Abstract

Mid-infrared (mid-IR) frequency combs have broad applications in molecular spectroscopy and chemical/biological sensing. Recently developed microresonator-based combs in this wavelength regime could enable portable and robust devices using a single-frequency pump field. Here, we demonstrate a mode-locked microresonator-based frequency comb in the mid-IR spanning 2.4–4.3 μm. We observe high pump-to-comb conversion efficiency, in which 40% of the pump power is converted to the output comb power. Utilizing an integrated PIN structure allows for tuning the silicon microresonator and controlling cavity soliton formation via free-carrier detection and control. Our results significantly advance microresonator-based comb technology toward a portable and robust mid-IR spectroscopic device that operates at low pump powers.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (4)

2015 (7)

F. Zhu, A. Bicer, R. Askar, J. Bounds, A. A. Kolomenskii, V. Kelessides, M. Amani, and H. A. Schussler, “Mid-infrared dual frequency comb spectroscopy based on fiber lasers for the detection of methane in ambient air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12, 095701 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. K. W. Lau, M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Effects of multiphoton absorption on parametric comb generation in silicon microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2778–2781 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Mode-locked ultrashort pulse generation from on-chip normal dispersion microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, M.-G. Suh, and K. Vahala, “Soliton frequency comb at microwave rates in a high-Q silica microresonator,” Optica 2, 1078–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. R. E. Lamont, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Broadband mid-infrared frequency comb generation in a Si3N4 microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4823–4826 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, F. Di Teodoro, P. M. Belden, W. T. Lotshaw, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Generation of Kerr combs centered at 4.5 μm in crystalline microresonators pumped with quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3468–3471 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

2013 (8)

K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, B. Shim, J. S. Levy, R. Salem, A. R. Johnson, M. A. Foster, M. R. E. Lamont, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Modelocking and femtosecond pulse generation in chip-based frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21, 1335–1343 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 051108 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Chembo and C. R. Menyuk, “Spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever formalism for Kerr-comb generation in whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053852 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Coen and M. Erkintalo, “Universal scaling laws of Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1790–1792 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Route to stabilized ultrabroadband microresonator-based frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3478–3481 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Jung, C. Xiong, K. Y. Fong, X. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, “Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride microring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2810–2813 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, D. Eliyahu, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Stabilization of a Kerr frequency comb oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2636–2639 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holtzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (4)

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayasho, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachivili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Adler, P. Maslowski, A. Foltynowicz, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Mid-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy with a broadband frequency comb,” Opt. Express 18, 21861–21872 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, C. B. Poitras, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultrashort free-carrier lifetime in low-loss silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 3582–3591 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, and Y. Fainman, “Thermal and Kerr nonlinear properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride/silicon dioxide waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 12987–12994 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyone spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. Haelterman, S. Trillo, and S. Wabnitz, “Dissipative modulation instability in a nonlinear dispersive ring cavity,” Opt. Commun. 91, 401–407 (1992).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

L. A. Lugiato and R. Lefever, “Spatial dissipative structures in passive optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2209–2211 (1987).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Adler, F.

Alic, N.

Amani, M.

F. Zhu, A. Bicer, R. Askar, J. Bounds, A. A. Kolomenskii, V. Kelessides, M. Amani, and H. A. Schussler, “Mid-infrared dual frequency comb spectroscopy based on fiber lasers for the detection of methane in ambient air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12, 095701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Askar, R.

F. Zhu, A. Bicer, R. Askar, J. Bounds, A. A. Kolomenskii, V. Kelessides, M. Amani, and H. A. Schussler, “Mid-infrared dual frequency comb spectroscopy based on fiber lasers for the detection of methane in ambient air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12, 095701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beha, K.

Belden, P. M.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bernhardt, B.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayasho, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachivili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bicer, A.

