Abstract

Controlling the polarization of light with efficient and ultra-thin devices is desirable for a myriad of optical systems. Bianisotropic metasurfaces offer a promising alternative to conventional optical components due to their ability to provide extreme wavefront and polarization control within a low profile. However, metasurfaces have typically suffered from poor efficiencies and extinction ratios due to the lack of systematic design procedures. Here, the first, to the best of our knowledge, impedance-matched polarization rotator with a subwavelength thickness that operates at optical frequencies is reported. The bianisotropic response needed for polarization rotation is systematically designed using cascaded plasmonic sheets. The metasurface is fabricated using straightforward nanolithography processes. Measurements demonstrate an efficiency of 45% and extinction ratio of 115 (20.6 dB) at the operating wavelength of 1.56 μm. This work experimentally demonstrates that a wide range of near-optimal bianisotropic responses can be designed and fabricated at optical frequencies. In the future, these surfaces could be utilized to develop high-performance, ultra-compact optical systems.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, “A helical metamaterial for broadband circular polarization conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1411–1417 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. S. Asadchy, I. A. Faniayeu, Y. Ra’di, S. A. Khakhomov, I. V. Semchenko, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Broadband reflectionless metasheets: frequency-selective transmission and perfect absorption,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 031005 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. S. Asadchy, Y. Ra’di, J. Vehmas, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Functional metamirrors using bianisotropic elements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 095503 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

C. Zhang, D. Zhao, D. Gu, H. Kim, T. Ling, Y. K. R. Wu, and L. J. Guo, “An ultrathin, smooth, and low‐loss Al‐doped Ag film and its application as a transparent electrode in organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 26, 5696–5701 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Shaltout, J. Liu, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Optically active metasurface with non-chiral plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14, 4426–4431 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3892 (2014).

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14, 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Bianisotropic metasurfaces: ultra-thin surfaces for complete control of electromagnetic wavefronts,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 113, 023902 (2014).

C. Pfeiffer, C. Zhang, V. Ray, L. J. Guo, and A. Grbic, “High performance bianisotropic metasurfaces: asymmetric transmission of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023902 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197401 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

Y. Zhao, M. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

O. Benson, “Assembly of hybrid photonic architectures from nanophotonic constituents,” Nature 480, 193–199 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, and H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: current status and future prospects,” Solar Energy 85, 1580–1608 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

K.-P. Chen, V. P. Drachev, J. D. Borneman, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Drude relaxation rate in grained gold nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 10, 916–922 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203501 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053811 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. Schwanecke, V. Fedotov, V. Khardikov, S. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. Zheludev, “Nanostructured metal film with asymmetric optical transmission,” Nano Lett. 8, 2940–2943 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

C. Zhang and T. J. Cui, “Negative reflections of electromagnetic waves in a strong chiral medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 194101 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306, 1353–1355 (2004).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, “Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient,” Nature 378, 467–469 (1995).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R.-W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

Y. Zhao, M. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arju, N.

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3892 (2014).

Asadchy, V. S.

V. S. Asadchy, I. A. Faniayeu, Y. Ra’di, S. A. Khakhomov, I. V. Semchenko, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Broadband reflectionless metasheets: frequency-selective transmission and perfect absorption,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 031005 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. S. Asadchy, Y. Ra’di, J. Vehmas, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Functional metamirrors using bianisotropic elements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 095503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Azad, A. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bade, K.

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, “A helical metamaterial for broadband circular polarization conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1411–1417 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref]

Belkin, M.

Y. Zhao, M. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[Crossref]

Benson, O.

O. Benson, “Assembly of hybrid photonic architectures from nanophotonic constituents,” Nature 480, 193–199 (2011).
[Crossref]

Blume, L.

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, “A helical metamaterial for broadband circular polarization conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1411–1417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14, 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref]

Borneman, J. D.

K.-P. Chen, V. P. Drachev, J. D. Borneman, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Drude relaxation rate in grained gold nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 10, 916–922 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brener, I.

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3892 (2014).

Broer, D. J.

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, “Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient,” Nature 378, 467–469 (1995).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-T.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.-P.

K.-P. Chen, V. P. Drachev, J. D. Borneman, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Drude relaxation rate in grained gold nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 10, 916–922 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

A. Schwanecke, V. Fedotov, V. Khardikov, S. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. Zheludev, “Nanostructured metal film with asymmetric optical transmission,” Nano Lett. 8, 2940–2943 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, D. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Christy, R.-W.

P. B. Johnson and R.-W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).

Cui, T. J.

C. Zhang and T. J. Cui, “Negative reflections of electromagnetic waves in a strong chiral medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 194101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dalvit, D. A. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dominguez, J.

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3892 (2014).

