Abstract

Metasurfaces are nanostructured devices composed of arrays of subwavelength scatterers (or meta-atoms) that manipulate the wavefront, polarization, or intensity of light. Like most other diffractive optical devices, metasurfaces are designed to operate optimally at one wavelength. Here, we present a method for designing multiwavelength metasurfaces using unit cells with multiple meta-atoms, or meta-molecules. A transmissive lens that has the same focal distance at 1550 and 915 nm is demonstrated. The lens has a NA of 0.46 and measured focusing efficiencies of 65% and 22% at 1550 and 915 nm, respectively. With proper scaling, these devices can be used in applications where operation at distinct known wavelengths is required, like various fluorescence microscopy techniques.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (4)

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 23–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618 (2016).

A. Epstein, J. P. S. Wong, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Cavity-excited Huygens’ metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10360 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Nookala, J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, K. Lai, G. Shvets, M.-C. Amann, A. Alu, and M. Belkin, “Ultrathin gradient nonlinear metasurface with a giant nonlinear response,” Optica 3, 283–288 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (13)

S. Campione, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, and M. B. Sinclair, “Tailoring dielectric resonator geometries for directional scattering and Huygens’ metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 23, 2293–2307 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Eisenbach, O. Avayu, R. Ditcovski, and T. Ellenbogen, “Metasurfaces based dual wavelength diffractive lenses,” Opt. Express 23, 3928–3936 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng and H. Mosallaei, “Truly achromatic optical metasurfaces: a filter circuit theory-based design,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 2115–2121 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Tymchenko, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, J. Lee, N. Nookala, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Gradient nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 207403 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7667 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347, 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, M. Pu, H. Gao, J. Jin, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multispectral optical metasurfaces enabled by achromatic phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15781 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15, 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, P. Zhen, T. Tho, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. R. West, J. L. Stewart, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, V. V. Shkunov, F. Strohkendl, Y. A. Zakharenkov, R. K. Dodds, and R. Byren, “All-dielectric subwavelength metasurface focusing lens,” Opt. Express 22, 26212–26221 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197401 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photon. 4, 466–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. Wang, W. Yun, and C. Jacobsen, “Achromatic Fresnel optics for wideband extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray imaging,” Nature 424, 50–53 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

1989 (1)

1982 (1)

I. Weingärtner and K.-J. Rosenbruch, “Chromatic correction of two- and three-element holographic imaging systems,” Opt. Acta 29, 519–529 (1982).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

1972 (2)

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347, 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alu, A.

Alù, A.

M. Tymchenko, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, J. Lee, N. Nookala, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Gradient nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 207403 (2015).
[Crossref]

Amann, M.-C.

Arbabi, A.

S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618 (2016).

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi and A. Faraon, “Fundamental limits of ultrathin metasurfaces,” arXiv:1411.2537 (2014).

Arbabi, E.

S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618 (2016).

Astilean, S.

Avayu, O.

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ball, A. J.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Basilio, L. I.

Beausoleil, R. G.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, P. Zhen, T. Tho, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photon. 4, 466–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

Belkin, M.

Belkin, M. A.

M. Tymchenko, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, J. Lee, N. Nookala, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Gradient nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 207403 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bennett, S. J.

Benz, A.

O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7667 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boehm, G.

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge University, 1999).

Brener, I.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7667 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Buralli, D. A.

Byren, R.

Cambril, E.

Campione, S.

O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7667 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Campione, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, and M. B. Sinclair, “Tailoring dielectric resonator geometries for directional scattering and Huygens’ metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 23, 2293–2307 (2015).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347, 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chavel, P.

Cheng, J.

Decker, M.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Demmerle, F.

Ditcovski, R.

Dodds, R. K.

Dominguez, J.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Eisenbach, O.

Eleftheriades, G. V.

A. Epstein, J. P. S. Wong, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Cavity-excited Huygens’ metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10360 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ellenbogen, T.

Epstein, A.

A. Epstein, J. P. S. Wong, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Cavity-excited Huygens’ metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10360 (2016).
[Crossref]

Falkner, M.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, P.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Faraon, A.

S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618 (2016).

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi and A. Faraon, “Fundamental limits of ultrathin metasurfaces,” arXiv:1411.2537 (2014).

Fattal, D.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, P. Zhen, T. Tho, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photon. 4, 466–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fiorentino, M.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, P. Zhen, T. Tho, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photon. 4, 466–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fu, Y. H.

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gao, H.

Z. Zhao, M. Pu, H. Gao, J. Jin, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multispectral optical metasurfaces enabled by achromatic phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15781 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gao, P.

Z. Zhao, M. Pu, H. Gao, J. Jin, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multispectral optical metasurfaces enabled by achromatic phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15781 (2015).
[Crossref]

Genevet, P.

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347, 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gomez-Diaz, J. S.

N. Nookala, J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, K. Lai, G. Shvets, M.-C. Amann, A. Alu, and M. Belkin, “Ultrathin gradient nonlinear metasurface with a giant nonlinear response,” Optica 3, 283–288 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Tymchenko, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, J. Lee, N. Nookala, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Gradient nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 207403 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grbic, A.

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197401 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hasman, E.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Horie, Y.

S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618 (2016).

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

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A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

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S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 23–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Y. Wang, W. Yun, and C. Jacobsen, “Achromatic Fresnel optics for wideband extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray imaging,” Nature 424, 50–53 (2003).
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S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 23–36 (2016).
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Z. Zhao, M. Pu, H. Gao, J. Jin, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multispectral optical metasurfaces enabled by achromatic phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15781 (2015).
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A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).
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A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

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S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618 (2016).