F. Zhu, A. Bicer, R. Askar, J. Bounds, A. A. Kolomenskii, V. Kelessides, M. Amani, and H. A. Schussler, “Mid-infrared dual frequency comb spectroscopy based on fiber lasers for the detection of methane in ambient air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12, 095701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bounds, J.

F. Zhu, A. Bicer, R. Askar, J. Bounds, A. A. Kolomenskii, V. Kelessides, M. Amani, and H. A. Schussler, “Mid-infrared dual frequency comb spectroscopy based on fiber lasers for the detection of methane in ambient air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12, 095701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brasch, V.

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Briles, T. C.

Bulu, I.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8, 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 051108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Byrd, J.

Cardenas, J.

A. G. Griffith, M. Yu, Y. Okawachi, J. Cardenas, A. Mohanty, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Coherent mid-infrared frequency combs in silicon-microresonators in the presence of Raman effects,” Opt. Express 24, 13044–13050 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chembo, Y. K.

Y. K. Chembo and C. R. Menyuk, “Spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever formalism for Kerr-comb generation in whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053852 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyone spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Coen, S.

Cossel, K. C.

Del’Haye, P.

S. B. Papp, K. Beha, P. Del’Haye, F. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator frequency comb optical clock,” Optica 1, 10–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Deotare, P.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8, 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

Di Teodoro, F.

Diddams, S. A.

S. B. Papp, K. Beha, P. Del’Haye, F. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator frequency comb optical clock,” Optica 1, 10–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

Eliyahu, D.

Erkintalo, M.

Fain, R.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fainman, Y.

Foltynowicz, A.

Fong, K. Y.

Foster, M. A.

K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, B. Shim, J. S. Levy, R. Salem, A. R. Johnson, M. A. Foster, M. R. E. Lamont, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Modelocking and femtosecond pulse generation in chip-based frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21, 1335–1343 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, C. B. Poitras, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultrashort free-carrier lifetime in low-loss silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 3582–3591 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

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C. S. Joshi, J. K. Jang, K. Luke, X. Ji, A. Klenner, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Thermally-controlled comb generation and soliton modelocking in microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2565–2568 (2016).
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K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. R. E. Lamont, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Broadband mid-infrared frequency comb generation in a Si3N4 microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4823–4826 (2015).
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R. K. W. Lau, M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Effects of multiphoton absorption on parametric comb generation in silicon microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2778–2781 (2015).
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A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3398–3400 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
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A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, C. B. Poitras, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultrashort free-carrier lifetime in low-loss silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 3582–3591 (2010).
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A. G. Griffith, M. Yu, Y. Okawachi, J. Cardenas, A. Mohanty, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Coherent mid-infrared frequency combs in silicon-microresonators in the presence of Raman effects,” Opt. Express 24, 13044–13050 (2016).
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A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123901 (2014).
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C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
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T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holtzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
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C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
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Johnson, A. R.

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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123901 (2014).
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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
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C. Lecaplain, C. Javerzac-Galy, E. Lucas, J. D. Jost, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum cascade laser Kerr frequency comb,” arXiv:1506.00626 (2015).

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Karpov, M.

M. Karpov, H. Guo, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and controlled switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” arXiv:1601.05036 (2016).

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F. Zhu, A. Bicer, R. Askar, J. Bounds, A. A. Kolomenskii, V. Kelessides, M. Amani, and H. A. Schussler, “Mid-infrared dual frequency comb spectroscopy based on fiber lasers for the detection of methane in ambient air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12, 095701 (2015).
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[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123901 (2014).
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T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holtzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
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T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
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C. Lecaplain, C. Javerzac-Galy, E. Lucas, J. D. Jost, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum cascade laser Kerr frequency comb,” arXiv:1506.00626 (2015).

M. Karpov, H. Guo, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and controlled switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” arXiv:1601.05036 (2016).

Klenner, A.

