Abstract

A key ingredient for quantum photonic technologies is an on-demand source of indistinguishable single photons. State-of-the-art indistinguishable single-photon sources typically employ resonant excitation pulses with fixed repetition rates, creating a string of single photons with predetermined arrival times. However, in future applications, an independent electronic signal from a larger quantum circuit or network will trigger the generation of an indistinguishable photon. Further, operating the photon source up to the limit imposed by its lifetime is desirable. Here, we report on the application of a true on-demand approach in which we can electronically trigger the precise arrival time of a single photon as well as control the excitation pulse duration based on resonance fluorescence from a single InAs/GaAs quantum dot. We investigate in detail the effect of the finite duration of an excitation π pulse on the degree of photon antibunching. Finally, we demonstrate that highly indistinguishable single photons can be generated using this on-demand approach, enabling maximum flexibility for future applications.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (3)

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Lemaître, A. Auffèves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near-optimal single-photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 340–345 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Ding, Y. He, Z. C. Duan, N. Gregersen, M. C. Chen, S. Unsleber, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “On-demand single photons with high extraction efficiency and near-unity indistinguishability from a resonantly driven quantum dot in a micropillar,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 020401 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. C. Loredo, N. A. Zakaria, N. Somaschi, C. Anton, L. D. Santis, V. Giesz, T. Grange, M. A. Broome, O. Gazzano, G. Coppola, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, P. Senellart, M. P. Almeida, and A. G. White, “Scalable performance in solid-state single-photon sources,” Optica 3, 433–440 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

T. Huber, A. Predojević, D. Föger, G. Solomon, and G. Weihs, “Optimal excitation conditions for indistinguishable photons from quantum dots,” New J. Phys. 17, 123025 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Schlehahn, M. Gaafar, M. Vaupel, M. Gschrey, P. Schnauber, J. H. Schulze, S. Rodt, A. Strittmatter, W. Stolz, A. Rahimi-Iman, T. Heindel, M. Koch, and S. Reitzenstein, “Single-photon emission at a rate of 143  MHz from a deterministic quantum-dot microlens triggered by a mode-locked vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 041105 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

Y. Cao, A. J. Bennett, D. J. P. Ellis, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrafast electrical control of a resonantly driven single photon source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 051112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, P. E. Kremer, and B. D. Gerardot, “Efficient photon extraction from a quantum dot in a broad-band planar cavity antenna,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 023106 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Müller, S. Bounouar, K. D. Jöns, M. Glässl, and P. Michler, “On-demand generation of indistinguishable polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 224–228 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

Y.-M. He, Y. He, Y.-J. Wei, D. Wu, M. Atature, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “On-demand semiconductor single-photon source with near-unity indistinguishability,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 213–217 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Gao, P. Fallahi, E. Togan, A. Delteil, Y. Chin, J. Miguel-Sanchez, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum teleportation from a propagating photon to a solid-state spin qubit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2744 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Ates, I. Agha, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, “Improving the performance of bright quantum dot single photon sources using temporal filtering via amplitude modulation,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1397 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Matthiesen, M. Geller, C. H. H. Schulte, C. Le Gall, J. Hansom, Z. Li, M. Hugues, E. Clarke, and M. Atature, “Phase-locked indistinguishable photons with synthesized waveforms from a solid-state source,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1600 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Schaibley, A. P. Burgers, G. A. McCracken, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Direct detection of time-resolved Rabi oscillations in a single quantum dot via resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 115311 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Gazzano, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, C. Arnold, A. Nowak, E. Galopin, I. Sagnes, L. Lanco, A. Lemaître, and P. Senellart, “Bright solid-state sources of indistinguishable single photons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1425 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339, 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Broome, A. Fedrizzi, S. Rahimi-Keshari, J. Dove, S. Aaronson, T. C. Ralph, and A. G. White, “Photonic boson sampling in a tunable circuit,” Science 339, 794–798 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

P. P. Rohde and T. C. Ralph, “Error tolerance of the boson-sampling model for linear optics quantum computing,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 022332 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. H. Prechtel, P. A. Dalgarno, R. H. Hadfield, J. McFarlane, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and R. J. Warburton, “Fast electro-optics of a single self-assembled quantum dot in a charge-tunable device,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 043112 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

