Abstract

The mid-infrared spectral region, 2–20 μm, is of great interest for sensing and detection applications, in part because the vibrational transition energies of numerous molecules fall in that region. Silicon photonics is a promising technology to address many of these applications on a single integrated, low-cost platform. Near-infrared light sources, heterogeneously integrated on silicon, have existed for more than a decade, and there have been numerous incorporations of mid-infrared optical devices on silicon platforms. However, no lasers fully integrated onto silicon have previously been demonstrated for wavelengths longer than 2.0 μm. Here we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first quantum cascade lasers on silicon emitting 4.8 μm light, integrated with silicon-on-nitride-on-insulator (SONOI) waveguides, and operating in pulsed mode at room temperature. The broadband and versatile nature of both quantum cascade lasers and the SONOI platform suggests that this development can be expanded to build photonic integrated circuits throughout the near- and mid-infrared on the same chip.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (3)

M. Gålfalk, G. Olofsson, P. Crill, and D. Bastviken, “Making methane visible,” Nat. Clim. Change 6, 426–430 (2016).

D. Botez, C.-C. Chang, and L. J. Mawst, “Temperature sensitivity of the electro-optical characteristics for mid-infrared (λ = 3-16  μm)-emitting quantum cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D 49, 043001 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Troia, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon Vernier-effect photonic microcavities for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 41, 610–613 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (9)

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Komljenovic, S. Srinivasan, E. Norberg, M. Davenport, G. Fish, and J. E. Bowers, “Widely tunable narrow-linewidth monolithically integrated external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 214–222 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40, 268–271 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Spott, M. Davenport, J. Peters, J. Bovington, M. J. R. Heck, E. J. Stanton, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and J. Bowers, “Heterogeneously integrated 2.0  μm CW hybrid silicon lasers at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1480–1483 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with 10 active stages,” Opt. Express 23, 9664–9672 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. J. Stanton, M. J. R. Heck, J. Bovington, A. Spott, and J. E. Bowers, “Multi-octave spectral beam combiner on ultra-broadband photonic integrated circuit platform,” Opt. Express 23, 11272–11283 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Wang, S. Sprengel, M. Muneeb, G. Boehm, R. Baets, M.-C. Amann, and G. Roelkens, “2  μm wavelength range InP-based type-II quantum well photodiodes heterogeneously integrated on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 23, 26834–26841 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D 48, 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Y. Gu, Y. Zhang, Y. Cao, L. Zhou, X. Chen, H. Li, and S. Xi, “2.4  μm InP-based antimony-free triangular quantum well lasers in continuous-wave operation above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 032701 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Pepe, D. Ehrenreich, and M. R. Meyer, “Instrumentation for the detection and characterization of exoplanets,” Nature 513, 358–366 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Sprengel, C. Grasse, P. Wiecha, A. Andrejew, T. Gruendl, G. Boehm, R. Meyer, and M.-C. Amann, “InP-based Type-II quantum-well lasers and LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1900909 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. V. Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 121104 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q mid-infrared chalcogenide glass-on-silicon resonators,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1470–1472 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

Y.-C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J.-M. Hartmann, and H. Peter Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2883–2885 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, and C. F. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6, 432–439 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Hattasan, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, E. Ryckeboer, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency SOI fiber-to-chip grating couplers and low-loss waveguides for the short-wave infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1536–1538 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature quantum cascade lasers with 27% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181102 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Vizbaras and M.-C. Amann, “3.6 μm GaSb-based type-I lasers with quinternary barriers, operating at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 47, 980–981 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. N. Sysak, D. Liang, R. Jones, G. Kurczveil, M. Piels, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon laser technology: a thermal perspective,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1490–1498 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19, 7112–7119 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3398–3400 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5  μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Chang, Y. Kuo, R. Jones, A. Barkai, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated hybrid silicon triplexer,” Opt. Express 18, 23891–23899 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

