Abstract

Submicrometer dielectric phase masks allow for the realization of the miniaturization of high-quality optical elements. In this Letter we demonstrate spatial intensity beam shaping using phase masks attached to optical single-mode fibers. The phase masks are directly fabricated onto the end facet of optical fibers using femtosecond two-photon direct laser writing, achieving, therefore, submicrometer alignment accuracy. We observe high-quality intensity patterns and find excellent agreement with simulations. Our results prove that 3D printing of diffractive micro-optics can achieve sufficient performance to enable compact devices.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. A. Soifer, Methods for Computer Design of Diffractive Optical Elements (Wiley, 2002).
  2. M. Mizoshiri, H. Nishiyama, J. Nishii, and Y. Hirata, Appl. Phys. A 98, 171 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. M. Vázquez, S. M. Eaton, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, Opt. Express 19, 11597 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. N. Yu and F. Capasso, Nat. Mater. 13, 139 (2014).
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  5. M. Malinauskas, M. Farsari, A. Piskarskas, and S. Juodkazis, Phys. Rep. 533, 1 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Tibuleac, D. Wawro, and R. Magnusson, “Resonant diffractive structures integrating waveguide-gratings on optical fiber endfaces,” in 12th Annual Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) (IEEE, 1999), p. 874.
  7. E. G. Johnson, J. Stack, T. J. Suleski, C. Koehler, and W. Delaney, Appl. Opt. 42, 785 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, P. Candeloro, M. Tormen, R. Kumar, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Gerardino, G. Gigli, D. Pisignano, E. Di Fabrizio, and R. Cingolani, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 169 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 397 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, SIAM J. Optim. 9, 112 (1998).
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  11. S. Thiele, A. Seifert, and A. M. Herkommer, Opt. Express 22, 13343 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. A. Buck, Fundamentals of Optical Fibers, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2004).
  13. J. Fischer and M. Wegener, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 22 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 4, 2061 (2013).
  15. T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frölich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

M. Malinauskas, M. Farsari, A. Piskarskas, and S. Juodkazis, Phys. Rep. 533, 1 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Fischer and M. Wegener, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 22 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 4, 2061 (2013).

2012 (1)

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frölich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

M. Mizoshiri, H. Nishiyama, J. Nishii, and Y. Hirata, Appl. Phys. A 98, 171 (2010).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 397 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, P. Candeloro, M. Tormen, R. Kumar, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Gerardino, G. Gigli, D. Pisignano, E. Di Fabrizio, and R. Cingolani, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 169 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. G. Johnson, J. Stack, T. J. Suleski, C. Koehler, and W. Delaney, Appl. Opt. 42, 785 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, SIAM J. Optim. 9, 112 (1998).
[Crossref]

Buck, J. A.

J. A. Buck, Fundamentals of Optical Fibers, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2004).

Bückmann, T.

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frölich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[Crossref]

Businaro, L.

M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, P. Candeloro, M. Tormen, R. Kumar, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Gerardino, G. Gigli, D. Pisignano, E. Di Fabrizio, and R. Cingolani, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 169 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cabrini, S.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 397 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, P. Candeloro, M. Tormen, R. Kumar, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Gerardino, G. Gigli, D. Pisignano, E. Di Fabrizio, and R. Cingolani, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 169 (2003).
[Crossref]

Candeloro, P.

M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, P. Candeloro, M. Tormen, R. Kumar, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Gerardino, G. Gigli, D. Pisignano, E. Di Fabrizio, and R. Cingolani, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 169 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 4, 2061 (2013).

Capasso, F.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, Nat. Mater. 13, 139 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

Cingolani, R.

