Abstract

Quantum cascade laser (QCL) frequency combs offer the potential for building ultra-compact broadband spectrometers operating in the mid-infrared spectral region, where many light molecules have their fundamental absorption bands. However, key characteristics must be improved for correctly addressing frequency comb spectroscopy applications. In this work, we investigate how the device dispersion influences the comb operation of QCLs. We measure the group delay dispersion of such a device while in operation just below threshold. We then show that by implementing a dispersion compensation scheme based on a Gires–Tournois interferometer integrated into the QCL, the comb operation regime is dramatically improved. In particular, the formation of high-phase-noise regimes is prevented. The continuous-wave output power of these combs can be as high as 150 mW with optical spectra centered at 1330  cm1 (7.52 μm) with up to 70  cm1 of optical bandwidth, demonstrating that QCLs are ideal sources for chip-based frequency comb spectroscopy systems.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (9)

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, F. Di Teodoro, P. M. Belden, W. T. Lotshaw, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Generation of Kerr combs centered at 4.5 μm in crystalline microresonators pumped with quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3468–3471 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9, 42–47 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Lu, M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, W. Zhou, M. Chen, D. Heydari, A. Haddadi, R. McClintock, M. Amanti, and C. Sirtori, “High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ∼9 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051105 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Villares, J. Wolf, D. Kazakov, M. J. Süess, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Burghoff, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Evaluating the coherence and time-domain profile of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Opt. Express 23, 1190–1202 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Cappelli, G. Villares, S. Riedi, and J. Faist, “Intrinsic linewidth of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Optica 2, 836–840 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Villares and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade laser combs: effects of modulation and dispersion,” Opt. Express 23, 1651–1669 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Coillet, W. Loh, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Phase steps and resonator detuning measurements in microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5668 (2015).

2014 (4)

J. B. Khurgin, Y. Dikmelik, A. Hugi, and J. Faist, “Coherent frequency combs produced by self frequency modulation in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081118 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5192 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. Jost, C. Wang, N. Kondratiev, M. Gorodetsky, and T. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

Y. K. Chembo and C. R. Menyuk, “Spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever formalism for Kerr-comb generation in whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053852 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Zhu, H. Hundertmark, A. A. Kolomenskii, J. Strohaber, R. Holzwarth, and H. A. Schuessler, “High-power mid-infrared frequency comb source based on a femtosecond Er:fiber oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2360–2362 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Galli, F. Cappelli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, S. Bartalini, and P. De Natale, “High-coherence mid-infrared frequency comb,” Opt. Express 21, 28877–28885 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Friedli, H. Sigg, B. Hinkov, A. Hugi, S. Riedi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Four-wave mixing in a quantum cascade laser amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 222104 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, K. I. Schaffers, and I. T. Sorokina, “Femtosecond SESAM-modelocked Cr: ZnS laser,” Opt. Express 20, 28947–28952 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Ruehl, A. Gambetta, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, K. S. E. Eikema, and M. Marangoni, “Widely-tunable mid-infrared frequency comb source based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2232–2234 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

K. L. Vodopyanov, E. Sorokin, I. T. Sorokina, and P. G. Schunemann, “Mid-IR frequency comb source spanning 4.4–5.4 μm based on subharmonic GaAs optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2275–2277 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

R. Szipöcs, A. Köházi-Kis, S. Lakó, P. Apai, A. Kovács, G. DeBell, L. Mott, A. Louderback, A. Tikhonravov, and M. Trubetskov, “Negative dispersion mirrors for dispersion control in femtosecond lasers: chirped dielectric mirrors and multi-cavity Gires–Tournois interferometers,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S51–S57 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. Golubovic, R. Austin, M. Steiner-Shepard, M. Reed, S. A. Diddams, D. Jones, and A. G. Van Engen, “Double Gires-Tournois interferometer negative-dispersion mirrors for use in tunable mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 275–277 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1981 (1)

1978 (1)

R. Stolen and C. Lin, “Self-phase-modulation in silica optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448–1453 (1978).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

F. Gires and P. Tournois, “Interferometre utilisable pour la compression d’impulsions lumineuses modulees en frequence,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 258, 6112–6115 (1964).

Adler, F.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2007).

Amanti, M.

Q. Lu, M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, W. Zhou, M. Chen, D. Heydari, A. Haddadi, R. McClintock, M. Amanti, and C. Sirtori, “High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ∼9 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Apai, P.

R. Szipöcs, A. Köházi-Kis, S. Lakó, P. Apai, A. Kovács, G. DeBell, L. Mott, A. Louderback, A. Tikhonravov, and M. Trubetskov, “Negative dispersion mirrors for dispersion control in femtosecond lasers: chirped dielectric mirrors and multi-cavity Gires–Tournois interferometers,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S51–S57 (2000).
[Crossref]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Austin, R.