E. Kerstel and L. Gianfrani, “Advances in laser-based isotope ratio measurements: selected applications,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 439–449 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Bauer, A. K. Sharma, U. Willer, J. Burgmeier, B. Braunschweig, W. Schade, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Müller, and G. Holl, “Potentials and limits of mid-infrared laser spectroscopy for the detection of explosives,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 327–333 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

H. Chang, A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “1310  nm silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 15, 11466–11471 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Evans, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, J. Nguyen, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi, “Buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers with high continuous-wave wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071101 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A 8, 840–848 (2006).
[Crossref]

U. Willer, M. Saraji, A. Khorsandi, P. Geiser, and W. Schade, “Near–and mid-infrared laser monitoring of industrial processes, environment and security applications,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 699–710 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mücke, and B. Jänker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101–114 (2002).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. W. Salisbury and D. M. D’Aria, “Emissivity of terrestrial materials in the 3–5  μm atmospheric window,” Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 345–361 (1994).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

O. K. Kim and W. A. Bonner, “Infrared reflectance and absorption of N-type InP,” J. Electron. Mater. 12, 827–836 (1983).
[Crossref]

Abell, J.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D 48, 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with 10 active stages,” Opt. Express 23, 9664–9672 (2015).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Amann, M.-C.

R. Wang, S. Sprengel, M. Muneeb, G. Boehm, R. Baets, M.-C. Amann, and G. Roelkens, “2  μm wavelength range InP-based type-II quantum well photodiodes heterogeneously integrated on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 23, 26834–26841 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Sprengel, C. Grasse, P. Wiecha, A. Andrejew, T. Gruendl, G. Boehm, R. Meyer, and M.-C. Amann, “InP-based Type-II quantum-well lasers and LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1900909 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Vizbaras and M.-C. Amann, “3.6 μm GaSb-based type-I lasers with quinternary barriers, operating at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 47, 980–981 (2011).
[Crossref]

Andrejew, A.

S. Sprengel, C. Grasse, P. Wiecha, A. Andrejew, T. Gruendl, G. Boehm, R. Meyer, and M.-C. Amann, “InP-based Type-II quantum-well lasers and LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1900909 (2013).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Optical microscope image of an integrated QCL. (b) Polished SONOI end-facet of an integrated QCL. (c) Cross-sectional schematic of a hybrid silicon-QCL active region. A contour plot of the electric field component, | E y | , of the simulated fundamental TM optical mode is overlaid.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fabrication steps of the SONOI waveguides. (a) Begin with the NOI chip. (b) Dry etch the vertical outgassing channels through the Si 3 N 4 and into the SiO 2 . (c) Bond the SOI chip to the NOI chip. (d) Remove the Si substrate. (e) Remove the SiO 2 layer with buffered HF. (f) Dry etch the vertical outgassing channels in the Si device layer for later QCL bonding. (g) Dry etch the strip waveguides.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Steps to fabricate integrated QCLs. (a) Bond the QCL material to the SONOI chip. (b) Remove the InP substrate. (c) Dry etch the top InP cladding. (d) Wet etch the QCL active stages. (e) Deposit n-metal for the bottom contact. (f) Dry etch the bottom InP cladding. (g) Deposit a SiN cladding by PECVD. (h) Dry etch vias. (i) Deposit n-metal for the top contact. (j) Deposit the probe metal.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Single-sided optical output power and voltage versus drive current of two integrated QCLs.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Single-sided output power versus drive current for Device A at temperatures from 10 °C to 60 °C. (b) Corresponding threshold current densities versus temperature. The fit yields a characteristic temperature of T 0 = 175    K .

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Emission spectra of Device B measured with a monochromator at 20 °C.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Far-field intensity of Device A as a function of the angle normal to the facet in the slow (horizontal) axis (top) and fast (vertical) axis (bottom). Solid lines indicate measurements, and dotted lines indicate simulated profiles. Measurements were taken at 20 °C and a drive current of 500 mA.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Single-sided output power versus drive current at 20 °C for Device A before and after depositing an AR coating on the SONOI waveguide facets.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. III-V Layers

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