Abstract

A pulse–pulse interaction that leads to rogue wave (RW) generation in lasers was previously attributed either to soliton–soliton or soliton–dispersive-wave interaction. The beating between polarization modes in the absence of a saturable absorber causes similar effects. Accounting for these polarization modes in a laser resonator is the purpose of the distributed vector model of laser resonators. Furthermore, high pump power, high amplitude, and short pulse duration are not necessary conditions to observe pulse attraction, repulsion, and collisions and the resonance exchange of energy between among them. The regimes of interest can be tuned just by changing the birefringence in the cavity with the pump power slightly higher than the laser threshold. This allows the observation of a wide range of RW patterns in the same experiment, as well as to classify them. The dynamics of the interaction between pulses leads us to the conclusion that all of these effects occur due to nonlinearity induced by the inverse population in the active fiber as well as an intrinsic nonlinearity in the passive part of the cavity. Most of the mechanisms of pulse–pulse interaction were found to be mutually exclusive. This means that all the observed RW patterns, namely, the “lonely,” “twins,” “three sisters,” and “cross,” are probably different cases of the same process.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

S. V. Sergeyev, S. A. Kolpakov, C. Mou, G. Jacobsen, S. Popov, and V. Kalashnikov, “Slow deterministic vector rogue waves,” Proc. SPIE 9732, 97320K (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, E. G. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. K. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e131 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Bree, C. Manke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Rogue wave formation by accelerated solitons at an optical event horizon,” Appl. Phys. B 115, 343–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Sergeyev, “Fast and slowly evolving vector solitons in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 372, 20140006 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. F. J. Runge, C. Aguergaray, N. G. R. Broderick, and M. Erkintalo, “Raman rogue waves in a partially mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 319–322 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue wave generation in multiple-pulsing mode-locked fiber laser,” J. Opt. 15, 064005 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Bree, C. Mahnke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Rogue events in the group velocity horizon,” Sci. Rep. 2, 850 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233901 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Rohrmann, A. Hause, and F. Mitschke, “Solitons beyond binary: possibility of fiber-optic transmission of two bits per clock period,” Sci. Rep. 2, 866 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Antikainen, M. Erkintalo, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “On the phase-dependent manifestation of optical rogue waves,” Nonlinearity 25, R73–R83 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

D. J. Kedziora, N. Akhmediev, and A. Ankiewicz, “Optical rogue wave triplets,” Phys. Lett. A 375, 2782–2785 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. N. Pisarchik, R. Jaimes-Reategui, R. Sevilla-Escoboza, G. Huerta-Cuellar, and M. Taki, “Rogue waves in a multistable system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 274101 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves: extreme pulses generated by passively mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 84, 016604 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Kanna, M. Vijayajayanthi, and M. Lakshmanan, “Periodic energy switching of bright solitons in mixed coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with linear self-coupling and cross-coupling terms,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013808 (2007).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

1983 (1)

Aguergaray, C.

Akhmediev, N.

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue wave generation in multiple-pulsing mode-locked fiber laser,” J. Opt. 15, 064005 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233901 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves: extreme pulses generated by passively mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 84, 016604 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. J. Kedziora, N. Akhmediev, and A. Ankiewicz, “Optical rogue wave triplets,” Phys. Lett. A 375, 2782–2785 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

Akhmediev, N. N.

N. N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Solitons, Non-Linear Pulses and Beams (Springer, 1997).

Amiranashvili, S.

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Bree, C. Manke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Rogue wave formation by accelerated solitons at an optical event horizon,” Appl. Phys. B 115, 343–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Bree, C. Mahnke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Rogue events in the group velocity horizon,” Sci. Rep. 2, 850 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ankiewicz, A.

D. J. Kedziora, N. Akhmediev, and A. Ankiewicz, “Optical rogue wave triplets,” Phys. Lett. A 375, 2782–2785 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Solitons, Non-Linear Pulses and Beams (Springer, 1997).

Antikainen, A.

A. Antikainen, M. Erkintalo, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “On the phase-dependent manifestation of optical rogue waves,” Nonlinearity 25, R73–R83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blow, K.

S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, E. G. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. K. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bree, C.