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M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref]

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M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347, 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

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M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
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[Crossref]

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O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7667 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

M. Tymchenko, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, J. Lee, N. Nookala, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Gradient nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 207403 (2015).
[Crossref]

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D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photon. 4, 466–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Z. Zhao, M. Pu, H. Gao, J. Jin, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multispectral optical metasurfaces enabled by achromatic phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15781 (2015).
[Crossref]

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D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

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M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15, 6261–6266 (2015).
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O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7667 (2015).
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Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Z. Zhao, M. Pu, H. Gao, J. Jin, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multispectral optical metasurfaces enabled by achromatic phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15781 (2015).
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Z. Zhao, M. Pu, H. Gao, J. Jin, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multispectral optical metasurfaces enabled by achromatic phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15781 (2015).
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M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15, 6261–6266 (2015).
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M. Tymchenko, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, J. Lee, N. Nookala, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Gradient nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 207403 (2015).
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A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).
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M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15, 6261–6266 (2015).
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Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 412–418 (2015).
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D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photon. 4, 466–470 (2010).
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C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197401 (2013).
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Z. Zhao, M. Pu, H. Gao, J. Jin, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multispectral optical metasurfaces enabled by achromatic phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15781 (2015).
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O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7667 (2015).
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M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
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M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15, 6261–6266 (2015).
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M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15, 6261–6266 (2015).
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N. Nookala, J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, K. Lai, G. Shvets, M.-C. Amann, A. Alu, and M. Belkin, “Ultrathin gradient nonlinear metasurface with a giant nonlinear response,” Optica 3, 283–288 (2016).
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M. Tymchenko, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, J. Lee, N. Nookala, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Gradient nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 207403 (2015).
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Z. Zhao, M. Pu, H. Gao, J. Jin, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multispectral optical metasurfaces enabled by achromatic phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15781 (2015).
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Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 412–418 (2015).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, P. Zhen, T. Tho, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15, 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (4)

S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618 (2016).

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Epstein, J. P. S. Wong, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Cavity-excited Huygens’ metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10360 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7667 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 23–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photon. (1)

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photon. 4, 466–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Y. Wang, W. Yun, and C. Jacobsen, “Achromatic Fresnel optics for wideband extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray imaging,” Nature 424, 50–53 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Acta (1)

I. Weingärtner and K.-J. Rosenbruch, “Chromatic correction of two- and three-element holographic imaging systems,” Opt. Acta 29, 519–529 (1982).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197401 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Tymchenko, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, J. Lee, N. Nookala, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Gradient nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 207403 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Z. Zhao, M. Pu, H. Gao, J. Jin, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multispectral optical metasurfaces enabled by achromatic phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15781 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347, 1342–1345 (2015).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1: PDF (3293 KB)      Detailed materials and methods, and simulation results and discussion of efficiency for two double wavelength gratings.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Chromatic dispersion of metasurface lenses. (a) Schematic illustration of a typical metasurface lens focusing light of different wavelengths to different focal distances (top) and schematic of a metasurface lens corrected to focus light at specific different wavelengths to the same focal distance (bottom), (b) the phase profile of a hypothetical aspherical metasurface lens at the design wavelength λ 0 and a different wavelength λ 1 as a function of the distance to the center of the lens ( ρ ). Inset: Plot of the parameter of the meta-atoms controlling phase (named L ). The Fresnel zone boundaries happen at the integer multiples of 2 π in the λ 0 phase curve. These zone boundaries coincide with the jumps in the actual phase at λ 1 and L . (c) Intensity of light at different wavelengths in the axial plane after passing through the lens, showing considerable chromatic dispersion rising from phase jumps at the boundaries between different Fresnel zones.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Meta-molecule design and its transmission characteristics. (a) A single scattering element composed of an α -Si nanopost on a fused silica substrate (left), the unit cell composed of four scattering elements that provide more control parameters for the scattering phase (center), and placement of the meta-molecules on a hexagonal lattice with lattice constant a (right); (b), (c) transmission amplitude (top) and phase (bottom) as a function of the two diameters in the unit cell for 1550 and 915 nm, respectively; (d) selected values of D 1 (top) and D 2 (bottom) as functions of phases at 1550 nm ( φ 1 ) and 950 nm ( φ 2 ); (e) transmission amplitude at 1550 nm (top) and 915 nm (bottom) for the selected meta-molecules as a function of phase shifts, showing high transmission for almost all phases.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fabricated device images. (a) Optical microscope image of the fabricated device; (b), (c) scanning electron micrographs of parts of the fabricated device from top (b) and with a 30 deg tilt (c).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurement and simulation results of the double-wavelength lenses. (a) Measured (left) and simulated (right) focal plane intensities at 915 nm. The simulated lens has the same NA as the measured one but is four times smaller. One-dimensional cross sections of the measured and simulated intensity profiles are shown at the bottom. The red arrows denote the FWHMs, which are both 1.9    μm . (b) Same results as in (a), but for 1550 nm. The high frequency fluctuations seen in the measured intensity are caused by the highly nonuniform sensitivity of the phosphorus-coated CCD camera. The FWHMs are 2.9 and 3    μm for the measurement and simulation, respectively. (c) Intensity measured in the axial planes of the lens for 915 nm (top) and 1550 nm (bottom). The high frequency noise of the camera at 1550 nm is filtered to generate a smooth distribution. (d) Simulated intensity profiles in the axial planes at 915 nm (left) and 1550 nm (right) for the four-times-smaller lens.

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