Abstract

The workhorse technique for generating correlated pairs of photons is based on spontaneous parametric downconversion in nonlinear crystals. These photon pair sources are usually designed with relatively short crystal lengths, in the belief that this is necessary to attain good performance. We show, contrary to common practice, that concurrent high brightness and efficiency are also available to longer crystals. We present comprehensive measurement data on the pump and collection beam parameters necessary to achieve high collection efficiency (89.0%±1.7% and 81.9%±3.7% for signal and idler) together with high brightness when a single thick β-barium borate crystal (15.76 mm) is pumped with a narrow linewidth laser. Spectral analysis of the collinear, nondegenerate photons suggests that the effective interaction length within the crystal is dominated by the collection beam mode, and the use of longer crystals with increased spatial walk-off does not necessarily lead to reduced collection efficiency. This surprising result is an important consideration for optical designers who seek to develop practical photon pair sources.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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  3. M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 497, 227 (2013).
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  5. P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. G. Kwiat, E. Waks, A. G. White, I. Appelbaum, and P. H. Eberhard, Phys. Rev. A 60, R773 (1999).
    [Crossref]
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2016 (1)

2015 (2)

R. Chandrasekara, T. Zhongkan, T. Y. Chuan, C. Cheng, B. Septriani, K. Durak, J. A. Grieve, and A. Ling, Proc. SPIE 9615, 96150S (2015).

D. Giovannini, J. Romero, V. Potoček, G. Ferenczi, F. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, D. Faccio, and M. J. Padgett, Science 347, 857 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Z. Tang, R. Chandrasekara, Y. Y. Sean, C. Cheng, C. Wildfeuer, and A. Ling, Sci. Rep. 4, 6366 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. B. Dixon, D. Rosenberg, V. Stelmakh, M. E. Grein, R. S. Bennink, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and F. N. C. Wong, Phys. Rev. A 90, 043804 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. B. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 497, 227 (2013).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

P. Trojek and H. Weinfurter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 211103 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Ling, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043834 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Acin, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2001 (1)

C. Kurtsiefer, M. Oberparleiter, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. A 64, 023802 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

P. G. Kwiat, E. Waks, A. G. White, I. Appelbaum, and P. H. Eberhard, Phys. Rev. A 60, R773 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. Fejer, G. Magel, D. Jundt, and R. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

C. K. Hong and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58 (1986).
[Crossref]

Acin, A.

A. Acin, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2007).
[Crossref]

Altepeter, J. B.

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. B. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appelbaum, I.

P. G. Kwiat, E. Waks, A. G. White, I. Appelbaum, and P. H. Eberhard, Phys. Rev. A 60, R773 (1999).
[Crossref]

Barnett, S. M.

D. Giovannini, J. Romero, V. Potoček, G. Ferenczi, F. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, D. Faccio, and M. J. Padgett, Science 347, 857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bennink, R. S.

P. B. Dixon, D. Rosenberg, V. Stelmakh, M. E. Grein, R. S. Bennink, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and F. N. C. Wong, Phys. Rev. A 90, 043804 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beyer, J.

M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 497, 227 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brunner, N.

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. B. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Acin, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2007).
[Crossref]

Byer, R.

M. Fejer, G. Magel, D. Jundt, and R. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[Crossref]

Calkins, B.

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. B. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 497, 227 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekara, R.

J. A. Grieve, R. Chandrasekara, Z. Tang, C. Cheng, and A. Ling, Opt. Express 24, 3592 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Chandrasekara, T. Zhongkan, T. Y. Chuan, C. Cheng, B. Septriani, K. Durak, J. A. Grieve, and A. Ling, Proc. SPIE 9615, 96150S (2015).

Z. Tang, R. Chandrasekara, Y. Y. Sean, C. Cheng, C. Wildfeuer, and A. Ling, Sci. Rep. 4, 6366 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C.

J. A. Grieve, R. Chandrasekara, Z. Tang, C. Cheng, and A. Ling, Opt. Express 24, 3592 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Chandrasekara, T. Zhongkan, T. Y. Chuan, C. Cheng, B. Septriani, K. Durak, J. A. Grieve, and A. Ling, Proc. SPIE 9615, 96150S (2015).

Z. Tang, R. Chandrasekara, Y. Y. Sean, C. Cheng, C. Wildfeuer, and A. Ling, Sci. Rep. 4, 6366 (2014).
[Crossref]

Christensen, B. G.

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. B. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chuan, T. Y.

R. Chandrasekara, T. Zhongkan, T. Y. Chuan, C. Cheng, B. Septriani, K. Durak, J. A. Grieve, and A. Ling, Proc. SPIE 9615, 96150S (2015).

Dauler, E. A.

P. B. Dixon, D. Rosenberg, V. Stelmakh, M. E. Grein, R. S. Bennink, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and F. N. C. Wong, Phys. Rev. A 90, 043804 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dixon, P. B.