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Bree, C. Manke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Rogue wave formation by accelerated solitons at an optical event horizon,” Appl. Phys. B 115, 343–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Bree, C. Mahnke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Rogue events in the group velocity horizon,” Sci. Rep. 2, 850 (2012).
[Crossref]

Broderick, N. G. R.

Demircan, A.

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Bree, C. Manke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Rogue wave formation by accelerated solitons at an optical event horizon,” Appl. Phys. B 115, 343–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Bree, C. Mahnke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Rogue events in the group velocity horizon,” Sci. Rep. 2, 850 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dias, F.

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dudley, J.

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dudley, J. M.

A. Antikainen, M. Erkintalo, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “On the phase-dependent manifestation of optical rogue waves,” Nonlinearity 25, R73–R83 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Hammani, C. Finot, J. M. Dudley, and G. Millot, “Optical rogue-wave-like extreme value fluctuations in fiber Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express 16, 16467–16474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Erkintalo, M.

A. F. J. Runge, C. Aguergaray, N. G. R. Broderick, and M. Erkintalo, “Raman rogue waves in a partially mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 319–322 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Antikainen, M. Erkintalo, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “On the phase-dependent manifestation of optical rogue waves,” Nonlinearity 25, R73–R83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Finot, C.

Genty, G.

A. Antikainen, M. Erkintalo, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “On the phase-dependent manifestation of optical rogue waves,” Nonlinearity 25, R73–R83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gordon, J. P.

Grelu, P.

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue wave generation in multiple-pulsing mode-locked fiber laser,” J. Opt. 15, 064005 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233901 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves: extreme pulses generated by passively mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 84, 016604 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grimshaw, R.

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hammani, K.

Hause, A.

P. Rohrmann, A. Hause, and F. Mitschke, “Solitons beyond binary: possibility of fiber-optic transmission of two bits per clock period,” Sci. Rep. 2, 866 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huerta-Cuellar, G.

A. N. Pisarchik, R. Jaimes-Reategui, R. Sevilla-Escoboza, G. Huerta-Cuellar, and M. Taki, “Rogue waves in a multistable system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 274101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jacobsen, G.

S. V. Sergeyev, S. A. Kolpakov, C. Mou, G. Jacobsen, S. Popov, and V. Kalashnikov, “Slow deterministic vector rogue waves,” Proc. SPIE 9732, 97320K (2016).
[Crossref]

Jaimes-Reategui, R.

A. N. Pisarchik, R. Jaimes-Reategui, R. Sevilla-Escoboza, G. Huerta-Cuellar, and M. Taki, “Rogue waves in a multistable system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 274101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jalali, B.

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kalashnikov, V.

S. V. Sergeyev, S. A. Kolpakov, C. Mou, G. Jacobsen, S. Popov, and V. Kalashnikov, “Slow deterministic vector rogue waves,” Proc. SPIE 9732, 97320K (2016).
[Crossref]

Kanna, T.

T. Kanna, M. Vijayajayanthi, and M. Lakshmanan, “Periodic energy switching of bright solitons in mixed coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with linear self-coupling and cross-coupling terms,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013808 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kbashi, H.

S. Kolpakov, H. Kbashi, and S. Sergeyev, “Slow optical rogue waves in a unidirectional fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper JW2A.56.

Kedziora, D. J.

D. J. Kedziora, N. Akhmediev, and A. Ankiewicz, “Optical rogue wave triplets,” Phys. Lett. A 375, 2782–2785 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kharif, C.

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, and A. Slunyaev, Rogue Waves in the Ocean (Springer, 2009).

Kodama, Y.

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kolpakov, S.

S. Kolpakov, H. Kbashi, and S. Sergeyev, “Slow optical rogue waves in a unidirectional fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper JW2A.56.

Kolpakov, S. A.

S. V. Sergeyev, S. A. Kolpakov, C. Mou, G. Jacobsen, S. Popov, and V. Kalashnikov, “Slow deterministic vector rogue waves,” Proc. SPIE 9732, 97320K (2016).
[Crossref]

Koonath, P.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lakshmanan, M.

T. Kanna, M. Vijayajayanthi, and M. Lakshmanan, “Periodic energy switching of bright solitons in mixed coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with linear self-coupling and cross-coupling terms,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013808 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lecaplain, C.

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue wave generation in multiple-pulsing mode-locked fiber laser,” J. Opt. 15, 064005 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lindgren, G.

