m) and (o) highlight lateral sections through the 4D image acquisition at indicated times, after (m) single- and (o) triple-view deconvolution, with relative axial position and time indicated. (n),(p) Corresponding axial cuts at indicated x position [origin is indicated as yellow dotted line in (m)] and time. Yellow arrows indicate features such as nuclear periphery, cell membrane (red dotted lines), or vesicles that are badly distorted after single-view deconvolution, but better resolved after triple-view deconvolution. See also Visualization 4 (comparative time-lapse of axial cuts through sample). 100 iterations were used for single-view deconvolution, and 200 iterations for triple-view deconvolution.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Improvements in lateral resolution after triple-view light-sheet imaging. (a) Fixed and immunolabeled microtubules in U2OS cells, as viewed through top (“A”) objective. Lateral plane 0.43 μm above the coverslip surface, and axial cuts at indicated dotted lines are shown. (b) Same sample and illumination as in (a), but viewed through lower, higher NA objective (“C”), simultaneously acquired with view captured by “A.” (c) Corresponding dual-view (top two views) deconvolution and (d) triple-view deconvolution images are also shown. Higher magnification lateral views corresponding to deconvolved dual- [upper panel, (e), (f), and (g)] and triple-view [lower panel, (e), (f), and (g)] deconvolution are also shown, as are higher magnification axial views [(h) from (a); (j) from (b); (k) from (c); (l) from (d)]. For completeness, a higher magnification axial view from objective B view is also shown (i). As arrows in (e)–(l) highlight, triple-view deconvolution improves lateral resolution without compromising axial resolution inherent to dual-view deconvolution. Sixty iterations were performed for dual-view deconvolution; 180 iterations for triple-view deconvolution.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Triple-view light-sheet microscopy improves lateral resolution relative to dual-view light-sheet microscopy. (a) Maximum intensity projection of F-tractin-EGFP in RAW 264.7 macrophage, after triple-view fusion and deconvolution. (b) Higher magnification lateral views of red rectangular region in (a), 4.5 μm from the coverslip surface. Comparative images from dual-view imaging (c) are also shown. Red arrows mark actin protrusions, forming membrane ruffles and filopodia, which are better resolved in triple- than dual-view imaging. See also Visualization 5 and Visualization 6. (d) Two-color imaging of GFP-Ras and mCherry-Rab8 in U2OS cells after triple-view imaging. Lateral planes 1 μm (upper) and 2.7 μm (lower) from the coverslip are shown. Comparative images highlight resolution improvement (yellow arrows) of triple-view [(e), (g), (i), and (k)] relative to dual-view [(f), (h), (j), and (l)] light-sheet imaging, especially in fine structures such as filopodia [(e) and (f)], reticular structures within the plasma membrane [(g) and (h)], and intracellular vesicles and endosomes [(I),(j) and (k),(l)]. Higher magnification images [(e)–(l)] correspond to rectangular regions in (d); see also Visualization 7 and Visualization 8. (m) Mitochondria in U2OS cells were labeled with Mitotracker Red and imaged in triple-view light-sheet microscopy. Imaris rendering is shown. (n) Comparison between triple-view (upper) and dual-view (lower) imaging shows that the nonhomogenous, “beads on a string” staining of mitochondria is better resolved in triple-view imaging. Images are maximum intensity projections over 1.5 μm, and correspond to yellow rectangular region in (m). (o) Higher magnification views of red boxed region in (m) (maximum intensity projections over 1.5 μm) highlighting loss and gain in mitochondrial membrane potential (red arrows) over time. See also Visualization 9. For dual-view deconvolution, 60 iterations were used; for triple-view deconvolution, 180 iterations were used for (a) and (b), 120 iterations for the green channel in (d)–(l), and 100 iterations for the red channel in (d)–(o).

Equations (5)

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zt=s/2,x=xt/+zt=xt/2+s,z=xt/2,y=yt.
x=xb+s,z=xb,y=yb.
x=(xt+zt)/2,z=(xtzt)/2,y=yt.
EA=Ek×{ViewA/(EkPSFA)}PSFA˜,EB=Ek×{ViewB/(EkPSFB)}PSFB˜,EC=Ek×{ViewC/(EkPSFC)}PSFC˜,Ek+1=(EA+EB+EC)/3,E0=(ViewA+ViewB+ViewC)/3,PSF˜(i,j,k)=PSF(mi,nj,pk),0i<m;0j<n;0k<p.
OTF=DFT{Circshift(PSF)},EPSF=DFT1{DFT(E)×OTF},EPSF˜=DFT1{DFT(E)×conj[OTF]}.

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