Bai, Y.

Q. Lu, M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, W. Zhou, M. Chen, D. Heydari, A. Haddadi, R. McClintock, M. Amanti, and C. Sirtori, “High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ∼9 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bandyopadhyay, N.

Q. Lu, M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, W. Zhou, M. Chen, D. Heydari, A. Haddadi, R. McClintock, M. Amanti, and C. Sirtori, “High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ∼9 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barbieri, S.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bartalini, S.

Beck, M.

G. Villares, J. Wolf, D. Kazakov, M. J. Süess, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9, 42–47 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Friedli, H. Sigg, B. Hinkov, A. Hugi, S. Riedi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Four-wave mixing in a quantum cascade laser amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 222104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beha, K.

P. Del’Haye, A. Coillet, W. Loh, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Phase steps and resonator detuning measurements in microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5668 (2015).

Belden, P. M.

Blaser, S.

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5192 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003).

Brasch, V.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. Jost, C. Wang, N. Kondratiev, M. Gorodetsky, and T. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

Burghoff, D.

D. Burghoff, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Evaluating the coherence and time-domain profile of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Opt. Express 23, 1190–1202 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cai, X.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cancio, P.

Cappelli, F.

Cardenas, J.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. W. I.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chembo, Y. K.

Y. K. Chembo and C. R. Menyuk, “Spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever formalism for Kerr-comb generation in whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053852 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

Q. Lu, M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, W. Zhou, M. Chen, D. Heydari, A. Haddadi, R. McClintock, M. Amanti, and C. Sirtori, “High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ∼9 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051105 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Coillet, A.

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Y. K. Chembo and C. R. Menyuk, “Spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever formalism for Kerr-comb generation in whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053852 (2013).
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A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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Mott, L.

R. Szipöcs, A. Köházi-Kis, S. Lakó, P. Apai, A. Kovács, G. DeBell, L. Mott, A. Louderback, A. Tikhonravov, and M. Trubetskov, “Negative dispersion mirrors for dispersion control in femtosecond lasers: chirped dielectric mirrors and multi-cavity Gires–Tournois interferometers,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S51–S57 (2000).
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Obraztsova, E. D.

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A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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M. A. Foster, R. Salem, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrafast waveform compression using a time-domain telescope,” Nat. Photonics 3, 581–585 (2009).
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P. Del’Haye, A. Coillet, W. Loh, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Phase steps and resonator detuning measurements in microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5668 (2015).

Pearson, A.

Phare, C. T.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
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A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
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A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
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Razeghi, M.

Q. Lu, M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, W. Zhou, M. Chen, D. Heydari, A. Haddadi, R. McClintock, M. Amanti, and C. Sirtori, “High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ∼9 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051105 (2015).
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Reed, M.

Reed, W. A.

Reno, J. L.

D. Burghoff, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Evaluating the coherence and time-domain profile of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Opt. Express 23, 1190–1202 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
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Riedi, S.

F. Cappelli, G. Villares, S. Riedi, and J. Faist, “Intrinsic linewidth of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Optica 2, 836–840 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Friedli, H. Sigg, B. Hinkov, A. Hugi, S. Riedi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Four-wave mixing in a quantum cascade laser amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 222104 (2013).
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Riemensberger, J.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
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M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9, 42–47 (2015).
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Ruehl, A.

Salem, R.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17, 4324–4329 (2009).
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M. A. Foster, R. Salem, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrafast waveform compression using a time-domain telescope,” Nat. Photonics 3, 581–585 (2009).
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Santarelli, G.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
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Savchenkov, A. A.

Scalari, G.

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9, 42–47 (2015).
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Schaffers, K. I.

Schliesser, A.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, A.

Schuessler, H. A.

Schunemann, P. G.

Shang, H.-T.

Sigg, H.

P. Friedli, H. Sigg, B. Hinkov, A. Hugi, S. Riedi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Four-wave mixing in a quantum cascade laser amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 222104 (2013).
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Sirtori, C.

Q. Lu, M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, W. Zhou, M. Chen, D. Heydari, A. Haddadi, R. McClintock, M. Amanti, and C. Sirtori, “High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ∼9 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051105 (2015).
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S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
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Q. Lu, M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, W. Zhou, M. Chen, D. Heydari, A. Haddadi, R. McClintock, M. Amanti, and C. Sirtori, “High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ∼9 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051105 (2015).
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Sorokin, E.

Sorokina, I.

E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, and I. Sorokina, “Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2012).

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R. Stolen and C. Lin, “Self-phase-modulation in silica optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448–1453 (1978).
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Süess, M. J.