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mahnke, C.

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Bree, C. Mahnke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Rogue events in the group velocity horizon,” Sci. Rep. 2, 850 (2012).
[Crossref]

Manke, C.

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Bree, C. Manke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Rogue wave formation by accelerated solitons at an optical event horizon,” Appl. Phys. B 115, 343–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

McClintock, P. V. E.

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

Millot, G.

Mitschke, F.

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Bree, C. Manke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Rogue wave formation by accelerated solitons at an optical event horizon,” Appl. Phys. B 115, 343–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Bree, C. Mahnke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Rogue events in the group velocity horizon,” Sci. Rep. 2, 850 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Rohrmann, A. Hause, and F. Mitschke, “Solitons beyond binary: possibility of fiber-optic transmission of two bits per clock period,” Sci. Rep. 2, 866 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mitschke, F. M.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Mou, C.

S. V. Sergeyev, S. A. Kolpakov, C. Mou, G. Jacobsen, S. Popov, and V. Kalashnikov, “Slow deterministic vector rogue waves,” Proc. SPIE 9732, 97320K (2016).
[Crossref]

S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, E. G. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. K. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Onorato, M.

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

Osborne, A.

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pelinovsky, E.

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, and A. Slunyaev, Rogue Waves in the Ocean (Springer, 2009).

Pisarchik, A. N.

A. N. Pisarchik, R. Jaimes-Reategui, R. Sevilla-Escoboza, G. Huerta-Cuellar, and M. Taki, “Rogue waves in a multistable system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 274101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Popov, S.

S. V. Sergeyev, S. A. Kolpakov, C. Mou, G. Jacobsen, S. Popov, and V. Kalashnikov, “Slow deterministic vector rogue waves,” Proc. SPIE 9732, 97320K (2016).
[Crossref]

Rohrmann, P.

P. Rohrmann, A. Hause, and F. Mitschke, “Solitons beyond binary: possibility of fiber-optic transmission of two bits per clock period,” Sci. Rep. 2, 866 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ropers, C.

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rozhin, A.

S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, E. G. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. K. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ruban, V.

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ruderman, M.

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

Runge, A. F. J.

Sergeyev, S.

S. Sergeyev, “Fast and slowly evolving vector solitons in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 372, 20140006 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Kolpakov, H. Kbashi, and S. Sergeyev, “Slow optical rogue waves in a unidirectional fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper JW2A.56.

Sergeyev, S. V.

S. V. Sergeyev, S. A. Kolpakov, C. Mou, G. Jacobsen, S. Popov, and V. Kalashnikov, “Slow deterministic vector rogue waves,” Proc. SPIE 9732, 97320K (2016).
[Crossref]

S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, E. G. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. K. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sevilla-Escoboza, R.

A. N. Pisarchik, R. Jaimes-Reategui, R. Sevilla-Escoboza, G. Huerta-Cuellar, and M. Taki, “Rogue waves in a multistable system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 274101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Slunyaev, A.

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, and A. Slunyaev, Rogue Waves in the Ocean (Springer, 2009).

Solli, D.

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

Solli, D. R.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref]

Soomere, T.

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue wave generation in multiple-pulsing mode-locked fiber laser,” J. Opt. 15, 064005 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233901 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves: extreme pulses generated by passively mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 84, 016604 (2011).
[Crossref]

Steinmeyer, G.

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Bree, C. Manke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Rogue wave formation by accelerated solitons at an optical event horizon,” Appl. Phys. B 115, 343–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Bree, C. Mahnke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Rogue events in the group velocity horizon,” Sci. Rep. 2, 850 (2012).
[Crossref]

Taki, M.

A. N. Pisarchik, R. Jaimes-Reategui, R. Sevilla-Escoboza, G. Huerta-Cuellar, and M. Taki, “Rogue waves in a multistable system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 274101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Turitsyn, S. K.

S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, E. G. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. K. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Turitsyna, E. G.

S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, E. G. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. K. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vijayajayanthi, M.