Drachev, V. P.

K.-P. Chen, V. P. Drachev, J. D. Borneman, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Drude relaxation rate in grained gold nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 10, 916–922 (2010).
[Crossref]

Emani, N. K.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14, 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fan, J. A.

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3892 (2014).

Faniayeu, I. A.

V. S. Asadchy, I. A. Faniayeu, Y. Ra’di, S. A. Khakhomov, I. V. Semchenko, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Broadband reflectionless metasheets: frequency-selective transmission and perfect absorption,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 031005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fedotov, V.

A. Schwanecke, V. Fedotov, V. Khardikov, S. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. Zheludev, “Nanostructured metal film with asymmetric optical transmission,” Nano Lett. 8, 2940–2943 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fedotov, V. A.

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ferekides, C. S.

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, and H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: current status and future prospects,” Solar Energy 85, 1580–1608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref]

Genevet, P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gonzales, E.

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3892 (2014).

Grady, N. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grbic, A.

C. Pfeiffer, C. Zhang, V. Ray, L. J. Guo, and A. Grbic, “High performance bianisotropic metasurfaces: asymmetric transmission of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023902 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Bianisotropic metasurfaces: ultra-thin surfaces for complete control of electromagnetic wavefronts,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 113, 023902 (2014).

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14, 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197401 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gu, D.

C. Zhang, D. Zhao, D. Gu, H. Kim, T. Ling, Y. K. R. Wu, and L. J. Guo, “An ultrathin, smooth, and low‐loss Al‐doped Ag film and its application as a transparent electrode in organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 26, 5696–5701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, L. J.

C. Zhang, D. Zhao, D. Gu, H. Kim, T. Ling, Y. K. R. Wu, and L. J. Guo, “An ultrathin, smooth, and low‐loss Al‐doped Ag film and its application as a transparent electrode in organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 26, 5696–5701 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer, C. Zhang, V. Ray, L. J. Guo, and A. Grbic, “High performance bianisotropic metasurfaces: asymmetric transmission of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023902 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, S.

Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Heyes, J. E.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R.-W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).

Kaschke, J.

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, “A helical metamaterial for broadband circular polarization conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1411–1417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kelp, G.

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3892 (2014).

Khakhomov, S. A.

V. S. Asadchy, I. A. Faniayeu, Y. Ra’di, S. A. Khakhomov, I. V. Semchenko, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Broadband reflectionless metasheets: frequency-selective transmission and perfect absorption,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 031005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Khardikov, V.

A. Schwanecke, V. Fedotov, V. Khardikov, S. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. Zheludev, “Nanostructured metal film with asymmetric optical transmission,” Nano Lett. 8, 2940–2943 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kildishev, A. V.

A. Shaltout, J. Liu, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Optically active metasurface with non-chiral plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14, 4426–4431 (2014).
[Crossref]

K.-P. Chen, V. P. Drachev, J. D. Borneman, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Drude relaxation rate in grained gold nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 10, 916–922 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

C. Zhang, D. Zhao, D. Gu, H. Kim, T. Ling, Y. K. R. Wu, and L. J. Guo, “An ultrathin, smooth, and low‐loss Al‐doped Ag film and its application as a transparent electrode in organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 26, 5696–5701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lederer, F.

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053811 (2010).
[Crossref]

Linden, S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ling, T.

C. Zhang, D. Zhao, D. Gu, H. Kim, T. Ling, Y. K. R. Wu, and L. J. Guo, “An ultrathin, smooth, and low‐loss Al‐doped Ag film and its application as a transparent electrode in organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 26, 5696–5701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

A. Shaltout, J. Liu, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Optically active metasurface with non-chiral plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14, 4426–4431 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lub, J.

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, “Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient,” Nature 378, 467–469 (1995).
[Crossref]

Menzel, C.

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053811 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mol, G. N.

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, “Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient,” Nature 378, 467–469 (1995).
[Crossref]

Morel, D.

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, and H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: current status and future prospects,” Solar Energy 85, 1580–1608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Munk, B. A.

B. A. Munk, Frequency Selective Surfaces: Theory and Design (Wiley, 2005).

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306, 1353–1355 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, C.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14, 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Bianisotropic metasurfaces: ultra-thin surfaces for complete control of electromagnetic wavefronts,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 113, 023902 (2014).

C. Pfeiffer, C. Zhang, V. Ray, L. J. Guo, and A. Grbic, “High performance bianisotropic metasurfaces: asymmetric transmission of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023902 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197401 (2013).
[Crossref]

Prosvirnin, S.

A. Schwanecke, V. Fedotov, V. Khardikov, S. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. Zheludev, “Nanostructured metal film with asymmetric optical transmission,” Nano Lett. 8, 2940–2943 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ra’di, Y.