G. Villares, J. Wolf, D. Kazakov, M. J. Süess, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 251104 (2015).
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R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
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R. Szipöcs, A. Köházi-Kis, S. Lakó, P. Apai, A. Kovács, G. DeBell, L. Mott, A. Louderback, A. Tikhonravov, and M. Trubetskov, “Negative dispersion mirrors for dispersion control in femtosecond lasers: chirped dielectric mirrors and multi-cavity Gires–Tournois interferometers,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S51–S57 (2000).
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Thorpe, M. J.

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R. Szipöcs, A. Köházi-Kis, S. Lakó, P. Apai, A. Kovács, G. DeBell, L. Mott, A. Louderback, A. Tikhonravov, and M. Trubetskov, “Negative dispersion mirrors for dispersion control in femtosecond lasers: chirped dielectric mirrors and multi-cavity Gires–Tournois interferometers,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S51–S57 (2000).
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E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, K. I. Schaffers, and I. T. Sorokina, “Femtosecond SESAM-modelocked Cr: ZnS laser,” Opt. Express 20, 28947–28952 (2012).
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E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, and I. Sorokina, “Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2012).

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F. Gires and P. Tournois, “Interferometre utilisable pour la compression d’impulsions lumineuses modulees en frequence,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 258, 6112–6115 (1964).

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
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R. Szipöcs, A. Köházi-Kis, S. Lakó, P. Apai, A. Kovács, G. DeBell, L. Mott, A. Louderback, A. Tikhonravov, and M. Trubetskov, “Negative dispersion mirrors for dispersion control in femtosecond lasers: chirped dielectric mirrors and multi-cavity Gires–Tournois interferometers,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S51–S57 (2000).
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M. A. Foster, R. Salem, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrafast waveform compression using a time-domain telescope,” Nat. Photonics 3, 581–585 (2009).
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R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17, 4324–4329 (2009).
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T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
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G. Villares and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade laser combs: effects of modulation and dispersion,” Opt. Express 23, 1651–1669 (2015).
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F. Cappelli, G. Villares, S. Riedi, and J. Faist, “Intrinsic linewidth of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Optica 2, 836–840 (2015).
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G. Villares, J. Wolf, D. Kazakov, M. J. Süess, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 251104 (2015).
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G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5192 (2014).
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A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
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Wang, C.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. Jost, C. Wang, N. Kondratiev, M. Gorodetsky, and T. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
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C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
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T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
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Wilken, T.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
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Wolf, J.

G. Villares, J. Wolf, D. Kazakov, M. J. Süess, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 251104 (2015).
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D. Burghoff, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Evaluating the coherence and time-domain profile of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Opt. Express 23, 1190–1202 (2015).
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Yu, M.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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Q. Lu, M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, W. Zhou, M. Chen, D. Heydari, A. Haddadi, R. McClintock, M. Amanti, and C. Sirtori, “High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ∼9 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051105 (2015).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Szipöcs, A. Köházi-Kis, S. Lakó, P. Apai, A. Kovács, G. DeBell, L. Mott, A. Louderback, A. Tikhonravov, and M. Trubetskov, “Negative dispersion mirrors for dispersion control in femtosecond lasers: chirped dielectric mirrors and multi-cavity Gires–Tournois interferometers,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S51–S57 (2000).
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P. Friedli, H. Sigg, B. Hinkov, A. Hugi, S. Riedi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Four-wave mixing in a quantum cascade laser amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 222104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Lu, M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, W. Zhou, M. Chen, D. Heydari, A. Haddadi, R. McClintock, M. Amanti, and C. Sirtori, “High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ∼9 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051105 (2015).
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G. Villares, J. Wolf, D. Kazakov, M. J. Süess, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 251104 (2015).
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F. Gires and P. Tournois, “Interferometre utilisable pour la compression d’impulsions lumineuses modulees en frequence,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 258, 6112–6115 (1964).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
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A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5192 (2014).
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P. Del’Haye, A. Coillet, W. Loh, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Phase steps and resonator detuning measurements in microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5668 (2015).

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S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9, 42–47 (2015).
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M. A. Foster, R. Salem, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrafast waveform compression using a time-domain telescope,” Nat. Photonics 3, 581–585 (2009).
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T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
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A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
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T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
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A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
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R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Standard QCL-comb performances. (a) Setup used for characterizing the QCL-comb. The optical spectrum is measured with a FTIR (Bruker IFS 66/S, 0.12  cm1 resolution). A bias-tee is inserted between the low-noise current driver (Wavelength Electronics) and the QCL-comb. The radio-frequency (RF) port of the bias-tee is connected to a spectrum analyzer (Rhode & Schwarz FSU50). BS, beam-splitter; FTIR, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. (b) Power-current-voltage of a QCL-comb (4.5 mm long, standard HR coating on the back-facet, episide-down mounted on AlN submount) in CW operation at different temperatures. Single-mode, comb, and high-phase-noise regimes are highlighted. (c) Electrical RF spectra acquired at T=15°C at different values of current, measured with a spectrum analyzer [span=50  MHz, resolution bandwidth (RBW)=30  kHz, acquisition time=20  ms]. The RF spectra are centered at 9.95 GHz, corresponding to the RF beatnote created by a 4.5 mm long device. Comb and high-phase-noise regimes are highlighted. (d) Optical spectra acquired at T=15°C at the same values of current as in (c) and measured with a FTIR (0.12  cm1 resolution). The QCL-comb spectrum is centered at 1325  cm1 and spans over 60  cm1 in the comb regime. (e) Intermode beat spectrogram generated by a QCL-comb source (6.0 mm long, standard HR coating on the back-facet) acquired in the high-phase-noise regime (I=950  mA, T=15°C). The FTIR is driven in step-scan mode with a resolution of 0.25  cm1. (f) Cuts of the spectrogram shown in (e) at 1286.1, 1305.1, and 1342.1  cm1 (span=200  MHz, RBW=100  kHz, acquisition time=200  ms).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