M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, P. Candeloro, M. Tormen, R. Kumar, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Gerardino, G. Gigli, D. Pisignano, E. Di Fabrizio, and R. Cingolani, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 169 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cojoc, D.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 397 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, P. Candeloro, M. Tormen, R. Kumar, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Gerardino, G. Gigli, D. Pisignano, E. Di Fabrizio, and R. Cingolani, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 169 (2003).
[Crossref]

De Vittorio, M.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 397 (2004).
[Crossref]

Degiorgio, V.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 397 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, P. Candeloro, M. Tormen, R. Kumar, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Gerardino, G. Gigli, D. Pisignano, E. Di Fabrizio, and R. Cingolani, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 169 (2003).
[Crossref]

Delaney, W.

Di Fabrizio, E.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 397 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, P. Candeloro, M. Tormen, R. Kumar, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Gerardino, G. Gigli, D. Pisignano, E. Di Fabrizio, and R. Cingolani, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 169 (2003).
[Crossref]

Eaton, S. M.

Eberl, C.

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frölich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[Crossref]

Evans, R. A.

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 4, 2061 (2013).

Farsari, M.

M. Malinauskas, M. Farsari, A. Piskarskas, and S. Juodkazis, Phys. Rep. 533, 1 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fischer, J.

J. Fischer and M. Wegener, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 22 (2013).
[Crossref]

Frölich, A.

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frölich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gan, Z.

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 4, 2061 (2013).

Gerardino, A.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 397 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, P. Candeloro, M. Tormen, R. Kumar, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Gerardino, G. Gigli, D. Pisignano, E. Di Fabrizio, and R. Cingolani, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 169 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gigli, G.

M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, P. Candeloro, M. Tormen, R. Kumar, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Gerardino, G. Gigli, D. Pisignano, E. Di Fabrizio, and R. Cingolani, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 169 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 4, 2061 (2013).

Herkommer, A. M.

Hirata, Y.

M. Mizoshiri, H. Nishiyama, J. Nishii, and Y. Hirata, Appl. Phys. A 98, 171 (2010).
[Crossref]

Johnson, E. G.

Juodkazis, S.

M. Malinauskas, M. Farsari, A. Piskarskas, and S. Juodkazis, Phys. Rep. 533, 1 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kadic, M.

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frölich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kaschke, J.

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frölich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kennerknecht, T.

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frölich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koehler, C.

Kumar, R.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 397 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, P. Candeloro, M. Tormen, R. Kumar, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Gerardino, G. Gigli, D. Pisignano, E. Di Fabrizio, and R. Cingolani, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 169 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lagarias, J. C.

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, SIAM J. Optim. 9, 112 (1998).
[Crossref]

Liberale, C.

M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, P. Candeloro, M. Tormen, R. Kumar, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Gerardino, G. Gigli, D. Pisignano, E. Di Fabrizio, and R. Cingolani, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 169 (2003).
[Crossref]

Magnusson, R.

S. Tibuleac, D. Wawro, and R. Magnusson, “Resonant diffractive structures integrating waveguide-gratings on optical fiber endfaces,” in 12th Annual Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) (IEEE, 1999), p. 874.

Malinauskas, M.

M. Malinauskas, M. Farsari, A. Piskarskas, and S. Juodkazis, Phys. Rep. 533, 1 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mizoshiri, M.

M. Mizoshiri, H. Nishiyama, J. Nishii, and Y. Hirata, Appl. Phys. A 98, 171 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nishii, J.

M. Mizoshiri, H. Nishiyama, J. Nishii, and Y. Hirata, Appl. Phys. A 98, 171 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nishiyama, H.

M. Mizoshiri, H. Nishiyama, J. Nishii, and Y. Hirata, Appl. Phys. A 98, 171 (2010).
[Crossref]

Osellame, R.

Pisignano, D.

M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, P. Candeloro, M. Tormen, R. Kumar, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Gerardino, G. Gigli, D. Pisignano, E. Di Fabrizio, and R. Cingolani, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 169 (2003).
[Crossref]

Piskarskas, A.