V. S. Asadchy, Y. Ra’di, J. Vehmas, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Functional metamirrors using bianisotropic elements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 095503 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. S. Asadchy, I. A. Faniayeu, Y. Ra’di, S. A. Khakhomov, I. V. Semchenko, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Broadband reflectionless metasheets: frequency-selective transmission and perfect absorption,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 031005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ray, V.

C. Pfeiffer, C. Zhang, V. Ray, L. J. Guo, and A. Grbic, “High performance bianisotropic metasurfaces: asymmetric transmission of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Razykov, T. M.

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, and H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: current status and future prospects,” Solar Energy 85, 1580–1608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reiten, M. T.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rill, M. S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rockstuhl, C.

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053811 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rogacheva, A. V.

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[Crossref]

Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schwanecke, A.

A. Schwanecke, V. Fedotov, V. Khardikov, S. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. Zheludev, “Nanostructured metal film with asymmetric optical transmission,” Nano Lett. 8, 2940–2943 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schwanecke, A. S.

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[Crossref]

Semchenko, I. V.

V. S. Asadchy, I. A. Faniayeu, Y. Ra’di, S. A. Khakhomov, I. V. Semchenko, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Broadband reflectionless metasheets: frequency-selective transmission and perfect absorption,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 031005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

A. Shaltout, J. Liu, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Optically active metasurface with non-chiral plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14, 4426–4431 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14, 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref]

K.-P. Chen, V. P. Drachev, J. D. Borneman, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Drude relaxation rate in grained gold nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 10, 916–922 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shaltout, A.

A. Shaltout, J. Liu, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Optically active metasurface with non-chiral plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14, 4426–4431 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shaltout, A. M.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14, 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shvets, G.

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3892 (2014).

Stefanakos, E.

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, and H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: current status and future prospects,” Solar Energy 85, 1580–1608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. J.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tetienne, J.-P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thiel, M.

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, “A helical metamaterial for broadband circular polarization conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1411–1417 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tretyakov, S. A.

V. S. Asadchy, I. A. Faniayeu, Y. Ra’di, S. A. Khakhomov, I. V. Semchenko, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Broadband reflectionless metasheets: frequency-selective transmission and perfect absorption,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 031005 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. S. Asadchy, Y. Ra’di, J. Vehmas, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Functional metamirrors using bianisotropic elements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 095503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tutuc, E.

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3892 (2014).

Ullal, H. S.

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, and H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: current status and future prospects,” Solar Energy 85, 1580–1608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Upadhyaya, H. M.

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, and H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: current status and future prospects,” Solar Energy 85, 1580–1608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vehmas, J.

V. S. Asadchy, Y. Ra’di, J. Vehmas, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Functional metamirrors using bianisotropic elements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 095503 (2015).
[Crossref]

von Freymann, G.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wegener, M.

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, “A helical metamaterial for broadband circular polarization conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1411–1417 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3892 (2014).

Wu, L.

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, “A helical metamaterial for broadband circular polarization conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1411–1417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. K. R.

C. Zhang, D. Zhao, D. Gu, H. Kim, T. Ling, Y. K. R. Wu, and L. J. Guo, “An ultrathin, smooth, and low‐loss Al‐doped Ag film and its application as a transparent electrode in organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 26, 5696–5701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, “A helical metamaterial for broadband circular polarization conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1411–1417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ye, Y.

Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Y.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

C. Pfeiffer, C. Zhang, V. Ray, L. J. Guo, and A. Grbic, “High performance bianisotropic metasurfaces: asymmetric transmission of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023902 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, D. Zhao, D. Gu, H. Kim, T. Ling, Y. K. R. Wu, and L. J. Guo, “An ultrathin, smooth, and low‐loss Al‐doped Ag film and its application as a transparent electrode in organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 26, 5696–5701 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang and T. J. Cui, “Negative reflections of electromagnetic waves in a strong chiral medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 194101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D.

C. Zhang, D. Zhao, D. Gu, H. Kim, T. Ling, Y. K. R. Wu, and L. J. Guo, “An ultrathin, smooth, and low‐loss Al‐doped Ag film and its application as a transparent electrode in organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 26, 5696–5701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, M. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zheludev, N.

A. Schwanecke, V. Fedotov, V. Khardikov, S. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. Zheludev, “Nanostructured metal film with asymmetric optical transmission,” Nano Lett. 8, 2940–2943 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zheludev, N. I.