GTI mirrors for dispersion compensation. (a) SEM picture of a cross section parallel to the laser ridge of the QCL-comb, which is coated with a GTI mirror. The upper left side shows the laser active region. The different layers of the GTI mirror can be observed as the vertical lines on the right side of the picture. (b) Schematic view of GTI mirror coated either on the back-facet of a QCL-comb or on a substrate (InP, 320 μm thick) to be used for dispersion characterization. The GTI acts as a high-reflectivity mirror but adds a frequency-dependent group delay, therefore introducing dispersion. (c) Setup used for the characterization of the dispersion introduced by the GTI mirror. The GTI mirrors coated on a substrate are measured in reflection on the sample compartment of the FTIR (Section 2 of Supplement 1). DUT, device under test. (d) Measured and simulated value of the GDD created by a GTI mirror. The GDD is measured over a wide spectral range in order to observe the GDD oscillations introduced by the GTI. The spectral region where the QCL-comb operates is highlighted. The GDD of a standard HR coating (300 nm of Al2O3, 150 nm of gold) is also represented. Inset: zoom on the spectral region where the QCL-comb operates, showing the negative GDD introduced due to the presence of the residual absorption of SiO2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dispersion measurements of QCL-combs. (a) Setup used to acquire the interferogram generated by the QCL-comb biased below threshold on a FTIR. This interferogram is used to retrieve the relative phase accumulated through a round-trip on the device (see Section 2 of Supplement 1). (b) Relative phase accumulated through a round-trip on a QCL coated with a GTI mirror introducing negative dispersion (T=15°C, I=770  mA corresponding to a value 2% below threshold). The measured device corresponds to the device characterized in Fig. 4 (4.5 mm long). (c) Measurement of the GDD of QCL-combs. Three different coatings were evaporated on the back-facet of three different devices (4.5 mm long devices cleaved together, T=15°C, current being set to 2% below threshold for the three devices). The device showing negative GDD (green curve) corresponds to the device shown in Fig. 4. (d) Measurement of the GDD of the QCL showing negative GDD [green curve of (c)] as a function of the laser current (T=15°C).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dispersion compensated QCL-combs. (a) Power-current-voltage of a QCL-comb (4.5 mm long, episide-down mounted on AlN submount) coated with a GTI mirror introducing negative dispersion. The measurements are done in CW operation at different temperatures. Single-mode and comb regimes are highlighted. (b) Electrical RF spectra acquired at T=10°C for different values of current, measured with a spectrum analyzer (span=200  kHz, RBW=500  Hz, acquisition time=20  ms). The RF spectra are centered at 9.814 GHz, corresponding to the RF beatnote created by a 4.5 mm long device. The measured RF spectra show single and narrow beatnotes (FWHM <500  Hz). No high-phase-noise regime is observed. (c) Optical spectra acquired at T=10°C at the same values of current as in (b) and acquired with a FTIR (0.12  cm1 resolution). The QCL-comb spectrum is centered at 1335  cm1 and spans over 45  cm1 in the comb regime.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

High-performance QCL-combs. (a) Optical spectrum of a high-performance QCL-comb (6.0 mm long, GTI mirror on the back-facet introducing negative dispersion) acquired at T=6°C, I=1560  mA, emitting 150  mW of output power in these conditions. The power-per-mode distribution shows a normalized standard deviation of 31%. (b) RF spectrum measured at the same value of current as in (a), acquired with a spectrum analyzer (span=50  MHz,RBW=30  kHz, acquisition time=20  ms). The RF spectrum shows a narrow beatnote, characteristic of comb operation, together with a pedestal observed at a level 40 dB lower than the carrier. The signal-to-noise ratio of the RF beatnote is more than 40 dB.

Equations (2)

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Δk=n˜4ω4+n˜3ω3n˜2ω2n˜1ω1c0,
Δk=Δkmat+Δkwg+Δkgain+ΔkNL,

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