Kobayasho, Y.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayasho, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachivili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
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F. Zhu, A. Bicer, R. Askar, J. Bounds, A. A. Kolomenskii, V. Kelessides, M. Amani, and H. A. Schussler, “Mid-infrared dual frequency comb spectroscopy based on fiber lasers for the detection of methane in ambient air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12, 095701 (2015).
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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
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M. Karpov, H. Guo, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and controlled switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” arXiv:1601.05036 (2016).

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M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, O. Kuzucu, K. Saha, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-based monolithic optical frequency comb source,” arXiv:1102.0326 (2011).

Kwong, D.-L.

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Mode-locked ultrashort pulse generation from on-chip normal dispersion microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
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Lau, R. K. W.

R. K. W. Lau, M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Effects of multiphoton absorption on parametric comb generation in silicon microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2778–2781 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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Liang, W.

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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123901 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Karpov, H. Guo, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and controlled switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” arXiv:1601.05036 (2016).

Lipson, M.

C. S. Joshi, J. K. Jang, K. Luke, X. Ji, A. Klenner, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Thermally-controlled comb generation and soliton modelocking in microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2565–2568 (2016).
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K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. R. E. Lamont, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Broadband mid-infrared frequency comb generation in a Si3N4 microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4823–4826 (2015).
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[Crossref]

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A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, C. B. Poitras, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultrashort free-carrier lifetime in low-loss silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 3582–3591 (2010).
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Liu, Y.

Lobanov, V. E.

M. Karpov, H. Guo, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and controlled switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” arXiv:1601.05036 (2016).

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B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8, 369–374 (2014).
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C. Lecaplain, C. Javerzac-Galy, E. Lucas, J. D. Jost, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum cascade laser Kerr frequency comb,” arXiv:1506.00626 (2015).

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L. A. Lugiato and R. Lefever, “Spatial dissipative structures in passive optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2209–2211 (1987).
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Maleki, L.

Maslowski, P.

Matsko, A.

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Mode-locked ultrashort pulse generation from on-chip normal dispersion microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
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McMillan, J. F.

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Mode-locked ultrashort pulse generation from on-chip normal dispersion microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
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Mohanty, A.

A. G. Griffith, M. Yu, Y. Okawachi, J. Cardenas, A. Mohanty, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Coherent mid-infrared frequency combs in silicon-microresonators in the presence of Raman effects,” Opt. Express 24, 13044–13050 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyone spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Niu, B.

Okawachi, Y.

C. S. Joshi, J. K. Jang, K. Luke, X. Ji, A. Klenner, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Thermally-controlled comb generation and soliton modelocking in microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. G. Griffith, M. Yu, Y. Okawachi, J. Cardenas, A. Mohanty, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Coherent mid-infrared frequency combs in silicon-microresonators in the presence of Raman effects,” Opt. Express 24, 13044–13050 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. R. E. Lamont, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Broadband mid-infrared frequency comb generation in a Si3N4 microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4823–4826 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. K. W. Lau, M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Effects of multiphoton absorption on parametric comb generation in silicon microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2778–2781 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Route to stabilized ultrabroadband microresonator-based frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3478–3481 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, B. Shim, J. S. Levy, R. Salem, A. R. Johnson, M. A. Foster, M. R. E. Lamont, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Modelocking and femtosecond pulse generation in chip-based frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21, 1335–1343 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3398–3400 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ozawa, A.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayasho, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachivili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Papp, S. B.

Pfeiffer, M. H. P.

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Karpov, H. Guo, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and controlled switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” arXiv:1601.05036 (2016).

Phare, C. T.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Picque, N.

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Picqué, N.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayasho, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachivili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Poitras, C. B.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, C. B. Poitras, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultrashort free-carrier lifetime in low-loss silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 3582–3591 (2010).
[Crossref]

Qi, M.

Quinlan, F.

Riemensberger, J.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holtzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saha, K.

Salem, R.

Saperstein, R. E.

Savchenkov, A.

Savchenkov, A. A.

Schliesser, A.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schussler, H. A.