P. B. Dixon, D. Rosenberg, V. Stelmakh, M. E. Grein, R. S. Bennink, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and F. N. C. Wong, Phys. Rev. A 90, 043804 (2014).
[Crossref]

Durak, K.

R. Chandrasekara, T. Zhongkan, T. Y. Chuan, C. Cheng, B. Septriani, K. Durak, J. A. Grieve, and A. Ling, Proc. SPIE 9615, 96150S (2015).

Eberhard, P. H.

P. G. Kwiat, E. Waks, A. G. White, I. Appelbaum, and P. H. Eberhard, Phys. Rev. A 60, R773 (1999).
[Crossref]

Faccio, D.

D. Giovannini, J. Romero, V. Potoček, G. Ferenczi, F. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, D. Faccio, and M. J. Padgett, Science 347, 857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M.

M. Fejer, G. Magel, D. Jundt, and R. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ferenczi, G.

D. Giovannini, J. Romero, V. Potoček, G. Ferenczi, F. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, D. Faccio, and M. J. Padgett, Science 347, 857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fiorentino, M.

Gerrits, T.

M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 497, 227 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. B. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giovannini, D.

D. Giovannini, J. Romero, V. Potoček, G. Ferenczi, F. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, D. Faccio, and M. J. Padgett, Science 347, 857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gisin, N.

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. B. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Acin, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2007).
[Crossref]

Giustina, M.

M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 497, 227 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grein, M. E.

P. B. Dixon, D. Rosenberg, V. Stelmakh, M. E. Grein, R. S. Bennink, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and F. N. C. Wong, Phys. Rev. A 90, 043804 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grieve, J. A.

J. A. Grieve, R. Chandrasekara, Z. Tang, C. Cheng, and A. Ling, Opt. Express 24, 3592 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Chandrasekara, T. Zhongkan, T. Y. Chuan, C. Cheng, B. Septriani, K. Durak, J. A. Grieve, and A. Ling, Proc. SPIE 9615, 96150S (2015).

Hong, C. K.

C. K. Hong and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58 (1986).
[Crossref]

Jundt, D.

M. Fejer, G. Magel, D. Jundt, and R. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kerman, A. J.

P. B. Dixon, D. Rosenberg, V. Stelmakh, M. E. Grein, R. S. Bennink, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and F. N. C. Wong, Phys. Rev. A 90, 043804 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kofler, J.

M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 497, 227 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuklewicz, C.

Kurtsiefer, C.

A. Ling, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043834 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Kurtsiefer, M. Oberparleiter, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. A 64, 023802 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kwiat, P. G.

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. B. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kwiat, E. Waks, A. G. White, I. Appelbaum, and P. H. Eberhard, Phys. Rev. A 60, R773 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lamas-Linares, A.

A. Ling, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043834 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lim, C. C. W.

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. B. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ling, A.

J. A. Grieve, R. Chandrasekara, Z. Tang, C. Cheng, and A. Ling, Opt. Express 24, 3592 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Chandrasekara, T. Zhongkan, T. Y. Chuan, C. Cheng, B. Septriani, K. Durak, J. A. Grieve, and A. Ling, Proc. SPIE 9615, 96150S (2015).

Z. Tang, R. Chandrasekara, Y. Y. Sean, C. Cheng, C. Wildfeuer, and A. Ling, Sci. Rep. 4, 6366 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Ling, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043834 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lita, A.

M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 497, 227 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lita, A. E.

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. B. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[Crossref]

Magel, G.

M. Fejer, G. Magel, D. Jundt, and R. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[Crossref]

Mandel, L.

C. K. Hong and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58 (1986).
[Crossref]

Massar, S.

A. Acin, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mattle, K.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[Crossref]

McCusker, K. T.

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. B. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mech, A.

M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 497, 227 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miller, A.

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. B. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[Crossref]

Molnar, R. J.

P. B. Dixon, D. Rosenberg, V. Stelmakh, M. E. Grein, R. S. Bennink, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and F. N. C. Wong, Phys. Rev. A 90, 043804 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nam, S. W.

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. B. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 497, 227 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oberparleiter, M.

C. Kurtsiefer, M. Oberparleiter, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. A 64, 023802 (2001).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M. J.

D. Giovannini, J. Romero, V. Potoček, G. Ferenczi, F. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, D. Faccio, and M. J. Padgett, Science 347, 857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pironio, S.

A. Acin, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2007).
[Crossref]

Potocek, V.

D. Giovannini, J. Romero, V. Potoček, G. Ferenczi, F. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, D. Faccio, and M. J. Padgett, Science 347, 857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ramelow, S.

M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 497, 227 (2013).
[Crossref]

Romero, J.

D. Giovannini, J. Romero, V. Potoček, G. Ferenczi, F. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, D. Faccio, and M. J. Padgett, Science 347, 857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rosenberg, D.