M. Malinauskas, M. Farsari, A. Piskarskas, and S. Juodkazis, Phys. Rep. 533, 1 (2013).
[Crossref]

Prasciolu, M.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 397 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, P. Candeloro, M. Tormen, R. Kumar, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Gerardino, G. Gigli, D. Pisignano, E. Di Fabrizio, and R. Cingolani, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 169 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ramponi, R.

Reeds, J. A.

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, SIAM J. Optim. 9, 112 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schiappelli, F.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 397 (2004).
[Crossref]

Seifert, A.

Soifer, V. A.

V. A. Soifer, Methods for Computer Design of Diffractive Optical Elements (Wiley, 2002).

Stack, J.

Stenger, N.

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frölich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[Crossref]

Suleski, T. J.

Thiel, M.

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frölich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thiele, S.

Tibuleac, S.

S. Tibuleac, D. Wawro, and R. Magnusson, “Resonant diffractive structures integrating waveguide-gratings on optical fiber endfaces,” in 12th Annual Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) (IEEE, 1999), p. 874.

Tormen, M.

M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, P. Candeloro, M. Tormen, R. Kumar, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Gerardino, G. Gigli, D. Pisignano, E. Di Fabrizio, and R. Cingolani, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 169 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vázquez, R. M.

Visimberga, G.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 397 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wawro, D.

S. Tibuleac, D. Wawro, and R. Magnusson, “Resonant diffractive structures integrating waveguide-gratings on optical fiber endfaces,” in 12th Annual Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) (IEEE, 1999), p. 874.

Wegener, M.

J. Fischer and M. Wegener, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 22 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frölich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wright, M. H.

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, SIAM J. Optim. 9, 112 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wright, P. E.

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, SIAM J. Optim. 9, 112 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, Nat. Mater. 13, 139 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frölich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

M. Mizoshiri, H. Nishiyama, J. Nishii, and Y. Hirata, Appl. Phys. A 98, 171 (2010).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

J. Fischer and M. Wegener, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 22 (2013).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (2)

M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, P. Candeloro, M. Tormen, R. Kumar, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Gerardino, G. Gigli, D. Pisignano, E. Di Fabrizio, and R. Cingolani, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 169 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 397 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 4, 2061 (2013).

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Yu and F. Capasso, Nat. Mater. 13, 139 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

M. Malinauskas, M. Farsari, A. Piskarskas, and S. Juodkazis, Phys. Rep. 533, 1 (2013).
[Crossref]

SIAM J. Optim. (1)

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, SIAM J. Optim. 9, 112 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. A. Buck, Fundamentals of Optical Fibers, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2004).

S. Tibuleac, D. Wawro, and R. Magnusson, “Resonant diffractive structures integrating waveguide-gratings on optical fiber endfaces,” in 12th Annual Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) (IEEE, 1999), p. 874.

V. A. Soifer, Methods for Computer Design of Diffractive Optical Elements (Wiley, 2002).

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of a diffractive optical element attached to the end facet of an optical fiber. The diffractive phase plate is fabricated ring-by-ring using 3D direct laser writing. (b) Zoom-in view of the phase mask sitting on a direct laser written base. (c) Structure design of diffractive optical elements for shaping a doughnut or a top-hat intensity distribution. Each structure consists of five rings with heights below 1 μm and widths of 440 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulations of the normalized intensity distribution of the doughnut and top-hat shaping diffractive optical elements, respectively. (a) Cross sections of the simulated intensity distribution of the doughnut-shaped and the top-hat-shaped beam profiles at a propagation distance z of 10 mm. Additionally, the target intensity distributions are shown. (b) Simulations of the intensity distribution at different distances after the fiber end obtained by numerically solving the Huygens–Fresnel diffraction integral in two dimensions for the two different diffractive structure designs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured intensity distribution for (a) the doughnut and (b) the top-hat shaping diffractive optical element at a distance of 5 mm behind the fiber end. The mode images are obtained by taking pictures with a CCD camera.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurement of the intensity distribution at different distances behind the fiber end for (a) the doughnut and the (b) top-hat shapers. The measurement is compared to the simulation at several positions.

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