F. Zhu, A. Bicer, R. Askar, J. Bounds, A. A. Kolomenskii, V. Kelessides, M. Amani, and H. A. Schussler, “Mid-infrared dual frequency comb spectroscopy based on fiber lasers for the detection of methane in ambient air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12, 095701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Seidel, D.

Shankar, R.

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 051108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shim, B.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Spillane, S.

T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[Crossref]

Suh, M.-G.

Swann, W. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyone spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tang, H. X.

Trillo, S.

M. Haelterman, S. Trillo, and S. Wabnitz, “Dissipative modulation instability in a nonlinear dispersive ring cavity,” Opt. Commun. 91, 401–407 (1992).
[Crossref]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, C. B. Poitras, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultrashort free-carrier lifetime in low-loss silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 3582–3591 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Udem, T.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayasho, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachivili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K.

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, M.-G. Suh, and K. Vahala, “Soliton frequency comb at microwave rates in a high-Q silica microresonator,” Optica 2, 1078–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

Venkataraman, V.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8, 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wabnitz, S.

R. T. Hansson, D. Modotto, and S. Wabnitz, “Mid-infrared soliton and Raman frequency comb generation in silicon microrings,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6747–6750 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Haelterman, S. Trillo, and S. Wabnitz, “Dissipative modulation instability in a nonlinear dispersive ring cavity,” Opt. Commun. 91, 401–407 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Wang, C. Y.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holtzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, P.-H.

Weiner, A. M.

Wen, Y. H.

Wong, C. W.

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Mode-locked ultrashort pulse generation from on-chip normal dispersion microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiong, C.

Xuan, Y.

Xue, X.

Yang, J.

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Mode-locked ultrashort pulse generation from on-chip normal dispersion microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, K. Y.

Yang, Q.-F.

Ye, J.

Yi, X.

Yu, M.

A. G. Griffith, M. Yu, Y. Okawachi, J. Cardenas, A. Mohanty, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Coherent mid-infrared frequency combs in silicon-microresonators in the presence of Raman effects,” Opt. Express 24, 13044–13050 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Mode-locked ultrashort pulse generation from on-chip normal dispersion microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhou, H.

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Mode-locked ultrashort pulse generation from on-chip normal dispersion microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, F.

F. Zhu, A. Bicer, R. Askar, J. Bounds, A. A. Kolomenskii, V. Kelessides, M. Amani, and H. A. Schussler, “Mid-infrared dual frequency comb spectroscopy based on fiber lasers for the detection of methane in ambient air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12, 095701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 051108 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Zhu, A. Bicer, R. Askar, J. Bounds, A. A. Kolomenskii, V. Kelessides, M. Amani, and H. A. Schussler, “Mid-infrared dual frequency comb spectroscopy based on fiber lasers for the detection of methane in ambient air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12, 095701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (6)

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holtzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8, 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayasho, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachivili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Haelterman, S. Trillo, and S. Wabnitz, “Dissipative modulation instability in a nonlinear dispersive ring cavity,” Opt. Commun. 91, 401–407 (1992).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (12)

S. Coen and M. Erkintalo, “Universal scaling laws of Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1790–1792 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Route to stabilized ultrabroadband microresonator-based frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3478–3481 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. T. Hansson, D. Modotto, and S. Wabnitz, “Mid-infrared soliton and Raman frequency comb generation in silicon microrings,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6747–6750 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. K. W. Lau, M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Effects of multiphoton absorption on parametric comb generation in silicon microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2778–2781 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. IlChenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Mode-locked Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2845–2847 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Jung, K. Y. Fong, C. Xiong, and H. X. Tang, “Electrical tuning and switching of an optical frequency comb generated in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 39, 84–87 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. S. Joshi, J. K. Jang, K. Luke, X. Ji, A. Klenner, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Thermally-controlled comb generation and soliton modelocking in microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Jung, C. Xiong, K. Y. Fong, X. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, “Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride microring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2810–2813 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, D. Eliyahu, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Stabilization of a Kerr frequency comb oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2636–2639 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3398–3400 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. R. E. Lamont, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Broadband mid-infrared frequency comb generation in a Si3N4 microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4823–4826 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, F. Di Teodoro, P. M. Belden, W. T. Lotshaw, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Generation of Kerr combs centered at 4.5 μm in crystalline microresonators pumped with quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3468–3471 (2015).
[Crossref]

