Abstract

The combination of nonlinear and integrated photonics enables Kerr frequency comb generation in stable chip-based micro-resonators. Such a comb system will revolutionize applications, including multi-wavelength lasers, metrology, and spectroscopy. Aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) exhibits very high material nonlinearity and low nonlinear loss. However, difficulties in device processing and low device effective nonlinearity made Kerr frequency comb generation elusive. Here, we demonstrate AlGaAs-on-insulator as a nonlinear platform at telecom wavelengths with an ultra-high device nonlinearity. We show high-quality-factor (Q>105) micro-resonators where optical parametric oscillations are achieved with milliwatt-level pump threshold powers, which paves the way for on-chip pumped comb generation.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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Apiratikul, P.

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Clemmen, S.

Combrie, S.

Cristiani, I.

Dave, U. D.

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
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B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Loncar, Nat. Photonics 8, 369 (2014).
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Diddams, S. A.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
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Ducci, S.

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L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Photonics 4, 41 (2010).
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B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).
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A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Photonics 4, 41 (2010).
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Fischer, D.

Fong, K. Y.

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J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenkon, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
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Freude, W.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, Nat. Photonics 4, 535 (2010).
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Gaeta, A. L.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Lett. 36, 3398 (2011).
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J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenkon, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
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T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 480 (2012).
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J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenkon, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123901 (2014).
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T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 480 (2012).
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X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photonics 4, 557 (2010).
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A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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Guo, X.

Han, K.

Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, X. Xue, P. Wang, J. Wang, B. Niu, K. Han, M. Teng, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper STu1I.6.

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hartinger, K.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 480 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hausmann, B. J. M.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Loncar, Nat. Photonics 8, 369 (2014).
[Crossref]

Herr, T.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123901 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 8, 145 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 480 (2012).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 480 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. K. Oxenløwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 19, B146 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, H. Hu, L. Ottaviano, E. Semenova, D. Vukovic, L. K. Oxenløwe, and K. Yvind, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Post Deadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5A.3.

Hutchings, D. C.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 33, 341 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hvam, J. M.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Opt. Commun. 283, 3678 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Physica Rev. A 71, 033804 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jeppesen, P.

Ji, H.

Jost, J. D.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123901 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 8, 145 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jung, H.

Kang, J.

G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, and J. Kang, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 3, 347 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kang, J. U.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 33, 341 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123901 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 8, 145 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 480 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kondratiev, N. M.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 8, 145 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, Nat. Photonics 4, 535 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kultavewuti, P.

Kuyken, B.

Lacava, C.

Lau, R. K. W.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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M. Pu, H. Hu, L. Ottaviano, E. Semenova, D. Vukovic, L. K. Oxenløwe, and K. Yvind, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Post Deadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5A.3.

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G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, and J. Kang, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 3, 347 (1994).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

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Nature (2)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Opt. Commun. 283, 3678 (2010).
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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

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M. Pu, H. Hu, L. Ottaviano, E. Semenova, D. Vukovic, L. K. Oxenløwe, and K. Yvind, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Post Deadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5A.3.

Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, X. Xue, P. Wang, J. Wang, B. Niu, K. Han, M. Teng, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper STu1I.6.

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. AlGaAs-on-insulator (AlGaAsOI) nano-waveguide: (a) schematic drawing of an AlGaAsOI nano-waveguide with the simulated electric field distribution for the fundamental TE mode. (b) SEM picture of an AlGaAsOI nano-waveguide (highlighted in blue) after the dry etching process. (c) Calculated group velocity dispersion (GVD) versus wavelength for the waveguide with 320  nm×630  nm cross-section dimensions. The dashed curve shows the GVD for the bulk AlGaAs material.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Top-view SEM image of the AlGaAsOI micro-resonator showing ring and bus waveguides. (b) Isometric-view SEM image of the coupling region of the AlGaAsOI micro-resonator where the AlGaAs material is indicated in blue. Measured (normalized) transmission spectrum of the AlGaAsOI micro-resonator (c) around the resonance at 1590 nm with a loaded quality factor (Q) of 165,600 and (d) over a 10 nm wavelength range.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Optical frequency comb generation in an AlGaAsOI micro-resonator: (a) a single-frequency pump light coupled into a high-Q micro-resonator enables efficient parametric processes [degenerate and non-degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM)] in the resonator and allows new frequency generation in the supported modes of the micro-resonator. (b) The output spectrum of an 810-μm-long AlGaAsOI micro-resonator when a 72-mW pump was coupled into the resonator at 1590  nm. A frequency comb was generated with a line spacing of 98 GHz over a wavelength range of about 350 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. OPO threshold measurement: (a) isometric view SEM image of a 25-μm-diameter AlGaAsOI micro-resonator with a FSR of 995 GHz. (b) Measured primary sideband power at the chip output as a function of pump power in the bus waveguide for the resonator shown in (a). A significant power increase was observed at the threshold of 3.1 mW. (c) The output spectrum of the OPO when the pump power was increased to just above the threshold power (4.5 mW) for the same micro-resonator in (a). (d) The measured threshold power for micro-resonators with three different FSRs: 98, 730, and 995 GHz. The colored bands show the theoretical threshold power ranges for the different micro-resonators (from critical-coupling with QC=2QL to under-coupling with QC=10QL).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of Nonlinear Platforms for On-Chip Frequency Comb Generation at Telecom Wavelengths

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