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. Zhang, D. Zhao, D. Gu, H. Kim, T. Ling, Y. K. R. Wu, and L. J. Guo, “An ultrathin, smooth, and low‐loss Al‐doped Ag film and its application as a transparent electrode in organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 26, 5696–5701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, “A helical metamaterial for broadband circular polarization conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1411–1417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203501 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang and T. J. Cui, “Negative reflections of electromagnetic waves in a strong chiral medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 194101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (4)

K.-P. Chen, V. P. Drachev, J. D. Borneman, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Drude relaxation rate in grained gold nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 10, 916–922 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14, 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Shaltout, J. Liu, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Optically active metasurface with non-chiral plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14, 4426–4431 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Schwanecke, V. Fedotov, V. Khardikov, S. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. Zheludev, “Nanostructured metal film with asymmetric optical transmission,” Nano Lett. 8, 2940–2943 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3892 (2014).

Y. Zhao, M. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, “Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient,” Nature 378, 467–469 (1995).
[Crossref]

O. Benson, “Assembly of hybrid photonic architectures from nanophotonic constituents,” Nature 480, 193–199 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053811 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Bianisotropic metasurfaces: ultra-thin surfaces for complete control of electromagnetic wavefronts,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 113, 023902 (2014).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R.-W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

C. Pfeiffer, C. Zhang, V. Ray, L. J. Guo, and A. Grbic, “High performance bianisotropic metasurfaces: asymmetric transmission of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023902 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197401 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. S. Asadchy, Y. Ra’di, J. Vehmas, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Functional metamirrors using bianisotropic elements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 095503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

V. S. Asadchy, I. A. Faniayeu, Y. Ra’di, S. A. Khakhomov, I. V. Semchenko, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Broadband reflectionless metasheets: frequency-selective transmission and perfect absorption,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 031005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (4)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306, 1353–1355 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Solar Energy (1)

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, and H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: current status and future prospects,” Solar Energy 85, 1580–1608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

B. A. Munk, Frequency Selective Surfaces: Theory and Design (Wiley, 2005).

ARCoptix, retrieved http://www.arcoptix.com/pdf/arcoptix%20Polarization%20Rotator%20Description.pdf .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Polarization rotator rotates an arbitrary incident polarization by 90° upon transmission.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Bianisotropic responses metasurface consisting of cascaded anisotropic sheets. (a) Analytical model of cascaded sheet admittances with rotated principal axes. (b) Section of the designed polarization rotator. (c)–(f) Dimensions of the first through fourth sheets ( Y 1 Y 4 ), respectively. All dimensions are in nanometers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated (a) transmittance and (b) reflectance of the polarization rotator in the x y coordinate system.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulated performance of the polarization rotator. (a) Co- and cross-polarized transmittance as a function of the orientation of the incident linear polarization ( θ ) at a wavelength of 1.51 μm. (b) Extinction ratio versus wavelength. (c) Cross-polarized transmittance averaged over all incident polarizations ( θ ) .

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a)–(d) SEM pictures of the first, second, third, and fourth sheets, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) and (b) Measured co- and cross-polarized transmittance as a function of the orientation of the incident linear polarization ( θ ) at a wavelength of 1.5 μm on linear and logarithmic scales, respectively.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured performance of the polarization rotator versus wavelength. (a) Extinction ratio. (b) Cross-polarized transmittance averaged over all incident polarizations ( θ ) . (c) Total reflectance (sum of co- and cross-polarized reflectance) when illuminated with four different linear polarizations.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

t = ( 0 1 1 0 ) .
( E t x E t y ) = ( t x x t x y t y x t y y ) ( E i x E i y ) = t ( E i x E i y ) ,
Y 1 = ( 0.118 0.513 j 0.0238 + 0.954 j 0.0238 + 0.954 j 0.081 + 0.967 j ) , Y 2 = ( 0.255 + 0.532 j 0.088 + 2.373 j 0.088 + 2.373 j 0.276 + 1.088 j ) , Y 3 = ( 0.283 + 2.353 j 0.049 + 1.364 j 0.049 + 1.364 j 0.174 0.722 j ) , Y 4 = ( 0.159 + 2.152 j 0 0 0.183 1.844 j ) .
( A B C D ) = ( I 0 n Y s 1 I ) P ( I 0 n Y s 2 I ) P ( I 0 n Y s 3 I ) P ( I 0 n Y s 4 I ) ,
P = ( cos ( β d ) I j sin ( β d ) η d n j sin ( β d ) η d 1 n cos ( β d ) I ) ,
n = ( 0 1 1 0 ) ,
I = ( 1 0 0 1 ) ,
( S 11 S 12 S 21 S 22 ) = ( I B n η g + A n η 0 D n η g + C ) 1 ( I B n η g A n η 0 D n η g C ) ,
t = ( 0.04 0.01 j 0.68 + 0.00 j 0.67 + 0.04 j 0.03 0.04 j ) .

Metrics