Optica (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Y. K. Chembo and C. R. Menyuk, “Spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever formalism for Kerr-comb generation in whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053852 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

L. A. Lugiato and R. Lefever, “Spatial dissipative structures in passive optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2209–2211 (1987).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyone spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123901 (2014).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Mode-locked ultrashort pulse generation from on-chip normal dispersion microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

C. Lecaplain, C. Javerzac-Galy, E. Lucas, J. D. Jost, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum cascade laser Kerr frequency comb,” arXiv:1506.00626 (2015).

M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, O. Kuzucu, K. Saha, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-based monolithic optical frequency comb source,” arXiv:1102.0326 (2011).

M. Karpov, H. Guo, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and controlled switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” arXiv:1601.05036 (2016).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Numerical simulation of soliton formation via pump laser detuning in a silicon microresonator. (a) Transmission and effective pump-cavity detuning when scanning a pump laser over a cavity resonance. Effective pump-cavity detuning subtracts the resonance shift due to the Kerr effect and free-carrier dispersion from pump detuning. A series of abrupt transmission steps occur in the effective red-detuning regime. (b) Optical spectra and intracavity temporal behavior at different positions (i–vi) in the scan. The plots associated with (i–iii) are in the effective blue-detuning regime, while plots (iv–vi) are in the effective red-detuning regime. The transition to mode locking and soliton formation occurs between (iii) and (iv), as the pump frequency is tuned across the zero effective pump detuning point. As the laser is tuned, (i) primary sidebands are generated through modulation instability and cascaded FWM, (ii) mini-combs are generated around each primary sideband, (iii) with further intracavity power building up, different sets of mini-combs overlap, producing high-noise temporal behavior, (iv) a multiple (6) soliton state occurs with a complex, structured optical spectrum, (v) a 2-soliton state is produced, and (vi) the single soliton state with a smooth optical spectrum is reached. States with different numbers of solitons correspond to the transmission steps shown in (a).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Evolution toward mode locking via pump frequency detuning from the cavity resonance. (a) Transmission (blue solid curve) and 3PA-induced current (red dashed curve) as the pump frequency is scanned. Arrows correspond to four states (i–iv) in (b). (b) Left: Optical spectrum. Right: RF spectrum of the 3PA-induced current. No RF features are observed from 3 to 10 GHz, which is also within the PIN-based detector bandwidth. (c) Optical spectrum of soliton mid-IR frequency comb pumped at 3.07 μm. Inset: RF spectrum of the 3PA-induced current.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Numerical simulations of soliton formation via free-carrier (FC) lifetime tuning in a silicon microresonator. Starting with a high-noise state frequency comb, the evolution of the optical spectra (left) and temporal behavior (right) is shown by increasing the FC lifetime from 100 ps to 2.5 ns. The full time axis represents one round trip of the microresonator.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Electrical tuning of FC lifetime toward mode locking. (a) Optical transmission while scanning the pump frequency over one cavity resonance at different reverse-bias voltages. Orange arrow indicates the voltage tuning path to achieve soliton mode locking, corresponding to the generation dynamics in (c). (b) 3PA-induced current following the tuning path in (a). (c) Comb generation dynamics via electrical tuning. Right: optical spectrum; left: RF spectrum. (i)–(iv) correspond to the various reverse-bias values indicated in (b).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Electrical measurement and control of the soliton state. (a) DC component of 3PA-induced current measured with a specific reverse-bias voltage tuning path. (b) Optical spectra and RF noise spectra of the soliton state at three reverse-bias voltages corresponding to the blue arrow in (a).

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