K. Rivoire, S. Buckley, A. Majumdar, H. Kim, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Fast quantum dot single photon source triggered at telecommunications wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 083105 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. T. Rakher and K. Srinivasan, “Subnanosecond electro-optic modulation of triggered single photons from a quantum dot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211103 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Jennewein, M. Barbieri, and A. G. White, “Single-photon device requirements for operating linear optics quantum computing outside the post-selection basis,” J. Mod. Opt. 58, 276–287 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. J. Ramsay, A. V. Gopal, E. M. Gauger, A. Nazir, B. W. Lovett, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Damping of exciton Rabi rotations by acoustic phonons in optically excited InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 017402 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

D. Brunner, B. D. Gerardot, P. A. Dalgarno, G. Wüst, K. Karrai, N. G. Stoltz, P. M. Petroff, and R. J. Warburton, “A coherent single-hole spin in a semiconductor,” Science 325, 70–72 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. P. Specht, J. Bochmann, M. Mücke, B. Weber, E. Figueroa, D. L. Moehring, and G. Rempe, “Phase shaping of single-photon wave packets,” Nat. Photonics 3, 469–472 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vučković, “Photonic quantum technologies,” Nat. Photonics 3, 687–695 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

P. Kolchin, C. Belthangady, S. Du, G. Yin, and S. Harris, “Electro-optic modulation of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 103601 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. J. Kimble, “The quantum internet,” Nature 453, 1023–1030 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Varnava, D. E. Browne, and T. Rudolph, “How good must single photon sources and detectors be for efficient linear optical quantum computation?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 060502 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135–174 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, Y. Wu, B. Sun, Q. Huang, J. Cheng, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, C. Emary, and L. J. Sham, “Fast spin state initialization in a singly charged InAs-GaAs quantum dot by optical cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 097401 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. J. Shields, “Semiconductor quantum light sources,” Nat. Photonics 1, 215–223 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

S. Laurent, S. Varoutsis, L. Le Gratiet, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, F. Raineri, A. Levenson, I. Robert-Philip, and I. Abram, “Indistinguishable single photons from a single-quantum dot in a two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 163107 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Lounis and M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 1129–1179 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. S. Kyoseva and N. V. Vitanov, “Resonant excitation amidst dephasing: an exact analytic solution,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 054102 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. Machnikowski and L. Jacak, “Resonant nature of phonon-induced damping of Rabi oscillations in quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 193302 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. Förstner, C. Weber, J. Danckwerts, and A. Knorr, “Phonon-assisted damping of rabi oscillations in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 127401 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vučković, G. S. Solomon, and Y. Yamamoto, “Indistinguishable photons from a single-photon device,” Nature 419, 594–597 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

T. Flissikowski, A. Hundt, M. Lowisch, M. Rabe, and F. Henneberger, “Photon beats from a single semiconductor quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3172–3175 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1025 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. J. Briegel, W. Dur, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932–5935 (1998).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044–2046 (1987).
[Crossref]

Aaronson, S.

M. A. Broome, A. Fedrizzi, S. Rahimi-Keshari, J. Dove, S. Aaronson, T. C. Ralph, and A. G. White, “Photonic boson sampling in a tunable circuit,” Science 339, 794–798 (2013).
[Crossref]

Abram, I.

S. Laurent, S. Varoutsis, L. Le Gratiet, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, F. Raineri, A. Levenson, I. Robert-Philip, and I. Abram, “Indistinguishable single photons from a single-quantum dot in a two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 163107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Agha, I.

S. Ates, I. Agha, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, “Improving the performance of bright quantum dot single photon sources using temporal filtering via amplitude modulation,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1397 (2013).
[Crossref]

Almeida, M. P.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Lemaître, A. Auffèves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near-optimal single-photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 340–345 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. C. Loredo, N. A. Zakaria, N. Somaschi, C. Anton, L. D. Santis, V. Giesz, T. Grange, M. A. Broome, O. Gazzano, G. Coppola, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, P. Senellart, M. P. Almeida, and A. G. White, “Scalable performance in solid-state single-photon sources,” Optica 3, 433–440 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anton, C.

J. C. Loredo, N. A. Zakaria, N. Somaschi, C. Anton, L. D. Santis, V. Giesz, T. Grange, M. A. Broome, O. Gazzano, G. Coppola, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, P. Senellart, M. P. Almeida, and A. G. White, “Scalable performance in solid-state single-photon sources,” Optica 3, 433–440 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Lemaître, A. Auffèves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near-optimal single-photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 340–345 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arnold, C.