T. Kanna, M. Vijayajayanthi, and M. Lakshmanan, “Periodic energy switching of bright solitons in mixed coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with linear self-coupling and cross-coupling terms,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013808 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Bree, C. Manke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Rogue wave formation by accelerated solitons at an optical event horizon,” Appl. Phys. B 115, 343–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. (1)

V. Ruban, Y. Kodama, M. Ruderman, J. Dudley, R. Grimshaw, P. V. E. McClintock, M. Onorato, C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, T. Soomere, G. Lindgren, N. Akhmediev, A. Slunyaev, D. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, F. Dias, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves—towards a unifying concept? Discussions and debates,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 259–266 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue wave generation in multiple-pulsing mode-locked fiber laser,” J. Opt. 15, 064005 (2013).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, E. G. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. K. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nonlinearity (1)

A. Antikainen, M. Erkintalo, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “On the phase-dependent manifestation of optical rogue waves,” Nonlinearity 25, R73–R83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A (1)

S. Sergeyev, “Fast and slowly evolving vector solitons in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 372, 20140006 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

D. J. Kedziora, N. Akhmediev, and A. Ankiewicz, “Optical rogue wave triplets,” Phys. Lett. A 375, 2782–2785 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. Kanna, M. Vijayajayanthi, and M. Lakshmanan, “Periodic energy switching of bright solitons in mixed coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with linear self-coupling and cross-coupling terms,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013808 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves: extreme pulses generated by passively mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 84, 016604 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233901 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. N. Pisarchik, R. Jaimes-Reategui, R. Sevilla-Escoboza, G. Huerta-Cuellar, and M. Taki, “Rogue waves in a multistable system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 274101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. V. Sergeyev, S. A. Kolpakov, C. Mou, G. Jacobsen, S. Popov, and V. Kalashnikov, “Slow deterministic vector rogue waves,” Proc. SPIE 9732, 97320K (2016).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

P. Rohrmann, A. Hause, and F. Mitschke, “Solitons beyond binary: possibility of fiber-optic transmission of two bits per clock period,” Sci. Rep. 2, 866 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Bree, C. Mahnke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Rogue events in the group velocity horizon,” Sci. Rep. 2, 850 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

N. N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Solitons, Non-Linear Pulses and Beams (Springer, 1997).

S. Kolpakov, H. Kbashi, and S. Sergeyev, “Slow optical rogue waves in a unidirectional fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper JW2A.56.

C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, and A. Slunyaev, Rogue Waves in the Ocean (Springer, 2009).

Supplementary Material (1)

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» Supplement 1: PDF (1651 KB)      Suplementary material

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the ring fiber laser.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. PDFs of the amplitudes of pulses (normalized histograms) for different regimes. The RW threshold was set at 8 units of standard deviation from the mean value. The cross and the accelerate patterns were observed at the same position of the polarization controllers.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. OSA spectra. The spectra for the accelerated and cross patterns are the same because the two patterns were observed at the same position of the polarization controllers.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Lonely FORW: (a) 2D space–time evolution, (b) the pattern after digital filtering, (c) back view of the pattern, and (d) front view of the pattern.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Twins FORW pattern: (a) 2D space–time evolution, (b) the pattern after digital filtering, (c) front view of the pattern, and (d) back view of the pattern.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Three sisters FORW pattern: (a) 2D space–time evolution, (b) the pattern after digital filtering, (c) back view of the pattern, and (d) front view of the pattern. The white circle labeled A indicates the attraction of the pulse before merging, while the red circles labeled R show the process of the repulsion of pulses.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Cross FORW pattern: (a) 2D space–time evolution, (b) the pattern after digital filtering, (c) back view of the pattern, and (d) front view of the pattern. A pulse with circular SOP (the vertical trace means the relative speed is equal to zero) has collided with a pulse with an elliptical SOP that has a relative speed of 100  m/s.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Solitary FORW propagating with acceleration: (a) 2D space–time evolution, (b) the pattern after digital filtering, (c) front view of the pattern, and (d) back view of the pattern. The black arrow (a) shows the direction of propagation of the pulse. Around the point labeled 2, four uncertainty zones are clearly visible. Each zone has a duration of 3 round trips.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Mean values of pattern points, (b) the first derivative, and (c) the second derivative.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Amplitude of the accelerated FORW pattern plotted slice by slice. The point labeled 2 roughly matches the moment of the collision of the precursor with pulse 4.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Procedure of estimation of pulse acceleration: (a) a whole pattern, (b) the amplified area inside of the red square, and (c) results of digital filtering and d-fitting of the dataset.

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