P. B. Dixon, D. Rosenberg, V. Stelmakh, M. E. Grein, R. S. Bennink, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and F. N. C. Wong, Phys. Rev. A 90, 043804 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scarani, V.

A. Acin, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sean, Y. Y.

Z. Tang, R. Chandrasekara, Y. Y. Sean, C. Cheng, C. Wildfeuer, and A. Ling, Sci. Rep. 4, 6366 (2014).
[Crossref]

Septriani, B.

R. Chandrasekara, T. Zhongkan, T. Y. Chuan, C. Cheng, B. Septriani, K. Durak, J. A. Grieve, and A. Ling, Proc. SPIE 9615, 96150S (2015).

Sergienko, A. V.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shalm, L. K.

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P. B. Dixon, D. Rosenberg, V. Stelmakh, M. E. Grein, R. S. Bennink, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and F. N. C. Wong, Phys. Rev. A 90, 043804 (2014).
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R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, 1st ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2003).

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Z. Tang, R. Chandrasekara, Y. Y. Sean, C. Cheng, C. Wildfeuer, and A. Ling, Sci. Rep. 4, 6366 (2014).
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M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 497, 227 (2013).
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P. B. Dixon, D. Rosenberg, V. Stelmakh, M. E. Grein, R. S. Bennink, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and F. N. C. Wong, Phys. Rev. A 90, 043804 (2014).
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B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. B. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
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P. Trojek and H. Weinfurter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 211103 (2008).
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P. G. Kwiat, E. Waks, A. G. White, I. Appelbaum, and P. H. Eberhard, Phys. Rev. A 60, R773 (1999).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

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R. Chandrasekara, T. Zhongkan, T. Y. Chuan, C. Cheng, B. Septriani, K. Durak, J. A. Grieve, and A. Ling, Proc. SPIE 9615, 96150S (2015).

Sci. Rep. (1)

Z. Tang, R. Chandrasekara, Y. Y. Sean, C. Cheng, C. Wildfeuer, and A. Ling, Sci. Rep. 4, 6366 (2014).
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Science (1)

D. Giovannini, J. Romero, V. Potoček, G. Ferenczi, F. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, D. Faccio, and M. J. Padgett, Science 347, 857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

L. K. Shalm, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (personal communication, 2015).

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, 1st ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2003).

P. Trojek, “Efficient generation of photonic entanglement and multiparty quantum communication,” Ph. D. dissertation (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 2007).

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for testing the thick-crystal regime (see inset). Pump and collection beam focal sizes are adjusted by translation of lenses L1 and L2, with optical paths adjusted so that the foci overlap at the center of the BBO crystal. The pump beam spatial mode is filtered by a single-mode fiber (SMF1), and SPDC emission is collected into another single-mode fiber (SMF2). Pump, signal, and idler beams are separated by dichroic mirrors DM1 and DM2. Photon pairs are detected by fiber-coupled avalanche photodiodes APD1 and APD2. The measured transmission of the setup is reported in Table 1.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Predicted and observed spectra for collected photon pairs. The pump focal FWHM is 180 μm. (a) The emission angle for different wavelengths for collinear nondegenerate SPDC using a 15.76 mm length BBO crystal. The dashed lines represent the acceptance angles for a collection beam with a focal FWHM of 120 μm targeting 780 nm. (b) The observed spectrum (points) fits the predicted emission from a 5.35 mm interaction length and is much broader than the prediction assuming the crystal length (green line). (c) The observed spectra for two different crystal lengths (15.76 and 7.8 mm) under identical pump and collection beam parameters. The spectral widths are identical despite a reduction in crystal length. This supports the hypothesis that the effective interaction length in the thick-crystal regime is dominated by the crossing of the optical beams.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Brightness and collection efficiency observed as pump and collection beam parameters are tuned (see key for range of pump sizes). Data is plotted against full collection angle, with the corresponding collection mode FWHM at 780 nm indicated at the top. (a) Observed brightness per milliwatt of pump power for the full set of collected data. (b) Data from (a) for three selected pump sizes (60, 120, and 180 μm) with their respective fits to the error function (solid lines). (c) Collection efficiency for the full set of collected data. (d) Data from three selected pump sizes (60, 120, and 180 μm) repeated from (a) with their respective fits to the error function (solid lines). The dashed lines represent the measured system efficiency, with the observed collection efficiency typically approaching 90% of this value. We note that error bars are too small to be significant. It is also interesting to note the reduced spread in the efficiency data when considered alongside the corresponding brightness values. This implies that uncertainty in the latter is dominated by power fluctuations (typically 0.8%), while the efficiency (as a ratio) is affected only by the quality of alignment.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Transmission and Detection Efficiency for Signal and Idler Photons at Different Segments of the Experimental Setup (see Fig. 1)a

Tables Icon

Table 2. Detector Output for the Data Point with Maximum Observed Efficiency, ηs [Fig. 3(d)]a

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