O. Gazzano, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, C. Arnold, A. Nowak, E. Galopin, I. Sagnes, L. Lanco, A. Lemaître, and P. Senellart, “Bright solid-state sources of indistinguishable single photons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1425 (2013).
[Crossref]

Atature, M.

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[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Flexibly triggered generation of resonance fluorescence from a quantum dot. We modulate the CW laser output using a 20 Gb/s EOM driven by a PPG capable of custom pulse patterns up to a frequency of f = 3.35    GHz . A modulator bias controller optoelectronic circuit maintains the high extinction ratio of the excitation pulses at > 30    dB using a dual feedback system for increased dynamic range. BS, beam splitter; PC, polarization controller; VOA, variable optical attenuator; LP, linear polarizer; SPAD, single-photon avalanche diode. (b) and (c) Time-resolved QD resonance fluorescence under 100 ps π -pulse excitation. We overlay pulsed RF on a real-time measurement of the 100 ps excitation pulse (with spectral FWHM 5.4    μeV , see Supplement 1) obtained by tapering off some of the power from the EOM output [see (a)]. A fit of a single exponential function to the exciton decay yields lifetimes of T 1 X 1 = 0.79 ( 1 )    ns and T 1 X 0 = 0.78 ( 2 )    ns for X 1 and X 0 , respectively. The V -type energy structure of X 0 leads to quantum beats between excited states, which are directly detected here in the pulsed RF transient decay. (d) Direct observation of Rabi oscillations in the charged exciton. A fit of the theoretical excited state population (see Supplement 1) to the Rabi oscillations gives a dephasing time T 2 = ( 2.1 ± 0.2 ) T 1 .

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Pulsed antibunching of on-demand triggered resonance-fluorescence photons. (a) Measurement setup. (b) Demonstration of flexible triggering of single-photon generation with examples at various frequencies. All measurements have a 180 s integration time. (c) and (d) show zoomed-in views of the time-zero peaks, revealing ideal antibunching smeared out by jitter in our detection system (FWHM 150    ps ). The data points represent raw experimental data, while the solid colored ( g 2 ( 0 ) 0.05 ) and black ( g 2 ( 0 ) = 0.0 ) lines, respectively, represent the results of quantum numerical simulation of the master equation (see Section SII of Supplement 1 for details) with and without convolution with the instrument response function of our detection system (FWHM 150    ps ). The pulsed antibunching is limited by the effect of the finite width of our excitation 100 ps pulses (the limit of our pulse generator) giving G exp 2 ( 0 ) 0.1 and g exp 2 ( 0 ) 0.05 . (e)  G 2 ( 0 ) as a function excitation pulse width under π -pulse excitation. Measurements were performed on both neutral and charged exciton states. The solid lines are linear fits to the experimental data.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Count rates as a function of trigger pulse frequency. Raw experimental count rates on the detector are plotted for both X 0 and X 1 , as well as single-photon count rates, which are calculated from corresponding multiphoton probabilities [ G 2 ( 0 ) ]. CW saturation counts are also shown for comparison.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Demonstration of indistinguishability of single photons triggered on demand. (a) HOM-type TPI results. The flexibility of our approach allows us to set the pulse period to match the delay in our HOM setup ( Δ t = 49.7    ns ). (b) TPI visibility versus period. The measurements were performed on a neutral exciton line for X 0 using various pulse periods and hence delays between interfering photons with π -pulse excitation. TPI autocorrelation at zero relative delay. (c) shows results for X 0 photons and (d) for the charged exciton ( X 1 ), both at B ext = 0 T . Measurements were performed using 100-ps-wide excitation pulses. The measurements plotted in gray are with orthogonal polarizations of interfering photons. (c) and (d) are measured with most of the phonon band filtered out using a grating-based spectral filter. The X 0 photons show TPI visibilities of v = 0.76 ± 0.06 as raw experimental data and v = 0.96 ± 0.07 when corrected only for multiphoton emission ( G 2 corrected).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulated G 2 ( 0 ) as a function of excitation pulse width under 0.81 π -pulse excitation. Simulation of a two-level system with lifetimes of T 1 = 800 and 250 ps using a Gaussian (temporal) 0.81 π -excitation pulse profiles with varying widths. We use 0.81 π for the simulated Gaussian pulses because with a 100 ps width, they give the same G 2 ( 0 ) as the asymmetric 100 ps π pulses used in the experiment.

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